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91ST Congress \ QT?MAT'Tr , f Documen t 

2rf Session / SENATE H:No^I=5S- 



THE NATIONAL ESTUARINE; 
POLLUTION STUDY 



REPORT 

OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

TO THE 

UNITED STATES CONGRESS 

PURSUANT TO 

Public Law 89-753 
THE CLEAN WATER RESTORATION ACT OF 1966 

i 

DATA LIBRARY & ARCHIVES 
Woodi Ho::- C^^eanographic Institution 



March 25, 1970. — Ordered to be printed with illustrations 



91ST Congress 1 
2d Session J 



SENATE 



Document 
No. 01-58 



THE NATIONAL ESTUARINE 
POLLUTION STUDY 



REPORT 

OF THE 

SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

TO THE 

UNITED STATES CONGRESS 

PURSUANT TO 

Public Law 89-753 
THE CLEAN WATER RESTORATION ACT OF 1966 




March 25, 1970. — Ordered to be printed with illustrations 



42-847 O 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1970 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC WORKS 
JENNINGS RANDOLPH, West Virginia, Chairman 

STEPHEN M. YOUNG, Ohio JOHN SHERMAN COOPER, Kentucky 

EDMUND S. MUSKIE, Maine J. CALEB BOGGS, Delaware 

B. EVERETT JORDAN, North Carolina HOWARD H. BAKER, Jr., Tennessee 

BIRCH BAYH, Indiana ROBERT J. DOLE, Kansas 

JOSEPH M. MONTOYA, New Mexico EDWARD J. GURNEY, Florida 

WILLIAM B. SPONG, JR., Virginia ROBERT W. PACKWOOD, Oregon 
THOMAS F. EAGLETON, Missouri 
MIKE GRAVEL, Alaska 

Richard B. Royce, Chief Cleric and Staff Director 

J. B. Hutett, Jr., Assistant Chief Clerk and Assistant Staff Director 

Barry Meyer, Counsel 

Bailey Guard, Assistant Chief Clerk (Minority) 

Tom C. Jorling, Minority Counsel 

Professional Staff Members: Joseph F. Van Vladricken, Leon G. Billings, Richard D. 

Grundy, Stewart E. McClure, Adrien Waller, Harold H. Brayman, Richard W. 

Wilson, and Philip T. Cummings 



S. Con. Kes. 53 Agreed to March 25, 1970 

Ninett-first Congress of the United States of America 

AT the second session 

Begim and held at the City of Washington on Monday, the nineteenth 
day of January, one thousand nine hundred and seventy 

Concurrent Resolution 

Resolved hy the Senate {the House of Representatives concurring) , 
That there be printed as a Senate document, in one volume, with 
illustrations, the National Estuarine Pollution Study, submitted to the 
Congress by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, De- 
partment of the Interior, in accordance with section 5(g) (3), Public 
Law 89-753, Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966, and that there be 
printed three thousand five hundred additional copies of such docu- 
ment, of which two thousand five hundred copies shall be for the use 
of the Senate Committee on Public Works and one thousand copies 
shall be for the use of the House Committee on Public Works. 

Attest: 

Francis R. Valeo, 

Secretary of the Senate. 
Attest : 

W. Pat Jennings, 
Clerh of the House of Re-presentatives. 

(HI) 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Office of the Secretary, 
Washington^ D.C.^ Noverriber 13^ 1969. 
Hon. Spiro T. Agnew, 
President of the Senate^ 
Washington^ D.G. 

Dear Mr. President : We are pleased to transmit the enclosed re- 
port of the National Estuarine Pollution Study pursuant to section 
of Public Law 89-Y53 which law was originated by the Committee on 
Public Works of the U.S. Senate. Also enclosed is a draft of proposed 
legislation to amend Public Law 89-753, the Federal Water Pollution 
Control Act, as amended, consistent with the findings of the study. 
The bill f)rovides for the establishment of a national policy and com- 
prehensive national program for the management, beneficial use, pro- 
tection and development of the land and water resources of the 
Nation's estuaries and coastal zone. We recommend that the report 
together with the proposed bill be referred to the appropriate com- 
mittee for consideration and we recommend that the proposed bill be 
enacted. 

Section 5(g) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as 
amended, directed the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a compre- 
hensive study of the Nation's estuarine and coastal zones and to make 
recommendations regarding their management and the respective roles 
of Federal, State, and local governments. The study, which extended 
over a 3-year period, was conducted in cooperation with the Corps of 
Engineers, Water Resources Council, and every other Federal agency 
and office involved with estuaries ; with all coastal States, and many 
concerned public and private organizations. Extensive public hearings 
were held in all coastal States; regional conferences were held with 
State administrators and State officials. 

The Department of the Interior is broadly concerned with the whole 
area of natural resources and their most effective management. No- 
where is the need for effective management more noticeable than in 
the estuarine and coastal zone. Here is a situation where many uses 
compete, be they commercial uses, such as industrial and transporta- 
tion, as against commercial fishing and outdoor recreation. Added to 
this are such intensive uses as offshore mining, particularly for sand, 
gravel, oil, gas and sulphur, as well as the discharge of wastes. 

The enclosed draft bill establishes a national policy for the effective 
management and protection of the coastal zone. To accomplish this 
policy, the bill will add a new section 19 to the Federal Water Pollu- 
tion Control Act, as amended, to provide for a cooperative program 
between the Federal and coastal State Governments. Federal grants 

(V) 



VI 

may be made to the coastal States on up to a 50-percent matching basis 
for developing a comprehensive management program for the coastal 
zone. Upon approval by the Secretary of the Interior of a coastal 
State's management program, operational grants may be made to the 
coastal State on a matching basis for the purpose of implementing 
the program. The new section provides for a continuing review by the 
Secretary of the coastal States' performance in the implementation of 
the State management program. 

The Bureau of the Budget advises that the enactment of this legis- 
lation would be in accord with the program of the President. 
Sincerely yours, 

Walter J. Hickel, Secretary of the Interior. 



CONTENTS 



VOLUME I 

Page 

Part I. Introduction 3 

Part II. Summary and conclusions 8 

Part III. Recommendations — The Proposed Program 41 

VOLUME II 

Part IV. The Importance of the Estuarine Zone 

Introduction 61 

Chapter 1 . The Estuarine System of the United States _ 62 

Section 1. General Description 62 

Section 2. The Dominating Environmental Factors 64 

Section 3 . The Biophysical Estuarine Regions 83 

Section 4. The Land and the Water 89 

Section 5. The Life Energy and Life in the Estuarine Zone 103 

Section 6. Energy and Management in the Biophysical Environment- 113 

Chapter 2. Use of the Estuarine Zone 115 

Section 1. Sustenance: Use as a Fish and Wildlife Habitat 115 

Section 2. Enjoyment: Use for Recreation 125 

Section 3. Use for Transportation 129 

Section 4. Use as a Human Habitat 131 

Section 5. Deliberate Modification of the Estuarine Zone 136 

Section 6. Summary 140 

Chapter 3. The Social and Economic Values of the Estuarine Zone 142 

Section 1. Economic Development of the Estuarine Zone 142 

Section 2. The Values of Individual Uses 150 

Section 3. Reviews of Case Studies of Uses of the Estuarine Environ- 
ment 156 

Section 4. Measures of Value and Importance of the Estuarine Zone. 185 

Chapter 4. Social and Economic Trends 187 

Section 1. National Population and Economic Trends 188 

Section 2. Trends in the Estuarine Zone, Population and Economic,. 196 
Section 3. Trends in Selected Activities Associated with the Estuarine 

Zone 212 

Section 4. Future Waste Discharge Impacts 233 

Chapter 5. Pollution in the Estuarine Zone 242 

Section 1. Materials and Conditions that Degrade the Environment.. 242 

Section 2. Sources of Pollution 256 

Section 3. Extent of Pollution Effects 269 

Section 4. Examples of Estuarine Systems Damaged by Pollution 275 

Section 5. Conclusion 281 

Chapter 6. Use Conflicts and Damages 283 

Section 1. Nature of Use Conflicts 283 

Section 2. Examples of Use Damage 289 

Section 3. Trends in Estuarine Ecology Associated With Man's 

Activities 304 

Section 4. Resolution of Use Conflicts 309 

Section 5. Summary 312 

Chapter 7. Summary 313 

Section 1. The Biophysical Environment 313 

Section 2. The Socioeconomic Environment 322 

Section 3. Pollution: The Impact of Human Society on the Estuarine 

Environment 332 

Section 4. Use Conflicts and Damages : Man's Battle With Himself 

and Nature 337 

(vn) 



vm 

VOLUME III 

Part V. Development of the Comprehensive National Program 

Page 

Introduction 343 

Chapter 1. Role and Programs of Federal Agencies 344 

Section 1. Current Federal Role in the Estuarine Zone 344 

Section 2. The Federal Programs 345 

Section 3. A Synthesis of Federal Programs and their Means of Co- 
ordination 359 

Section 4. Summary 367 

Chapter 2. Coastal States' Responsibilities, Programs, and Roles 370 

Section 1. State Profile Development 370 

Section 2. Selected State Organizations — A Spectrum of Develop- 
ment 373 

Section 3. A Coastal State's Organization for Managing Estuarine 

Resources 390 

Section 4. State Estuarine Laws and Ownership Problems 393 

Section 5. Evaluation of Coastal State Frameworks 400 

Section 6. States' Views on Comprehensive Management 403 

Section 7. Summary and Conclusions 409 

Chapter 3. Role and Activities of Local Governments 413 

Section 1. Introduction 413 

Section 2. Management Tools 413 

Section 3. Problems and Failures 416 

Section 4. Selected Interlocal Coastal Management Programs 418 

Section 5 . Recommendations and Conclusions 421 

Chapter 4. Role of Compact Agencies in Estuarine Management 425 

Section 1. Use of Compact Agencies to Date 425 

Section 2. Proposed Uses of the Compact Instrument in the Chesa- 
peake Basin 431 

Section 3. Summary and Conclusions 435 

Chapter 5. Views and Recommendations of the PubUc and Private Sectors 

on Roles in the Estuarine Zone 437 

Section 1 . Introduction 437 

Section 2. Planning and Conduct of the Public Meetings 438 

Section 3. Method of Analysis 438 

Section 4. Summary Analysis of Major Concerns 448 

Section 5. Summary Analysis of Recommended Management Organi- 
zation and Roles of the Various Levels of Government 449 

Section 6. Summary Analysis of Recommended Role of the Private 

Sector 452 

Section 7. Conclusions 453 

Appendix A. Report of sources and methods used for coordination 

and data gathering for the National Estuarine Pollution Study 453 

Appendix B. Map showing locations of public meetings 455 

Appendix C. Schedule of National Estuarine Pollution Study public 

meetings 456 

Chapter 6. The Estuary Study Recommendations as Compared with 

Other Proposals for Managing the Estuarine and Coastal Zone 457 

Chapter 7. Overall Estuarine Management, A Summarization by Case 

Study 461 

Section 1. Introduction 461 

Section 2. Description and Uses of the Chesapeake Bay 461 

Section 3. Major Problems and Dangers to the Bay 464 

Section 4. Progress in Current Management Activities 465 

Section 5. Evaluation of the Chesapeake Bay 468 

Section 6. Description and Uses of the San Francisco Bay 469 

Section 7. Major Problems and Dangers to the Bay 472 

Section 8. Progress in Current Management Activities 475 

Section 9. Evaluation of the San Francisco Bay 477 

Section 10. Summary and Conclusions 478 

Chapter 8. Summary and Conclusions 480 

Chapter 9. Suggested Guidelines for a State Mamangement Statute 488 



rx 

Part VI. Development of Data on the Estuarine Zone 

Page 

Introduction 519 

Chapter 1 . The National Estuarine Inventory 520 

Section 1. The Handbook of Descriptors 520 

Section 2. Estuarine Register Areas 523 

Section 3. Collection of Information 525 

Section 4. Present Status of the Inventory 527 

Section 5. Problems and Solutions 528 

Section 6. Automation of the Inventory 532 

Section 7. The Future of the Inventory 543 

Section 8. Summary 544 

Chapter 2. Information and Data Needs as Shown by the National Es- 
tuarine Inventory 546 

Section 1. Nonexistent Data 546 

Section 2. "Gray" Data 550 

Section 3. Program Definition 552 

Section 4. The Recommended Program 554 

Chapter 3. Major Research and Study Needs 558 

Section 1. Introduction 558 

Section 2. The Data Base Necessary for Effective Technical Manage- 
ment 560 

Section 3. Major Knowledge Gaps and a Program of Needed Research 

and Study 565 

Section 4. Ecology 566 

Section 5. Toxicity 578 

Section 6. Microbiology 580 

Section 7. Physics and Mathematics 583 

Section 8. Socioeconomic Factors 590 

Section 9. Ancillary Research and Study Needs 595 

Section 10. Specific Research Programs 600 

Section 11. A Management Program for Research and Study in the 

Estuarine Zone 606 

Section 12. The National Academy of Sciences-National Academy 

of Engineering Study on Coastal Waste Management 615 

Section 13. Summary and Conclusions 628 

Chapter 4. Summary 629 

Part VII. Collection of Supporting Information 

Introduction 631 

Transcript of Public Meetings 631 

Agency Profiles 632 

Contra ct Reports 632 

Reference Collection 633 



THE NATIONAL ESTUARINE POLLUTION STUDY 

Volume I 



(1) 



PART I. INTRODUCTION 

This place without all question is the most pleasant and 
healthful place in all this country and most convenient for 
habitation * * * 

It aboundeth with all manner of fish. The Indians in one 
night will catch thirty sturgeons in a place where the river is 
not above twelve fathoms broad. And as for deer, buffaloes, 
bears, turkeys, the woods do swarm with them, and the soil is 
exceedingly fertile. From the Journal of Gayt. Henry Fleete^ 
the first tohite mem to sail the Potomac Biver, Washington, 
D.O., 1632. 

Man has had a long and intimate association with the sea. It has 
borne his commerce and brought food to his nets ; its tides and storms 
have shaped the coast where his great cities have grown ; the broad 
estuaries have provided safe harbors for his ships ; and the rhythm of 
its tides has taught him the mathematics and science with which he 
now reaches for the stars. 

Throughout recorded history the sea and its estuaries have been used 
as a limitless resource ; now, however, the impact of man on his environ- 
ment has taxed the resources of many estuarine zones to the limit of 
endurance and reached into the depths of the ocean itself. 

For 300 years the estuarine zones of this continent have provided the 
harbors through which a growing Nation's commerce moved and 
around which great centers of population and industry developed. The 
fisheries of the estuaries and neighboring oceans yielded a variety of 
staple and exotic foods to feed the burgeoning population, while the 
adjacent farmlands benefited from equitable temperatures and seepage 
of water throughout the estuarine zones. 

These 300 years of unrestrained exploitation have seen the 
world of the estuarine zone evolve into three distinct but interacting 
environments. 

There is first the natural ecosystem, a dynamic 'biophysical environ- 
ment of land, water, and life, which follows a steady evolutionary pat; 
tern of its own, except when man has changed it. Its elements taken 
together comprise the total ecology of the estuary. 

The second is the socioeconomic environment, the user's world, a 
system of social and economic pressures directed toward exploita- 
tion of the natural environment, either by ignoring what happens 
to it, modifying it deliberately, or using it in its natural state. 

Third, there is the institutional environment. This is the realm of 
law, a system composed of those devices man has created in the form 
of law and organization to regulate his activities. 

Increasing use and misuse of the Nation's estuaries have created 
and intensified many problems. Once productive shellfisheries have 
been completely smothered by sedimentation or closed by pollution; 
once deep and beautiful harbors are silted up and unnavigable, except 

(3) 



for carefully marked dredged channels; passage of anadromous fish 
is blocked by polluted estuarine zones ; thermal discharges aflfect entire 
ecosystems; diversion of rivers has caused salt water intrusion into 
ground water; and untreated or inadequately treated municipal and 
industrial waste discharges have damaged fisheries, added to silta- 
tion, and made many areas unsuitable for the increasing recreational 
use the present society demands. 

There was little awareness of the danger to future generations as 
long as the ability of the natural environment to absorb the effects of 
the socioeconomic environment seemed unlimited, and the problems of 
pollution and environmental damage were isolated. But now, in the 
second half of the 20th century, the entire Nation must face the 
results of those 300 years of exploitation, and weld the three estuarine 
environments into a national program to preserve, study, use, and 
develop the estuarine zone. Action is needed now. The purpose of this 
study is to recommend that action. 

The Study Directive 

The Congress, in passing the Clean Water Eestoration Act of 1966 
(Public Law 89-753), section 5(g), directed the Secretary of the In- 
terior to study the problems surrounding pollution of the estuarine 
zone, and to make recommendations to the Congress for an effective 
national estuarine management program in which the Federal, State, 
and local governments, as well as public and private interests, will 
have clearly defined responsibilities. 

The recommended program was to be based on a careful evaluation 
of existing relationships among the three estuarine environments; 
the effects of pollution on uses; and also the effects of demographic 
and use trends on pollution of the natural environment were to be 
considered. 

All existing pertinent information was to be assembled, coordinated, 
and organized to serve as a factual base for the study, and additional 
investigations and surveys were to be carried out to supplement exist- 
ing information. The study was to be conducted in cooperation with 
other Federal agencies. State and local governments, and other in- 
stitutions and individuals. Everyone with an interest in the estuarine 
zone was to be consulted. 

The report was to include not only the recommendations for a na- 
tional program, but also an analysis of the importance of estuaries in 
the economic and social environment and the effects of pollution on the 
natural ecosystem. A discussion of the major economic, social, and 
ecological trends was to show what the future might hold ; and rec- 
ommendations were to be made for research and study to acquire basic 
knowledge needed to manage future trends. 

EXTENT OF THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

The geographical scope of this study was stated in the Clean Water 
Restoration Act in this manner: "* * * the term 'estuarine zones' 
means an environmental system consisting of an estuary and those 
transitional areas which are consistently influenced or affected by 
water from an estuary such as, but not limited to, salt marshes, coastal 
and intertidal areas, bays, harbors, lagoons, inshore waters, and chan- 



nels, and the term 'estuary' means all or part of the mouth of a navi- 
gable or interstate river or stream or other body of water having un- 
impaired natural connection with open sea and within which the sea 
water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land 
drainage." 

Explicitly included in these definitions is all of the strip of land and 
water where the continent and the islands meet the sea, except those 
few stretches of coast where there are no embayments and where there 
is no land runoff. Yet even these have already felt the impact of the 
expanding socioeconomic environment, as the recent oil well blowout 
o& Santa Barbara, Calif., demonstrated. 

Implicit in the study directive is the charge to develop a program 
to protect the Nation's coastal land and water resources from the im- 
pact of pollution, and other disruptive pressures of the expanding 
social and economic environment, in the coastal region of the Nation. 
The investigations of this study and the recommendations presented 
in this report therefore include consideration of man's impact on the 
entire coastal environment, whether it occurs in a bay, marsh, or 
along an ocean beach. 

The term ^^estuarine sone,''^ as used in this report, refers to the geo- 
graphic zone including the coastal counties between the landivard limit 
of tidal influence and the 3-mile limit to seaward. Nevertheless, the true 
limits of the estuarine zone differ for each of the three major environ- 
mental systems that make up the estuarine environment. The dissimi- 
larity between the definition and the actual zone of influence of the 
estuarine zone constitutes one of the major problems a national estu- 
arine management program faces. 

The natural estuarine environment extends from the landward limit 
of tidal influence to the measurable seaward effect of fresh water run- 
off. This may vary in width from a few yards off some parts of the Cali- 
fornia coast to 50 miles off the Mississippi Delta. 

The geographic range of the social and economic estuarine environ- 
ment, the user's world, depends solely on man's ability and need to get 
to and use the estuarine environment. In terms of direct use, everything 
between the head of navigation landward and in sight of land seaward 
would be included. 

The limits of the estuarine institutional environment are those of the 
political subdivisions that include parts of the estuarine zone. This 
includes the 274 coastal counties, the 24 coastal States, the Territories, 
the District of Columbia, a variety of interstate compacts and commis- 
sions, and the Federal Government. 

The landward and seaward limits of the estuarine zone used in this 
study were set for the purposes of collecting and analyzing information 
pertinent to the study. The limits do not suggest that this zone can 
be isolated from either the upland rivers or the ocean, nor that this 
zone can be managed effectively without recognizing the problems in 
these and other environments. 

The National Estuarine Pollution Study 

The congressional assignment to the Secretary of the Interior was 
delegated to the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. 
The Administration established an Office of Estuarine Studies (now 



the Estuarine and Oceanographic Programs Branch) to carry out the 
study as directed by the Congress. 

Immediate steps were taken to insure that all interested parties could 
participate actively. Representatives of each bureau chief in the De- 
partment of the Interior formed an ad hoc Estuarine Advisory Com- 
mittee, which was later formalized into an advisory group to the Office 
of Marine Resources. Each Federal executive department head and 
each coastal State or territorial Governor designated a representative 
to coordinate his participation. National scientific, cultural, and user 
organizations were invited to participate, and 30 public meetings were 
held throughout the estuarine zone to obtain the views of individual 
citizens. Numerous consultations were held with groups and indi- 
viduals expressing interest. 

All of these groups and individuals were asked to assist by providing 
information and opinion about the value, use, and pollution of the 
estuarine resource. Tlie Federal Water Pollution Control Adminis- 
tration regional offices worked closely with State agencies in collecting 
information, and other Federal agencies provided information col- 
lected by or through them. Some 22 contracts were negotiated to ob- 
tain particular types of information and to prepare case studies of spe- 
cific estuarine systems. To organize and coordinate the vast amount of 
quantitative information, an automated information storage and re- 
trieval system, the National Estuarine Inventory, was developed. The 
list of information to be included in the inventory was developed with 
the cooperation of all Department of the Interior agencies and repre- 
sents a consensus of what the Department regards as the basic infor- 
mation necessary for effective estuarine management. 

The recommended national management program (pt. Ill), prob- 
ably the single most important result of the study, was reviewed at 
two stages by the coastal States and all concerned Federal agencies. 
The Department of Interior agencies have reviewed not only the rec- 
ommended program, but also the discussions of supporting material 
leading to the recommended national program (pts. II, IV, V, and 
VI.) 

Organization of the Report 

The report is organized to point out the relationship of the bio- 
physical, socioeconomic, and mstitutional environments within the 
estuarine zone, and also to point out that technical management is a 
different matter from institutional management, even though there is 
a strong dependence between them. 

Part II, "Summary and Conclusions," presents a summary of in- 
formation (presented in more detail in pts. IV and VI) leading to the 
recommended national program. 

Part III, "Recommendations — The Proposed Program," presents in 
full the recommendations for a comprehensive national program of 
estuarine management (presented in more detail in pt. V), tying to- 
gether the needs of the biophysical environment, the demands o£ the 
socioeconomic environment, and the responsibilities of the institutional 
environment. 

Part IV, "The Importance of the Estuarine Zone," discusses the 
biophysical and socioeconomic environments of the estuarine zone, 
shows the interaction of the two environments, and points out how the 



demands of the one will affect the other if present trends in develop- 
ment continue without effective control by the institutional environ- 
ment. The emphasis here is on technical management problems. 

Part V, "Development of the Comprehensive National Program," 
discusses the institutional environment as it presently exists, shows the 
role each level of government plays, and points out what role each 
should play to achieve effective management. The emphasis here is on 
institutional management problems in the estuarine zone. 

Part VI, "The Development of Data on the Estuarine Zone," dis- 
cusses the present state of knowledge about all three of the major 
estuarine environments, and presents a program of studies and re- 
search efforts designed to close up knowledge gaps and provide the 
basis for sound technical management through rational institutional 
management. 

Part VII, "Collection of Supporting Information," describes in 
general terms the mass of reference materials from which the informa- 
tion in this report was derived. These materials consist of several 
thousands of documents, including transcripts of estuarine public 
meetings, profiles of Federal and State agencies, the study's contrac- 
tors' reports, and published reports in the scientific literature which 
relate to estuarine resources. 

In-text citations to published material, referenced in the following 
volumes of this report, are indicated by a number in parentheses, 
such as (V-1-1), which refers to the references list at the end of the 
appropriate chapter. Likewise, figures and tables are referred to in 
text by a number, such as figure V.1.1, or table V.1.1. Appendices fol- 
low the appropriate chapter. 

In essence the report presents a technical analysis of the estuarine 
zone, identification of scientific knowledge gaps, and an inventory 
of the available knowledge, all of which form the basis for the recom- 
mended comprehensive management program for the Nation's estua- 
rine resources. 

This recommended national program is based on institutional man- 
agement with multiple long-term use as a common denominator. For- 
mation of the organizations to accomplish this and the active imple- 
mentation of these recommendations will permit maximum use of the 
entire estuarine zone while preserving it for the benefit of future 
generations. 



42-847 O— 7' 



PART II. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

The estuaririe zone is an ecosystem. That is, it is an environment of 
land, water, and air inhabited by plants and animals that have specific 
relationships to each other. This particular ecosystem is the interface 
between land and ocean, and one of its key components is human 
society. 

The social and economic environment that forms human society must 
be regulated by manmade laws intended to provide justice to each indi- 
vidual as a part of the socioeconomic environment. The biological and 
physical environment of the estuarine zone, in contrast, obeys natural 
laws which are equally complex and are less flexible than manmade 
law. The welfare of American society now demands that manmade 
laws be extended to regulate the impact of man on the biophysical en- 
vironment so that the national estuarine zone can be preserved, de- 
veloped, and used for the continuing benefit of the citizens of the 
United States. 

To apply manmade laws and regulations to the nautral estuarine 
environment, it is necessary first to understand what natural conditions 
govern that environment, and then to understand how the socioeco- 
nomic and biophysical environments affect each other. Only then can 
there be developed an institutional environment which can effectively 
weld all three environments into one smoothly functioning self-sus- 
taining ecosystem. 

The Biophysical Environment 

Laws regulating the socioeconomic environment exist at several 
levels of governmental authority. The Constitution presents general 
guiding principles, State constitutions operate within this framework 
while establishing a more detailed body of law designed to satisfy the 
needs of the statewide socioeconomic environment, and local ordinances 
regulate in detail the activities carried out in specific locations. 

The biophysical environment is also subject to a heirarchy of laws, 
regulations, and conditions. The general guiding principles are those 
fundamental natural laws which govern all life on the earth ; at the 
interfacial zone between land and sea the effects of these laws appear 
as universal dominating environmental factors. The structure of the 
coastline, formed and modified in obedience to these general conditions, 
imposes a second level of natural law which exerts its primary effects 
on water movement in the estuarine zone ; and, within each structural 
form exists a host of organisms living according to specific natural 
ordinances which govern their relationships. 

dominating environmental factors 

The natural estuarine environment is based on the conversion of 
radiant solar energy into other forms of energy with the assistance 
of the mechanical effects of gravitational energy. This conversion is 
accomplished by an intricate array of prey — predator relationships 
among living organisms, from the microscopic living creatures which 
convert solar energy directly and are eaten by other organisms, to the 

(8) 



9 

fish and wildlife which are the ultimate life forms in the manless 
estuarine environment. 

Solar radiation and gravitational forces control the natural environ- 
ment through a complex series of mechanisms. In the estuarine zone 
this control exhibits itself through seven major environmental factors 
that exist throughout the estaurine zone. 

(1) Continental Shelf. — The submerged land next to the continent 
slopes gently to a depth of about 600 feet, then it drops more rapidly 
to form the deep ocean basins. This fringe of slightly sloping sub- 
merged land, which along much of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts would 
appear quite flat to the naked eye, is called the Continental Shelf; 
its width and general configuration along the U.S. coastline affects 
the force with which ocean waves strike the shore and consequently the 
manner and degree of shoreline erosion and accretion (fig. IV. 1.1). 

FIGURE IV.1.1 MAJOR OCEAN CURRENTS AFFECTING THE UNITED STATES 




Continental Shelf 



potyoonc proJACtion 



10 

(2) Ocecm Currents. — The major ocean currents passing near or im- 
pinging on the continent exert strong, if subtle, effects on the estuarine 
zone through their temperatures, which affect continental land tem- 
peratures, and through their nutrients, which govern the nature and 
productivity of offshore and estuarine fisheries. The cold Labrador 
Current water from Maine to Virginia, warm Gulf Stream water along 
the South Atlantic and gulf coasts, and the California Current along 
the Pacific coast all have noticeable effects on coastal land and water 
(fig.IV.1.1). _ 

(3) Ooastline^ Slope. — The configuration of the coastline itself, 
even though subject to additional molding by the flow of rivers to the 
sea, is closely related to the shape and structure of the Continental 
Shelf. A wide continental shelf is generally associated with lowland 
next to the coast, while a narrow shelf is associated with mountainous 
terrain. These associations throughout the estuarine zone of the United 
States have produced estuarine systems characteristic of particular 
regions. Glaciation in New England, Washington, and Alaska ; old 
mountain ranges and a sedimentary coastal plain from New Jersey to 
Texas; and the young, steep rang:es of the Pacific coast are all con- 
tinental features having different impacts on the estuarine zone. 

(4) River Floio. — The estuarine zone is also shaped through erosion 
and sediment transport by fresh water making its way to the sea. All 
along the coastlines are streams and rivers carrying water from land 
runoff to the sea. These waterways range from the Mississippi River, 
which drains 41 percent of the conterminous land mass of the United 
States, down to tiny trickles across a beach. The volumes of water and 
sediment moved reflect not onl;)^ the total amount of precipitation and 
its annual cycle, but also the sizes and slopes of drainage basins ajid 
the types of soil over which the rivers flow. 

(5) Sedimentation. — The general outlines of many estuaries, la- 
goons, and embayments in the estuarine zone were formed by erosion 
from land runoff during the last ice age when sea levels were much 
lower than they are now. As the sea level rose, the drowned river 
mouths became zones of mixing, sediment deposition, and erosion 
where the rivers and tidal currents met. These erosions and sedimenta- 
tion processes molded the estuarine zone into its present shape and 
continue to change it. 

(6) Glimate. — Solar energy striking the earth sets up complex cycles 
of water and energy flow from the oceans to the sky and the land and 
back a^ain. That part of the energy cycle occurring in the atmosphere 
gives rise to the various combinations of weather phenomena which 
make up local climates. Land, sea, and sky are mutually dependent in 
producing specific climates, and the great ocean currents play their 
mdirect roles in modifying the climates of the estuarine zone. 

(Y) Tide. — The tide stands alone as a controlling force and symbol 
of the estuarine environment. The combination of tidal action and 
river flow gives rise to that unique phenomenon called an "estuarine 
circulation pattern," which means the fresh water flows in one direc- 
tion in one layer and the salt water flows in the opposite direction in 
another layer with various degrees of mixing at the interface between 
them. This type of circulation pattern is of great importance in some 
of the estuaries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and to a large ex- 
tent governs the capacity of such estuaries to rid themselves of waste 
materials. 



11 



THE BIOPHYSIOA-L ESTUARINE REGIONS 

Each estuarine system along the coastline is affected to some extent 
by all of these dominating environmental factors. In some cases the 
dominance of one particular factor is readily apparent. It is much 
more often the case that the competing environmental factors are so 
evenly balanced that none can be said to dominate and the estuarine 
zone appears to be composed of a bewildering variety of unique 
systems. 

Yet, the dominating environmental factors listed above form a set 
of natural guiding principles which govern the general characteristics 
of the estuarine zone of the United States, and the occurrence of vari- 
ous combinations of these environmental factors permits the grouping 
of the national estuarine system into 10 geographical zones, each gov- 
erned by a different combination of environmental conditions (figure 
IV. 1.19). 

Characteristics of the Biophysical Regions 

North Atlantic estitarine region: Canadian horder to Cape Cod 

Cool, fertile waters with a large tidal range strike a steep, indented 
coast with deep water close inshore, but protected from the full force 
of the ocean waves by a wide continental shelf. Moderate precipitation 
with heavy snowfall leads to heavy spring river runoff which domi- 
nates local circulation. Natural erosion and sedimentation are not 
severe problems, and the evolution of drowned river valley estuaries 
is in an early stage in this region. 



ngmlV.I.I9 
BIOPHYSICAL REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 





GUAM 




HAWAII \J^ 




««RTO RICO 




VIRGM IS. 


W 


£E 


IC ISLANDS 




CARIB 


9EA 


N 



12 

Middle Atlantic estuarine region: Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras^ 
exclusive of Chesapeake Bay 

A wide, gently sloping continental shelf with a smooth shoreline is 
cut by the entrances of several major river systems carrying moderate 
amounts of sediments. The same cool, fertile waters as in the North At- 
lantic estuarine region wash this coastline but with a smaller tidal 
range. The evolution of drowned river valleys into coastal marshes is 
in a secondary stage in the larger estuarine systems, with sand spits 
and barrier islands forming, 

Chesapeake Bay estuarine region: All of the Chesapeake Bay 
system from Cape Charl-es and Cape Henry Island 

Isolation from direct oceanic effects in much of the greatly branched 
systems, the many subsystems with major river flows, and the reduced 
concentration of the ocean salt throughout the bay and its tributaries 
make this a unique estuarine system. This is a drowned river valley 
with numerous similar tributary systems in various stages of evolution. 

South Atlantic estuarine region: Cape Hatteras to Fort Lau- 
derdale^ Fla. {about 26° north latitude) 

The generally wide Continental Shelf is brushed by the warm waters 
of the well-defined Gulf Stream. The low-lying Coastal Plain termi- 
nates in barrier islands and marshes in which large amounts of sedi- 
ments are being continually deposited by moderate-sized rivers fed by 
heavy summer rainfall. Many of the drowned river valley estuaries 
have evolved all the way to coastal marshes. Tidal ranges are small to 
moderate, depending on local conditions. 

Caribbean estuarine region: Fort Lauderdale to Cape Romano 

{the Florida peninsula south of 26° north latitude)^ plus 

Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 

High temperatures, heavy rainfall, and warm ocean currents along 

practically nonexistent continental shelves result in tropical estuarine 

environments throughout this region. Coral reefs and mangrove 

swamps are the typical coastal features of south Florida, while the 

islands are mountainous and are fringed with coral reefs and beaches. 

Tidal ranges are small. 

Gulf Coast estuarine region: Cape Romano to the Mexican 
border 

A wide Continental Shelf extends all the way around this large 
embayment, in which warm tropical waters are moved gently by weak 
currents and small tidal ranges. Heavy rainfall over most of the area 
brings sediments from the broad coastal plain to be deposited in the 
estaurine zone. Most of the drowned river valleys have evolved to a 
point intermediate between those of the Middle and South Atlantic 
regions — barrier islands are extensive and have large shallow bays 
behind them. 

The Mississippi, carrying drainage from 41 percent of the co- 
terminous land mass of the United States, forms one of the major 



13 

deltas of the world and is unique among the estuarine systems of the 
United States, both in its size and in the extent to which it has built 
out over the Continental Shelf. 

Pacific Southwest estuarine region: Mexican horder to Cape 
Mendocino 
Because of the narrow Continental Shelf, periodic upwelling of 
deep water close inshore as winds force the California current offshore 
brings cool, fertile water near the coast for several months of the year. 
The coastline has a typical beach and bluff configuration with only a 
few shallow embayments and the unique earthquake-born valley of 
San Francisco Bay, which, in the delta formed by the confluence of 
the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, shows what erosion and 
sedimentation might have done along the southwest coast if rainfall 
were greater in that area of easily erodable mountains. 

Pacific Northwest estuarine region: Cape Mendocino to the 
Canadian horder 

The Continental Shelf and coastal configurations are similar to 
those of the Pacific Southwest, but ocean water temperatures are 
lower here; the movement of the California current away from the 
coast is not as pronounced, and heavier rainfall has resulted in some 
major rivers cutting through the coastal mountains to form deeply 
embayed estuarine systems. Extensive erosion and sedimentation have 
caused wide tidal flats, bars, and shoals to be typical of these systems. 

The Straits of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound,which were glacier 
formed, do not have as severe sedimentation as exists along the ocean 
coast, and have retained much of their original configuration. 

Alaska estuarine region: All of Alaska including the Aleutian 
and Bering Sea Islands 
The dominant factors in this region are temperature and precipita- 
tion. Water temperatures are near freezing, and much of the precipita- 
tion falls as snow. The Continental Shelf is wide all through the re- 
gion, and tide ranges are very large. The southeast and south coasts 
have active glaciation and consist primarily of glacier-cut embayments 
and fjords; the west and north coasts are much flatter and have been 
modified to some extent by sediments eroded from the interior, includ- 
ing glacial silt, and by the grinding action of pack ice during winter. 

Pacific Islands estuarine region : The Hawaiian Islands^ Ameri- 
can Samoa, and Guam, 
This region consists of tropical ocean islands of volcanic origin. 
Dominating factors are lack of a continental shelf, full exposure to 
oceanic conditions, and pleasantly warm temperatures. Coral reefs and 
beach and bluff configurations are typical. 

THE LAND AND THE WATER 

Within the general domination of broad-scale environmental factors 
are smaller scale governing conditions that, through their effects on 
water movement and circulation, determine what kind of local en- 
vironment can exist in a particular estuarine system. 



14 

The land 

The shape of the land along the land-sea interface goes far toward 
determining what water movement and circulation patterns exist in 
particular local areas and, consequently, how fast a particular estua- 
rine system will rid itself of pollutants. Within the general compass 
of the estuarine regions discussed in the preceding section there are 
different structural types which define patterns of water movement 
typical of particular structures, no matter what the external environ- 
ment may be. 

Alaska presents the greatest variety of estuarine form and structure 
of any of the estuarine regions. Nearly all kinds of systems typical of 
other regions are found there. In addition, Alaska has the only glaci- 
ated coast and most of the fjords found in the United States. 

Characteristic of the North Atlantic region is a very irregular, hilly 
coastline with deep water close inshore and long, narrow embayments 
with open access to the sea. Estuarine systems within the Chesapeake 
Bay region consist of a group of branched rivers entering the Chesa- 
peake Bay itself, which is in turn the former valley of the Sueque- 
hanna River. 

In the Middle Atlantic region the estuarine zone consists primarily 
of a few large drowned river valley embayments (for example. New 
York Harbor, Delaware Bay, Narragansett Bay) and some small 
marsh and barrier beach systems receiving only coastal fresh-water 
runoff. The estuarine zone of the Gulf region, on the other hand, con- 
sists mainly of moderate-sized embayments with barrier beaches and 
extensive marshes, but receiving river flow from upland drainage 
areas and representing an intermediate state in the evolution of 
drowned river valleys into coastal marshes. 

The South Atlantic region has two dominant types of estuarine 
structure. From Cape Hatteras to about Jacksonville, Fla., there is a 
general input of upland river drainage to the estuarine zone and the 
estuarine systems are typical drowned river valleys in the later stages 
of evolution represented by barrier beaches or coastal marshes backed 
by extensive swamps. South of Jacksonville fresh- water runoff comes 
primarily from local coastal drainage, and there are uniform and ex- 
tensive barrier island beaches with long narrow embayments behind 
them having continuous but generally narrow strips of marsh along 
the embayments. This structure fades into the extensive swamplands 
of the Everglades farther down the Florida Peninsula. 

Both the Pacific Northwest and Pacific Southwest regions have few 
estuaries. The estuarine systems of the Northwest Pacific region tend 
to be the mouths of rivers which have cut their way through coastal 
mountain ranges, either of their own accord or aided by glaciers as 
in the case of Puget Sound. Shallow coastal embayments with little 
and sporadic river flow are characteristic of the few estuarine systems 
of the Southwest, except for San Francisco Bay, which receives fresh 
water runoff from much of central California. 

Estuarine systems of the islands, both Atlantic and Pacific, are few 
and consist mostly of embayments without major river inflows. 



15 

The estuarine zone can be classified according to its local mor- 
phology into 10 major categories, several of which exist in each of the 
estuarine biophysical regions. Within each of these categories, the 
similarities in structure reflect similarities in water movement, water 
quality, and ecology which make it possible to apply lessons learned 
in managing an estuarine system in one region to similar estuarine 
systems m other regions. The morphological categories are: 

1.1 Smooth shoreline without inlets 

1.2 Smooth shoreline with inlets 

1.3 Smooth shoreline with small embay ments 

2.1 Indented shoreline without islands 

2.2 Indented shoreline with islands 

3 Marshy shoreline 

4 Unrestricted river entrance 

5.1 Embayment with only coastal drainage 

5.2 Embayment with continuous upland rivBr inflow 
6 Fjord 

Unrestricted river entrances and embayments dominate the estua- 
rine zone and are rather evenly distributed throughout all the regions, 
with the common type of estuarine system being a coastal embayment 
with drainage from only the local coastal area. Many of these latter 
embayments have large marsh areas, but the Middle Atlantic, South 
Atlantic, and Gulf are the regions in which marshes are the predomi- 
nant feature in some parts of the estuarine zone. 

The water 

The unique nature of water movement and circulation patterns in 
the estuarine zone are the result of the meeting and mixing of fresh 
river and salty ocean water of slightly greater density under the oscil- 
lating influence of the tide. There may be additional complicating fac- 
tors such as temperature and wind action, but the resulting circulation 
nearly always reflects the interaction of river flow and estuary shape 
with the tidal flow of the ocean water. General water movement pat- 
terns are predictable for each category of estuarine shape. 

It is where moderately larger r-vers and streams meet the sea that 
the unique estuarine circulation patterns occur most frequently. Large 
fresh water flows in well-defined channels tend to slide over the top 
of the denser sea water without rapid mixing. Water movement in 
such cases exhibits various degrees of stratification. 

With wider channels, smaller river flows, and greater tidal ranges 
more mixing occurs and other forces come into play. Embayment 
shape, bottom configuration and material, and the effects of the earth's 
rotation all may play a role. In some estuarine systems of this type, the 
degree of stratification may change with changes in river flow, tem- 
perature, wind, or other transient conditions. 

Estuarine water quality is the product of both land and water. From 
the land, erosion and solution in river water bring suspended and dis- 
solved minerals, while decaying vegetation adds dissolved salts, but 
negligible quantities of organic matter. 



16 

In the estuarine zone these two different solutions meet and mix. 
Salt concentrations range from those of the oceans to the almost un- 
measurable amounts present in some rivers. Where little stratification 
exists, sea salt dominates mineral concentrations in estuarine waters; 
in stratified systems, however, the small amounts of minerals entering 
in the fresh water may be as important in some parts of the estuarine 
zone as the much larger concentrations from the sea are in others. 

THE LIFE 

The governance of the dominating environmental factors, as modi- 
fied by estuarine shape and water quality, result in an input of energy 
into individual estuarine systems, and it is in the variety and diver- 
sity of estuarine life that the input of energy to the estuarine zone 
finds ultimate expression. Whether energy comes directly, as in solar 
radiation stimulating photosynthesis, or whether it comes indirectly, 
as with tidal flows or wind and rain pounding on the shoreline, its 
absorption and conversion to otlier forms of energy (such as food) 
are essential steps in the continuation of life in the water, in the 
mashes, and on the land. 

Energy input from gravitational forces, as illustrated by tidal ac- 
tion and river flow, depends primarily on local or regional conditions, 
but direct energy input from solar radiation depends largely on lati- 
tude, the tropics receiving much more energy per acre than the arctic. 
The relative amounts of energy entering an estuarine system govern 
the kinds of life found there, and natural ecosystems show systematic 
variations related to the sources and amounts of energy received. 

Estuarine zones with strong mechanical energy inputs from waves, 
currents, tides, or river flows develop similar ecosystems no matter 
whether in the tropics or the arctic. Where, however, such energy in- 
puts do not dominate the input of radiant solar energy, natural com- 
munities develop compositions typical of tropical, temperate, or arctic 
latitudes. 

Tropical s}^stems are subject to unvarying warm temperatures; 
light energy input is botli greater and more regular than in other 
latitudes. Within this general group there are the sparse populations 
along coasts with deep clear water close inshore; the teeming and 
colorful populations of coral reefs; and the mangroves and the sub- 
merged grasslands associated with shallow, nutrient-laden water. Only 
the southern part of Florida and the islands are of this type. 

Arctic systems are subject to wide fluctuations of sunlight and tem- 
perature but ice is the key factor. Ecological systems develop in, on, 
and under the ice and in the fjords associated with glaciers. Only a 
small part of Alaska includes estuarine systems of this type. 

Temperature systems are subject to moderate solar energy inputs, 
temperatures which change regularly witli the seasons, and generally 
larger tide ranges and more wave action than either tropic or arctic 
systems. Most of the estuarine systems of the United States lie in the 
temperate zone, and the balancing of solar energy input against 



17 

mechanical energy input in this zone leads to a great variety of eco- 
system typesj even within small geographic areas. 

The groupmg of ecosystems outlined here describes a limited range 
of recurring variation of chemical and physical properties to which 
certain forms of life have adapted and on which they are now 
dependent. 

The basic environmental needs for all living plants and animals in 
such zones are zones of salinity consistently fluctuating over a limited 
range of concentration; solar energy; water temperature variation; 
water quality and nutrients favorable to their propagation, growth, 
and survival ; and, for some life forms, bottom conditions suitable to 
their unique needs. 

The dependence of fish and shellfish on the estuarine zone is gov- 
erned by particular environmental requirements for reproduction, pro- 
tection, food supply, or a combination of these. Estuarine-dependent 
species are of three types : 

1. Species restricted to estuaries 

Amon^ the relatively few species of fish and shellfish that coni- 
plete their entire life cycle in the estuarine zone is the Atlantic 
(American) oyster. It will die after long exposure to fresh water 
although it can stand limited periods of such exposure and can 
thrive in relatively high salinity water. The spotted sea trout 
occupies the estuary for all its life purposes and only occasionally 
leaves the estuary under unusual extremes of salinity and 
temperature. 

2. Anadromous and catadromous species 

Anadromous species pass through the estuarine zone on their 
journey from the sea to the freshwater environment where they 
spawn. Some species, such as the Pacific salmon, die after spawning 
and others, such as the striped bass, live to return to the estuarine 
zone and the sea. The young of all anadromous species spend 
varying periods of time in the freshwater areas where they were 
spawned, but all eventually migrate to the estuaries and then the 
sea. 

There are few truly catadromous species that mature in the 
fresh or brackish water environments, and then migrate to higher 
salinity waters of the estuary of the adjacent sea to spawn. The 
American eel and the blue crab are examples of this type. 

3. Migratory estuarine species 

The great majority of estuarine dependent species fall under 
this classification. Some use the brackish and freshwater areas of 
the estuarine zone for reproduction ; some as a source of food ; some 
for shelter, either as adults or young ; and some for all these rea- 
sons. They all have in common the basic need for both estuarine 
and ocean environments at some point in their life cycle. This 
group includes the great majority of fish and shellfish of direct 



18 

importance to man, such as shrimp, menhadden, flounders, and red 
drum (fig. IV. 1.38). 

Estuarine wildlife can be classified into four categories: (1) fur 
bearing animals, (2) game waterfowl, (3) ornamental shore birds, and 
(4) the common wildlife that can tolerate human presence. 

The primary fur bearers are the fur seal in Alaska, nutria in the 
South Atlantic and Gulf States, the common eastern muskrat in New 
Jersey, the Virginia muskrat in the Central Atlantic States, and the 
Louisiana muskrat in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. 
Secondary in importance are the racoon, mink, and otter. 

The dependence of waterfowl on the estuarine zone is both complex 
and incompletely understood. The primary sport species, such as mal- 
lards and canvasbacks, have been successfully adapted to manmade 
changes in their environment, particularly those changes not affecting 
the nesting sites. 

The ornamental shore and sea birds are a particularly esthetic at- 
traction among the national famia. Tliese birds are generally more 
dependent upon estuarine conditions than the more mobile waterfowl 
and, in addition, have demonstrated a considerably greater sensitivity 
to the overall encroachment of man. These birds include whooping 
cranes, pelicans, bald eagles, egrets, ibis, and many others. 

GOVERNING SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BIOPHYSICAL ENVIR0N3IENT 

Solar energy and gravitational energy are the basis for everything 
that happens naturally in the estaurine zone. This discussion of the 
biophysical environment has been concerned primarily with the en- 
vironmental conditions surrounding the transformation of these ener- 
fies into forms useful in living processes and exploitable by man. Three 
ifferent sets of subdivisions of the biophysical environment were used 
in this discussion. 

Differences in the external environment divided the estuarine zone 
of the United States naturally into 10 geographic regions, each subject 
to a particular governing combination of the external influences of 
tide, ocean currents, wave action, sedimentation, and climate. This 
subdivision into estuarine biophysical regions gave broad ranges of 
conditions in each region, but the importance of local coital condi- 
tions in governing energy flows via water movement paved the way for 
a subdivision of the estuarine zone according to 10 morphological 
groups having similarities in water movement, circulation, and the 
ability to rid themselves of wastes. 

A subdivision according to ecological communities was also based 
primarily on geographical location, but again coastial conditions made 
it necessary to identify small ecosystems governed by specific local 
conditions witliin each of the major groupings. 

The Socioeconomic Environment 

The socioeconomic environment of the estuarine zone is the direct 
result of its value as a means of sustenance, a place to live, a source 
of enjoyment, and a route of transportation. The laws regulating 
man's activities in this zone are historically intended to protect and 
serve individual and group interest in dealing with each other. Only 
recently has it become apparent that the laws protecting man from 



19 



Figure 1 V.I. 38 

TYPICAL LIFE HISTORY 
OF THE GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP 




Source W.C- Guest, The Texas Shrimp Fishery, 1958. 



a Shrimp Eggs d Mysis Q Adolescent Shrimp 

b Nauplius Larva 6 Postmysis h Adult Shrimp 

C Protozoa f Juvenile Shrimp 



20 

himself must be extended to protect the natural environment from 
man. 

This extension of the institutional environment must recognize not 
only the realities of how the biophysical environment operates, but 
it must also recognize the need of human society for the estuarine 
zone and its value to civilization both as an essential part of his eco- 
system and as an exploitable resource. 

P0PUL.ATI0N AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

The importance of the estuarine zone of the United States to the 
national community is shown most clearly by the numbers of people 
that use it. Population concentration in the coastal counties began 
when the first European colonist arrived. This concentration brought 
about the development of a corresponding amount of manufacturing 
industry in the estuarine zone, while the great harbors gave the 
estuarine zone its dominating position as the commercial center of 
the Nation. 

Long before the settlement of Plymouth, British, French, and 
Spanish fishermen were exploring the North Atlantic fishery resources 
including those in the Gulf of Maine and along Georges Bank ; after 
colonization of New England, the fisheries were the sustaining in- 
dustry that provided the economic foundation for growth and devel- 
opment. The estuaries were also the entry portal for the immigrants 
that came to this Nation looking for the land of opportunity. 

As the population grew, the relative importance of the fishery 
progressively declined as economic growth in other industries out- 
stripped the demand for seafood as a staple diet item. The growth 
of industrial and population centers in the estuarine zone closely 
paralleled the growth of the rest of the Nation, with the estuarine 
zone becoming relatively more important in international conmierce 
and less important in agricultural food production than the interior 
of the country. 

The coastal counties contain only 15 percent of the land area of the 
United States, but within this area is concentrated 33 percent of the 
Nation's population, with about four-fifths of it living in primarily 
urban areas which form about 10 percent of the total estuarine zone 
area. Another 13 percent of the estuarine land area is farmland, but 
this accounts for only 4 percent of the total agricultural land of the 
Nation. The estuarine zone, then, is nearly twice as densely populated 
as the rest of the country, and supports only one- fourth as much agri- 
culture per unit area. 

In those regions lying between Cape Hatteras, N.C., and Canada as 
well as in the Pacific Southwest, over 90 percent of the population lives 
in urban areas ; over much of the Atlantic estuarine zone stretches the 
great northeastern megalopolis with population densities averaging 
over 1,000 persons per square mile. The remainder of the estuarine 
zone of the United States exhibits a pattern of major centers of popu- 
lation clustered around natural harbors and separated by stretches 
of coastline which are either empty and inaccessible or beginning to be 
sprinkled with private residences and resort communities in the vicin- 
ities of population centers. 

The coastal counties have within their borders 40 percent of all 



21 

manufacturing plants in the United States. The mixture of manufac- 
turing types in the estuarine zone is the same as the national composi- 
tion with only minor exceptions, such as the concentration of the ap- 
parel manufacturing industry in the Middle Atlantic region, particu- 
larly in the New York area. Distribution of manufacturing types 
among the biophysical regions shows regional differences related to 
historical development as well as raw material and market availability. 

Over half of all plants in the coastal counties and one-fifth of all 
manufacturing plants in the United States are located in the Middle 
Atlantic biophysical region, which was the historical center of the 
Nation's industrial growth and is still one of the major market areas. 
The Pacific Southwest is the major industrial center of the Pacific 
coast and is developed as intensively as the Middle Atlantic region. 
Some industrial development in other regions tends to follow historical 
or present raw-material availability. Leather-product plants are 
clustered in the North Atlantic region, and lumber manufacturing 
plants are most plentiful in the Pacific Northwest. Food processing 
plants, however, follow closely the distribution of poj>ulation. 

While much of the industrial development located in coastal coun- 
ties affects the estuarine zone indirectly through use of adjacent land, 
some of the water-using industries have an impact on the estuarine zone 
far beyond their numbers. The paper, chemical, petroleum, and pri- 
mary metals industries are the major water users among manufactur- 
ing establishments and are distributed universally throughout the 
estuarine zone. 

USE OF THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

Many of the uses catalogued in this report occur only because the 
historical growth of the country makes the estuarine zone the place 
where the people and the industry are. Only commercial navigation 
and commercial fishing are uses which are primarily associated with 
the estuarine zone rather than other parts of man's environment. Uses 
such as water supply, waste disposal, and recreation are associated 
with civilization wherever it exists; in the estuarine zone they may 
have different values, different emphasis, or different impact on the 
biophysical environment. 

The great unique use of the estuarine zone, which makes it of pri- 
mary importance to man and his civilization, is its place in the life 
cycle of many animals which aid in converting solar energy into more 
usable forms. While no life form can be singled out as irreplaceable, 
the kinds of life which need the estuarine zone to survive represent 
essential links in the energy conversion chain upon which man de- 
pends for survival. Many of the human uses of the estuarine zone 
depend directly or indirectly on the existence of the estuarine zone as 
a healthy habitat. 

Fishing 

The important fish species are those sought by either the sports fish- 
erman or the commercial fisherman. Practically all of the sports fish 
species are dependent upon the estuarine zone for one or more phases 
of their life development, and approximately 65 percent of all com- 
mercial fish species are estuarine-dependent. 

In 1967 U.S. fishermen received $438 million for approximately 4.06 
billion pounds of commercial fish and shellfish. It has been estimated 



22 

that two-thirds of the total value, or approximately $300 million, can 
be considered for estuarine-dependent species. This is a conservative 
estimate of the direct value derived from the estuarine fishery for it 
does not include the value of fish harvested by foreign vessels off the 
U.S. coast. Five of the six leading species by weight, representing over 
one-half of the U.S. commercial fish tonnage in 1967, are estuarine- 
dependent. 

Recreation 

The demand for outdoor recreation has increased significantly over 
the past decade. The trend toward higher personal income and more 
leisure time has made it possible for a greater precentage of the popu- 
lace to seek new outlets. Companies manufacturing equipment for out- 
door recreation have sprung up by the hundreds. 

The advertising industry has campaigned vigorously to sell the pub- 
lic on the need for recreation, and service facilities to support the 
recreationalist are blossoming in all parts of the country. 

There are a wide variety of land and water recreational activities 
available in the estuarine zone and many estuarine systems are inten- 
sively used for recreational pursuits. The unique combination of avail- 
able resources in close proximity to large population centers ojffers an 
unparalleled recreational opportunity for many people who could not 
afford to travel far from their homes. 

Each type of recreational activity has a certain sensitivity to the 
quality of the environment in which the activity takes place. Clusters 
of activities that require similar environmental conditions but differ 
in environmental quality needs can be grouped as follows: (1) swim- 
ming and associated shore activities, including picnicing and camping ; 
(2) sports fishing from shore or small boats; (3) boat-centered ac- 
tivities, such as cruising or water skiing; and (4) aesthetic apprecia- 
tion of the total environment. 

Transportation and National defense 

The Nation's estuaries provide the physical, social, and economic 
conditions required for an effective system of water terminals serving 
international trade and coastal shipping. According to a 1966 inven- 
tory of ports and terminals by the Maritime Administration, there 
were 1,626 marine terminal facilities providing deep water berths in 
132 ports on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts. The significance of 
these ports and terminal facilities is indicated by the 1965 statistics 
which show that these ports handled 346,315,000 tons of foreign trade 
cargo which was 78 percent of the U.S. foreign trade total. In addi- 
tion, the port facilities handled 332.1 million tons in coastal cargo and 
288.2 million tons in local shipping. 

The estuarine ports also serve as essential elements of the national 
defense system. The deep water terminals exert a significant influence 
on the location of defense installations as well as of the industrial com- 
plexes necessary for logistical support of the defense effort. A direct 
indication of the use of estuaries by naval vessels is the total number 
of ships in commission. During the fiscal year 1967 this number was 
931 with a planned increase to 960 in the fiscal year 1969. 

The use of the harbors for waterborne transportation is competitive 
in that it may cause other uses to be foregone. Heavy ship traffic inter- 
feres with pleasure boating and related activities. Maintenance of the 



23 

ship channels may alter the ecology and the surface area occupied by 
the large vessels may well interfere with safe pleasure boating. 

Water transportation is not the only type of transportation consid- 
eration for estuaries. Since a major percentage of large cities are 
located on estuarine systems, there is considerable pressure to develop 
fill areas for airports which then utilize the long overwater approaches 
to keep the jet noise away from developed areas. The water areas offer 
a barrier to land travel that must be overcome with causeways or bridge 
type structures which can interfere with navigation or cause habitat 
damage. On the other hand, peripheral roads offer some of the more 
scenic routes available and are frequently the only undeveloped area 
on which roads can be built. 

Municipal and industrial water supply 

The water in the estuary can serve as a source of both domestic and 
industrial water supply ; but utilization of estuarine water for domestic 
supply is very limited at the present time. Normally the brackish water 
is unpotable and treatment costs to render it potable are extremely 
high. The brackish estuarine water is also a poor source for industrial 
process water. Here again a high degree of purity is normally required 
in the process water and the cost of removing the dissolved salts is 
prohibitive. 

Estuarine waters are used extensively, however, as a source of in- 
dustrial cooling water. For this use the most important considerations 
are the quantity and the ambient temperature. Water temperatures 
are generally well below the maximum for economical cooling, and 
since the ocean is connected to one side of the estuary, the quantity is no 
problem. Cooling water is required by both the manufacturing industry 
and electric power generation plants ; the greatest use is in the thermal 
electric plants. 

The distribution of cooling water use parallels population and indus- 
trial development in the coastal counties, even though electrical power 
can be transported economically over many miles. The greatest concen- 
trations of cooling water use are in the middle Atlantic and Pacific 
southwest regions ; fortunately these regions both have moderate water 
temperatures which make possible efficient use of the available cooling 
water. 

There are, however, 47 nuclear powerplants built or scheduled for 
completion by 1976. All of these are in the megawatt range, with a com- 
bined capacity of nearly 35,000 megawatts of electrical power. While 
the bu^k of these will be in the cooler parts of the Nation, 12 will be 
in the South Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean regions where water tem- 
peratures are high, greater volumes must be used to achieve proper 
cooling, and the increase in water temperature through the power- 
plant may be sufficient to cause environmental. damage. 

Waste disposal 

The concentration of population and industrial development in the 
estuarine zone has led naturally to the use of estuarine waters for re- 
moval of the waste materials of man's civilization from his immediate 
vicinity. It is unlikely that cities were built on the coastline with any 
conscious consideration of the use of the estuarine environment for 
waste disposal, yet it has happened that this use has become one of the 
major, uses of estuarine waters and the associated land. Virtually all 

42-847 O— 70 3 



24 

of the cities and industries in the coastal counties dispose of wastes 
either directly or indirectly into the estuarine zone. 

Liquid waste discharges to estuarine systems include domestic waste 
prouciOta, inuustriai waste materials of all degrees of chemical com- 
plexity and sophistication, used cooling water with its thermal load, 
and storm runoff. These wastes affect the estuarine environment in dif- 
ferent ways and can eliminate other uses. 

Liquid wastes are not the only concern. The use of the estuarine 
shoreline for refuse dumps and land fills results in considerable debris 
getting into the water ; water leaching through these dumps has a pol- 
lutional impact on the estuarine water. Spoil disposal from dredging 
activities is another form of solid waste material that contributes to 
estuarine degradation, and solid materials entering the estuary in the 
form of debris from storm runoff can be significant in terms of damag- 
ing beneficial uses. 

Waste disposal is a highly significant and universal use of the 
estuarine resource and it is likely to remain so. Along with the many 
other socioeconomic uses of the estuarine environment, it must be man- 
aged so that it does not damage the biophysical environment. 

Exploitation of mineral resources 

Minerals within the water, on the bottom, and under the bottom are 
a valuable part of the estuarine resource and are being exploited 
widely. 

Subbottom mining operations are limited to the recovery of sulfur, 
petroleum, and natural gas, with the major operations occurring in 
Louisiana, Texas, California, and Alaska. These operations exist both 
in the estuaries and out on the continental shelves with the governing 
criterion for locating being the location of reserves. 

Recovery of minerals from submerged estuarine zone bottoms by 
surface mining, i.e., dredging, is primarily directed toward sand, 
gravel, and oyster shell production. Sand and gravel operations are 
universal throughout coastal areas wherever suitable deposits and 
a market exist. 

Oyster shell is an extremely useful construction material in the Gulf 
of Mexico biophysical region. Twenty of the 22 million tons of annual 
U.S. production are in the Gulf States with Texas and Louisiana pro- 
ducing the vast majority of it. 

Phosphate rock is an important estuarine mineral resource; about 
75 percent of the total U.S. production is in the estuarine zone of Flor- 
ida and North Carolina, particularly around Tampa Bay and Pamlico 
Sound. 

Aqvuculture 

The great fish and shellfish resources of U.S. coastal waters 
have adequately supplied the seafood demands of the increasing popu- 
lation for over 300 years. Now, however, the demands for some prod- 
ucts is so great that the normal fishing grounds and fisheries are in 
great danger of being exhausted, both from overfishing and from the 
indirect effects of man's enroachment into the estuarine environment. 
To supply future needs of some fish products new approaches toward 
commercial fishing are needed, both in harvesting the natural growth 
and in controlling the entire fishery. Aquaculture is defined as the 



25 

rearing of aquatic organisms, both plants and animals, under con- 
trolled condit'ons using the techniques of plant and animal husbandry. 
It involves a variety of operations, some that are highly sophisticated 
where man exercises control over the principal environmental factors 
affecting the cultured species, and others that are very simple with 
only min'mal control or manipulation of the habitat and the cultured 
animal. 

Shoreline development 

The use or development of estuarine water either governs or depends 
on land or shoreline use. 

Commercial development of the shoreline includes loading terminals, 
docks and shipyards., airports, industrial plants, and the smaller 
municipal and local piers. Recreational facilities include marinas, 
beaches, parks, fishing piers, and vacation cottages, motels and hotels. 
Although the motels and hotels are a commercial venture, their prime 
purpose is to support the recreationist. Residential development of 
waterfront property in many communities places on the shoreline in- 
tensive housing development accompanied by boat docks, fishing 
and swimming piers, and private beaches. Commercial and personal" 
transportation requires airports, highways, and commercial port facil- 
ities. 

Structures built to protect or conserve the shoreline include bulk- 
heads to hold the shore in place, dikes to prevent flooding and to ex- 
tend reclaimed land, jetties to provide a protective barrier between 
the sea and ship channels, and groins along beach areas to control sand 
movement. 

THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VALUES OF ESTUARINE TJSE 

All uses have value, both individually and as part of the development 
and use of the entire estuarine resource for the benefit of the present 
and future national community. The importance and total value of 
any estuarine system lay not in the measure of economic value for any 
particular use, but in multiplicity of use related to the needs of 
people who live there or otherwise depend on the estuarine resource. 

Fisli (Mid wildlife habitat 

The value of the estuarine zone as fish and wildlife habitat both 
depends on and augments its value for other uses, particularly recrea- 
tion and commercial fishing. 

There is, in addition to these, the basic incalculable value of the 
estuarine habitat as a link in the essential energy-conversion chain 
which permits man to survive at all. 

The trapping of fur bearers in the marshes of the gulf and Atlantic 
represents one of the few economic values directly attributable to 
estuarine habitat. Louisiana is the major producer; in the 1965-66 
season total sales were $4.6 million out of the Nation's $6 million total. 

C&m/mercial flshkig 

An entire complex of commerce and industry can rest upon one 
primary producing industry such as commercial fishing. Each time 
the basic product changes hands it generates economic activity and 
gains in value until by the time it reaches the ultimate consumer, its 
price may be many times what the fisherman was paid for it. The 



26 

effect of such value multiplier factors will be such as to make the 
actual values of specific commercial fisheries several times the landed 
values. 

Thus, the $438 million received by U.S. fisherman in 1967 probably 
represents a total input to estuarine zone economic activity of over 
$1 billion ; exactly how much it is impossible to say. Case studies assign 
multiplier values of about three and four to commercial fishery land- 
ing values, but the magnitudes of such multipliers depend on the 
structure of the local economy as well as on other factors and generali- 
ties are likely to be misleading. 

The relationship of the estuarine zone and commercial fishing cannot 
be expressed by any simple economic index. The importance of com- 
mercial fishing in the estuarine zone is related economically not only 
to estuarine habitat, but also to transportation, commerce, food proc- 
essing, and aquaculture. 

RecreatioTi 

Each kind of recreational use has its own economic impact. Recrea- 
tional boating supports a large boatbuilding, marina, and boat repair 
industry. Sport fishing supports not only a certain part of the boating 
industries, but also a very specialized industry manufacturing and 
selling fishing tackle. For example, the 1965 survey of fishing and 
hunting shows that salt water anglers spent $800 million in that year. 
Sightseeing and swimming support motel and restaurant services in 
the favored areas, as do other overnight recreational activities. 

Attempts at the quantification of overall recreational economic 
values are not yet well-developed. The user-day recreation benefits 
approach has been used in some Federal waterway and reservoir proj- 
ects, but has been used in the estuarine system only in an analysis of 
fisheries and recreation in San Francisco Bay. Net benefits for gen- 
eral recreation activities, by this method, range from $0.50 to $1.50 per 
day. Specific forms of recreation may have higher values. 

Applying such a figure to the population of the coastal counties sug- 
gests that the value of the recreational resource of the estuarine zone 
is about $300 million if each person has about 5 days of recreational 
use. Such an estimate would include only local use and no multiplier 
values and might therefore be regarded as minimum value of the en- 
tire value of the entire estuarine recreation resource. 

The major problems in defining the economic values of recreation in 
the estuarine zone lie in the facts that recreation itself is not an easily 
defined commodity nor can it be isolated from other economic activi- 
ties such as transportation, food and lodging services, and equipment 
manufacturing. 

Commercial navigation and national defense 

Estimates of the economic value of commercial navigation are based 
on the direct revenue to the port of handling a ton of cargo, generally 
$16 to $20. Such estimates lead to a total value of the estuarine re- 
source of $4.7 billion annually for cargo revenues alone, without multi- 
plier values. An additional economic value of $10 billion annually in 
salaries and wages has been estimated for 11 major ports. 

These estimates do not show the impact of commercial navigation 
on land transportation, shoreline development, or the manufacturing 
industries. Without the deep, safe harbors commercial navigation 



27 

could not exist on a large scale, and without commercial navigation 
the great cities around these harbors would not have developed. 

Deepwater harbors are essential elements of the national defense 
system. Furthermore, the location of these deepwater ports has in- 
fluenced the location of other defense installations as well as the indus- 
trial complexes necessary for the logistical support of the defense 
effort. 

The cost of the national defense effort in the estuarine zone for 1967 
is estimated at about $900 million, exclusive of pay and allowances for 
shore-based Navy and Marine Corps personnel. The economic impact 
of national defense activity overlaps into all other estuarine zone uses 
because of the massive payrolls associated with it. This impact is 
centered in the areas with major defense installations. 

Waste disposal 

The waters of the estuarine zone have received wastes from the peo- 
ple and industries on their shores ever since the first cities were 
founded. The economic benefit in the use of estuarine waters for waste 
disposal has been fully utilized by nearly all industries and communi- 
ties in the estuarine zone, and only the tremendous capacity of estu- 
arine waters to absorb and remove waste materials has kept the estu- 
arine zone from suffering severe damage from such waste discharges. 

No overall estimate of the value of this use of the estuarine resource 
is possible because the level of treatment necessary in any particular 
case depends on many local factors. 

While the use of estuarine waters for waste disposal may not be 
esthetically appealing it is an existing estuarine use with which other 
uses must compete, and it should be considered along with them in the 
overall economic evaluation of estuarine uses. 

Eosamples of socioeconomic environments in the estuarine zone 

Almost all estuarine systems have either a multiplicity of uses at 
the present time or such uses are available in the system. Estuaries 
presently support such varied uses as military berthing and associated 
activities, commercial port facilities, shipping channels, industrial 
uses, commercial fisher'es, sport fishing, recreation, wildlife habitat, 
and purely esthetic purposes. In most estuaries one or two of the uses 
predominate while the others take minor roles. 

Narragansett Bay is an ideal example of an estuary that has devel- 
oped in an unbalanced fashion. That is, the economic value of the 
estuary at the present time is largely associated with the industrial, 
military, and transportation uses of its waters. Other uses are, of 
course, made of the estuary but their economic significance is dwarfed 
by the tremendous magnitude of the military and commercial uses. 
However, it must be remembered that this economic measure is merely 
an indicator of the value of the waters and is not in any way related 
to the right or necessity of polluting such waters in the process of 
achieving this value. In fact, the only time that such an economic 
measure would be used would be for comparing one total use of the 
estuary to another total use. Of course, it is seldom that questions 
are so broad as to cover either/or propositions for the entire activity. 
Rather, the questions usually revolve around such things as the benefits 
to be derived from reducing pollution caused by users of the estuary 
compared with the costs of achieving the reduction in pollution. 



Franklin County, Fla., is dependent upon pollution-free waters in 
Apalachicola Bay for its economic existence. The unpolluted waters 
of the bay provide the seafood caught by local commercial fishermen 
and processed at shore-based installations. Additional income for the 
area results from tourism engendered by the bay's waters. 

Both tourism and commercial fishing are prime potential sources of 
income to any estuarine system. In the case of Apalachicola Bay, these 
happen to be the major sources of income because of the nature of the 
estuary and its location which prevent its development as a commercial 
shipping facility. 

The San Diego economy, although heavily dependent upon the mili- 
tary and shipping activities in the bay, has diversified to the extent 
that it is no longer completely dependent upon such uses of the bay. 
At the same time there has been a growing demand for recreational 
uses of the bay. Evidence of the local residents' interest in the bay for 
recreation, tourism, and commercial uses can be found in their will- 
in^ess to invest substantial sums of money in facilities to prevent pol- 
lution of the bay by municipal wastes. 

Mission Bay, a separate ^uary in the San Diego area, is an example 
of the recreational potential to be found in an estuarine system. How- 
ever, this special study points up the fact that the best use of an 
estuary may not come about naturally. Rather, it shows that a planned 
development program with adequate investments are necessary to 
achieve optimal use of an estuary. 

Measv/res of overall value and importance 

The discussions of values of individual uses and the case studies of 
specific estuarine systems present a confusing picture of the relation- 
ship of estuarine uses to economic indicators. 

Estimates of the direct economic benefit of the estuarine zone to the 
residents of the coastal counties can be made. The estimates of economic 
activity generated by the presence of Narragansett Bay in Rhode Is- 
land give a conservative annual economic benefit of $920 per capita, 
$420 of which is personal income. Average personal income for all of 
the coastal counties is, according to Bureau of the Census figures, $500 
per capita greater than the average for the remainder of the country. 
The total economic activity generated by this additional personal in- 
come then amounts to about $1,100 per person, using the Narrag- 
ansett Bay multiplier values. 

The total direct economic benefit of the estuarine zone to the resi- 
dents of the coastal counties is then about $60 billion in terms of 
additional economic activity stimulated by the presence of estuarine 
systems. This is not a measure of the total economic activity of the 
estuarine zone, but only of the "value added" to the total economic 
activity of the coastal counties by the presence of the estuarine zone. 

Such gross means can give only an order-of -magnitude estimate of 
even the direct economic value of the estuarine zone and cannot pos- 
sibly reflect either indirect benefits or the social importance of the 
estuarine zone, much less its ecological value. 

Valid criteria for evaluating the importance of the estuarine en- 
vironment or the value of individual estuarine uses, to a community 
must, however, go beyond the reach of economic approximation and 
recognize the fundamental relationship between man and his en- 



29 

viroiiment. Wlierever there are people the environment will be ex- 
ploited to satisfy the needs and desires of man and his civilization. 

Increasing environmental pressures from demographic and com- 
mercial development are paralleled in the same community by the in- 
creasing desire for greater recreational use. That these can be com- 
patible is clearly shown by the San Diego Bay example. Such com- 
munity reactions as in San Diego and in San Francisco demonstrate 
that, while people need commercial development and use, they want 
a safe and enjoyable environment at the same time. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

At the present time, the major uses of estuaries, in terms of ^oss 
monetary return are : military use, shipping, and industrial activities. 
These uses are, of course, historical and do not necessarily reflect the 
uses that would be made of the estuary under today's conditions or 
future conditions, if each use were to compete for the water use at the 
same time. In other words, historical use has brought about the pres- 
ent use imbalance in many estuarine systems. However, given the 
opportunity to develop, other uses might attain equal importance 
economically while contributing important social benefits. 

Estuaries at the present time represent underdeveloped natural 
resources that are important to the social as well as the economic well- 
being of the Nation. Based on present trends and demands, there is 
little doubt that there will be a tremendous need for estuarine uses 
other than for military, shipping, and industrial uses. That is, if the 
facilities are available for recreation, sports, or esthetic enjoyment, 
they will be used and used to great advantage from an economic stand- 
point as well as a social standpoint. 

If normal circumstances prevail, the Nation's j)opulation and general 
high standard of living will continue to increase in the coming decades. 
A moderate estimate projects a doubling of the national population 
by the turn of the century, with a significant proportion of that growth 
occurring in urban areas. 

The population will be made up of a large proportion of youth and 
young persons of working ages, with only a moderate increase in the 
elderly through the end of the century. Personal income will rise dra- 
matically. Estimates of leisure time vary considerably, but all authori- 
ties agree that the workweek will shorten, from a conservative esti- 
mate of 35 hours a week to as little as 20 hours per week. The National 
Planning Association has projected that in 1990, 10 percent, and in 
2000, 20 percent of the men between the ages of 25 and 54 will be 
granted a 1-year leave every 7 years. 

Urban, and particularly suburban growth, will expand greatly 
both to accommodate the growing population and to provide ameni- 
ties that it increasingly demands : single-family dwellings, recreational 
areas, transportation facilities, industrial developments, and so on. 
These demands will place rapidly increasing burdens on the Nation's 
resources and its environment. These burdens, iti turn, will tax the 
ability of decisionmakers and the Nation's population to cope with the 
complexity and insistence of the problems generated by a postindus- 
trial, urbanized society. 

Information provided by this analysis of national population and 



economic trends gives only the grossest indication of the activities and 
expected pressures of population and economic activity on all of the 
Nation's environment. Analysis of these indicators can only provide 
a general indication of the magnitude of the demands which will be 
generated by these forces in the near future on the estuarine zone. 

Pollution : The Impact of Human Society on the Estuakine 

Environment 

Man has always used the biophysical environment as he needed it for 
survival and thrown back into it his waste products and anything else 
he did not need. As long as civilization was limited to small towns and 
villages the impact of such treatment on the estuarine environment 
was not noticeable and apparently insignificant. With the development 
of a civilization based on a complex socioeconomic environment, how- 
ever, his impact on the natural environment has increased until now 
the most accurate term to express the relationship of man to his bio- 
physical environment is pollution. 

Pollution is the degradation of the biophysical environment by 
man's activities ; it is no longer limited to the discharge of sewage and 
industrial wastes, but now includes direct or indirect damage to the 
environment by physical, chemical, or biological modification. 

Environmental degradation is the result of often minute changes in 
water quality, water circulation, or other conditions which are part of 
the biophysical estuarine environment. There are brightly colored or 
otherwise visible waste materials which have obvious poUutional im- 
plications, but by far the deadliest pollutants are those which are in- 
visible and often unsuspected until the damage is done. These pol- 
lutants can be found only by the most delicate and sensitive tests and, 
even then, the presence of some highly dangerous materials or condi- 
tions can only be inferred by indirect evidence. 

materials and conditions which degrade the environment 

One of the major constituents of municipal and many industrial 
wastes is decomposable organic material. Such materials consist pri- 
marily of carbohydrates from plants and paper, proteins from animal 
matter, and miscellaneous fats and oils. The decomposable organics 
are not necessarily detrimental by themselves but exert a secondary 
effect by reducing dissolved oxygen in the water. The level of dissolved 
oxygen is one direct index of the healthiness of the system. High levels 
are generally indicative of a healthy system which will support a 
diverse biota and multiple use. The lower the concentration of dis- 
solved oxygen becomes, the sicker the system is, and the less desirable it 
is for habitat or use. 

Another class of materials, primarily organic, that can have con- 
siderable impact on the estuarine ecosystem are the fesh-tainting sub- 
stances. Generally these materials are contained in industrial waste 
effluents and they result in offensive tastes, odors, and colors of fish and 
shellfish. 

The salts of heavy metals are fairly soluble and stable in solution. 
Consequently, they will persist for extended lengths of time. Many of 
these are highly toxic to the aquatic biota, and since many marine 
organisms exhibit the ability to accumulate and concentrate sub- 



31 

stances within their cell structure, the presence of these metals in small 
concentrations can have deleterious effects. 

Aquatic life forms require trace amounts of some mmerals and 
vitamins for growth and reproduction. Elimination of such materials 
from the environment or their reduction below minimum levels can 
limit the growth and reproduction of some biota. Conversely, an over- 
supply of all necessary trace mineral salts and vitamins can stimulate 
growth, providing satisfactory conditions of temperature, salinity, 
and dissolved oxygen also exist. An oversupply of inorganic nutrient 
salts, such as those of nitrogen and phosphorus, may be associated with 
drastic shifts in the composition of the aquatic community. 

One of the many unfavorable effects of municipal and some in- 
dustrial wastes is the contamination of the receiving environment with 
bacteria, viruses, and other organisms of public health significance. 
Pathogenic organisms^ especially those from the intestines of warm- 
blooded animals frequently persist for sufficient periods of time and 
distance to pose a threat to the health and well bemg of unsuspecting 
water users. Secondary chances of exposure to these organisms exist 
through the contamination of shellfish which can be harvested for 
food. 

Among the waste products that are frequently introduced into the 
estuarine environment are some directly toxic to marine organisms. 
Toxic materials may exhibit a short catastrophic impact or a more 
subtle long-term interference with growth and reproduction proc- 
esses. The end result is to create a biological desert in which no organism 
can survive. The pesticide group is of particular concern in the estua- 
rine zone. Estuaries are the terminus for most of the major river sys- 
tems, and as such they tend to concentrate the waterbone materials 
carried in by the large terrestrial drainage systems. The biological 
magnification capability of estuarine animals significantly increases 
the hazard and destructive potential of any contributed pesticides. 
The ultimate damage is to stress or eliminate parts of the energy con- 
version chain in the estuarine environment. 

The addition of large quantities of heat from industrial cooling 
water constitutes a form of pollution which must be considered. The 
entire ecosystem may be stressed by thermal pollution. The amount of 
damage is dependent on the resulting temperature of the environment 
and the species composition of the biotic community. The total range 
of detriments should be carefully considered on an individual case 
basis before heat is released to the environment. Heat affects the physi- 
cal properties of water, the rates at which chemical and biological re- 
actions progress, and can kill living organisms. 

Man's activities may affect the rate of sediment inflow, deposition, 
and outflow by purposely or inadvertently upsetting the natural bal- 
ance. If upstream erosion is increased due to poor land management 
practices, the load carried in will increase. Conversely, activities along 
the coast can result in increased shore erosion, removing more sediment 
than is contributed. The primary pollutional problem from sediment, 
however, is from increased influx and accelerated deposition. The det- 
rimental effects of sedimentation are reflected in an impairment of 
uses such as navigation, recreation, and fish propagation. 

One of the greatest threats to the estuarine ecosystem is the ever- 



32 

present chance for a catastrophic spill of oil or other hazardous mate- 
rials. The large volumes of petroleum and chemical products trans- 
ported through the estuarine zone by ships, barges, pipelines, tracks, 
and railroads present a continuing opportunity for accidental bulk 
spills. Tlie consequences of these spills depend on the amount and type 
of material released and the characteristics of the receiving water. 
They may range in magnitude from tragic loss of life to little more 
than economic loss for the transporter. 

The effect any pollutant has on an estuarine environment depends 
on where it goes, how strong it is, and how rapidly it is assimilated or 
flushed out of the environment. All of these conditions depend on water 
movement and circulation patterns which are in turn governed by the 
relationship of tide and riverflow to estuarine shape and size. Physical 
modifiGations such as the dredging of new or deeper navigation chan- 
nels, building of causeways or jetties, and even construction of pier 
bridges can cause subtle changes in water movement that can change 
the balance of environmental conditions in an estuarine system and 
result in ^adual undesirable changes in the ecosystem in addition to 
direct habitat damage. 

SOURCES OF POLLUTION 

Nearly all of man's activities can result in environmental degrada- 
tion. Pollutants and polluting conditions are very rarely unique to a 
particular use or specific activitv, but ma^ result from man's existence 
in the estuarine zone as well as his use of it. The major sources of pol- 
lution are these : 

(1) Those sources associated with the extent of development 
of the estuarine zone, including waste discharges from munici- 
palities and industries, and land runoff from these as well as 
agriculture ; 

(2) Those sources associated with particular activities of great 
pollutional si^ificance, specifically^ dredging and filling, water- 
craft operation, underwater mining, and heated effluent 
discharges ; 

(3) External sources having impact derived through flow regu- 
lation and upstream water quality. 

Over 8 billion gallons of tnurdcipal wastes are discharged daily into 
the waters of the estuarine zone. While most of this volume is domestic 
sewage, many municipal waste discharges also contain si^ificant 
amounts of industrial wastes, which may add to the variability and 
complexity of the wastes discharged. Municipal waste discharges have 
four important effects on receiving water quality : depletion of dis- 
solved oxygen, and introduction of pathogenic organisms, settleable 
material, and inorganic nutrients. 

Sewage treatment reduces and alters the impact of municipal waste 
on the environment. Primary treatment with chlorination will remove 
part of the decomposable organic material, nearly all of the settleable 
and suspended solids, and almost eliminate the possibility of pathogens 
in the effluent. Secondary treatment can almost eliminate decompos- 
able organic material, and some special processes can eliminate certain 
kinds of dissolved salts. About one-half the municipal wastes dis- 
charged to estuarine waters receive secondary treatment, with the 



m 

most extensive use of secondary treatment being in the Chesapeake 
Bay estuarine rejgion. 

Associated with the major metropolitan developments are large 
numbers of industrial complexes with their attendant waste products. 
Many of these industrial wastes, especially from the chemical indus- 
try, are of such a complicated nature that it is difficult both to identify 
them and to assess their effects on the receiving streams. Only 4,000 
of the more than 200,000 manufacturing plants in the coastal States 
account for 97 percent of the total liquid wastes discharged. Of the 
nearly 22 billion gallons of industrial wastes discharged only 29 per- 
cent receive any kind of waste treatment. 

Intensification of use of the estuarine zone has resulted in many 
artificial changes being made in the physical structure. Shoreline 
areas have been filled to create more land area for residential and 
commercial use ; channels have been dredged and maintained to permit 
safer and better navigation ; and harbor facilities have been dredged 
and bridges and causeways have been built. All of this activity has 
had impact on the coastal zone ecosystem, but the activities having 
the most impact on water quality are dredging and filling. The 
potential for pollution of the system exists in both filling and dredg- 
ing; both can introduce foreign materials into the water, destroy 
aquatic habitat, and alter physical circulation patterns. 

The primary source of thermal pollution is from industrial cooling 
water effluents. Powerplants are the major users of cooling water in 
the estuarine zone, and power generation capacity has approximately 
doubled each decade during tMs century. The impact of this growth 
on the estuarine areas is evidenced by the fact that, in 1950, 22 per- 
cent of the powerplants were in the coastal zone ; it is anticipated 
that over 30 percent of the plants will be located there in the late 1970's. 

Estuarine areas are also very important highways of commerce, 
and thousands of commercial vessels, foreign and domestic, from 
ocean liners to barges, traverse the coastal waterways each year. Added 
to this are many of the 1,500 Federal vessels and many nearly 8 
million recreational vessels. All of these watercraft carry people 
and/or cargo, and are a real or potential pollution source. 

Mining from the estuary floor causes alteration of the estuarine 
shape and water circulation characteristics, with a secondary effect 
being the turbidity problems associated with material removal. Min- 
ing of sand and gravel from the estuarine floor are universal while 
oyster shell dredging in any great quantity is restricted to the Gulf 
Coast. These operations remove part of the estuarine floor with a con- 
comitant destruction of habitat and life. There are also great amounts 
of suspended and settleable solids frequently released into the water, 
from which they are redeposited in other places. 

The water quality of estuarine areas is dependent not only on direct 
waste sources but also on the quality of the in-flowing streams and 
runoff entering the system. Tributary influent quality is generally 
a good index of the type and intensity of land use surrounding and 
upstream from estuarine systems, and can be a major cause of ecologi- 
cal stress within the system. The complex interactions between fresh 
and salt water may magnify the effects of pollutants carried into the 
tidal regime, resulting m quality anomalies completely alien to either 
fresh or oceanic environments. 



34 



EXTENT OF POLLUTION EFFECTS 



Enviromnental damage from human activities manifests itself in 
changes in water quality and in changes in the living communities. 
Either or both may be caused by any of the kinds of pollution or 
sources of pollution mentioned earlier. One key to the degree of envi- 
ronmental impact is measurement of alteration in water quality. 
Extensive data have been collected on a few of the estuaries with the 
most severe problems, and limited information is available on other 
estuarine systems to outline the emergence, or document the existence, 
of water quality problems. 

Examples of estuarine systems that show definite documented water 
quality degradation as a result of human activities are these : Penob- 
scot Bay, Boston Harbor, Moriches Bay, New York Harbor, Earitan 
Bay, Delaware Estuary, Baltimore Harbor, Potomac River, James 
River, Charleston Harbor, Savannah River, Biscayne Bay, San Juan 
Harbor (P.R.), Tampa Bay, Pensacola Bay, Mississippi River, Gal- 
veston Bay, Laguna Madre, San Diego Bay, Los Angeles Harbor, 
San Francisco Bay, Columbia River, Puget Sound, Silver Bay 
(Alaska), and Hilo Harbor (Hawaii). 

PoUutional damage to estuarine ecosystems may be sudden and 
dramatic as fish or other aquatic life forms suddenly dying, or it may 
be so gradual as not to be noticed for many years. Many studies of 
different aspects of estuarine biology have been made, but there are 
only a few cases in which comprehensive ecological studies have been 
made of pollutional effects. 

All of the 25 estuarine systems listed above also show some eco- 
logical damage, but in 38 percent of the estuarine systems of the 
United States there is not sufficent information to decide whether there 
is no ecological damage, or whether there is just no easily identifiable 
pollution problem present. 

The complex nature of pollution in the estuarine zone prevents the 
separation of sources of pollution, kinds of pollution, and types of 
environmental damage into neat compartments of cause and effect. 
All of human activities in the estuarine zone can damage the environ- 
ment and most of them do. 

Wherever people live, work, and play in the estuarine zone the 
demands of their social and ecomonic activities place stresses on the 
biophysical environment. These stresses frequently result in degrada- 
tion of the environment, perhaps not immediately or even in a few 
years, but nonetheless certain in its devasting final impact. 

Use Conflicts and Damages: Man's Battle With Himself and 

Nature 

The consequence of damage to the biophysical environment is loss 
of use either immediately or at some time in the future. Loss of use, 
however, may also be associated with the appropriation of part of the 
estuarine resource for one exclusive use even when no damage to the 
environment itself occurs. 

Institutional management must cope with the problems of respon- 
sibility and authority in achieving maximum multiple use of the 
estuarine resource. Within this comprehensive framework technical 
management must resolve the problems surrounding conflicts of use, 



35 

competition for the resources of the estuarine zone, and environmental 
damage. The primary objective of technical management is to achieve 
the best possible combination of uses to serve the needs of society while 
protecting, preserving, and enhancing the biophysical environment 
for the continuing benefit of present and future generations. 

The uses of the estuarine zone grew and changed in consonance with 
population growth and industrial development. Not until recent years 
was a concerted attempt made to understand and resolve the conflicts 
that arose in the competition to use and exploit these land and water 
resources. During the past 300 years of growth and industrial expan- 
sion with its emphasis on economic growth and direct monetary gain, 
large parts of the estuarine zone were preempted or usurped to serve 
the individual needs of commercial enterprises. The net result has been 
less a conflict in existing uses than an exclusion of some uses. 

Nearly all estuarine uses involve both land and water, either directly 
or indirectly. For example, the construction of a manufacturing plant 
on the shore of an estuarine system may not involve any direct use of 
the water (even for waste disposal), yet it limits access by its occupa- 
tion of the shoreline and so may interfere with other uses. Conversely, 
the disposal of liquid wastes into the water may not use any appreci- 
able space but may make the shoreline unusable for recreation as well 
as making the water itself unsafe. 

The impact of one estuarine use on another may be either "prohibi- 
tive" or "restrictive" depending on the kind of use and sometimes on 
the manner in which it is carried out. 

Prohibitive impacts involve permanent changes in the environment 
and thereby prohibit all uses unable to cope with such changes. The 
geographical range of such impacts may be from the limited area in 
which they occur to an entire estuarine system, depending on the 
nature and size of the change. The impact may be temporary, if it is 
possible to return the environment to its original form, or it may be 
permanent. 

Any use or activity requiring physical modification of the shore- 
line, marshes, or bottom of an estuarine system may have a prohibitive 
impact. Modification of water circulation also tends to be prohibitive 
when it has any conflicting impact. Examples of estuarine uses and 
activities generally having prohibitive impacts are navigation dredg- 
ing, other dredging and filling, solid waste disposal, construction of 
bridges, dikes, jetties, and other structures, shoreline development, 
mining from the estuarine bottom, and flow regulation. 

Some estuarine uses may restrict estuarine use for other purposes 
but do not automatically exclude other uses. These are those activities 
which do not require a permanent modification of the estuarine sys- 
tem; they generally include those uses directly involved with the es- 
tuarine waters and other renewable resources. 

Restrictive impacts may involve damage to water quality, living 
organisms, or aesthetic quality ; such impacts may also result from the 
exclusive appropriation of space. The key feature of uses which cause 
restrictive impacts is that they may, with proper management, be 
carried out simultaneously with other uses. 

Any kind of municipal or industrial waste discharge may have a 
restrictive impact and often does. Commercial fishing, recreation, and 



36 

water supply are the major uses restricted by pollution from liquid 
waste discharges. 

Some kinds of commercial fishing require the use of trawls or the 
setting of traps or nets that must be left for some time. The use of 
such devices restricts other uses while the devices are in place, but 
there is no permanent appropriation of estuarine waters or space. 
The major conflict is with recreation in that recreational boating must 
be excluded from areas where fishing gear is near the surface. 

Where there is conflict, the scene is set for trade-off, i.e., a willing 
substitution of one activity for another. The scene is equally set for un- 
compensated damage where one user group precludes the activities of a 
second unrelated user group but does not reimburse them for damage. 
Actual documented examples of use damages are difficult to find. One 
major reason is the basic fact that has permeated much of the discus- 
sion of economic and social values: many estuarine values are not 
quantifiable. While damages to a commercial enterprise, sucJh as com- 
mercial fishing, can be quantified in terms of the economic loss, the 
essentially intangible values of recreation and estuarine habitat are 
difficult to measure. 

Recreational loss would have to be measured in terms of how many 
people donH swim or go boating in the Potomac River because it is pol- 
luted. It is far easier to find out how many people do go there even if it 
is polluted ; even these values are hard to find. 

The value of estuarine habitat is just as difficult to establish. There 
are now about 5.5 million acres of important estuarine marsh and wet- 
land habitat remaining in the estuarine zone of the United States. 
Perhaps each acre is not valuable by itself, but the total habitat is 
irreplaceable. 

Use damage is not a necessary feature of civilization in the estuarine 
zone, but use conflicts will continue to exist as more and more demands 
are made on the natural environment. The ability of any management 
authority to prevent use damage and to resolve use conflicts depends 
not only upon its institutional composition and legal authority, but 
also upon the social, economic, and biophysical characteristics of the 
estuarine management unit within which its authority is exercised. 

The analyses of social and economic values of the estuarine zone 
examined concurrently with the similar analyses of use conflicts, pol- 
lutional effects, and use damages form the basis for resolving use con- 
flicts through the application of technical knowledge, i.e., technical 
management. 

The primary objective of technical management is to accommodate 
the needed and desired uses of any estuarine management unit within 
that system without overall damage to the biophysical environment. 
The ability to achieve this objective depends on the boundaries of the 
management unit and upon the means available for resolving both 
prohibitive use conflicts and restrictive use conflicts. 

The impact of the social and economic requirements of civilization 
on the natural estuarine environment is the technical problem with 
which management must deal, and effective control of this impact can 
be maintained only if both the major sources of damage and the geo- 
graphic range of their influence are subject to unified control. 

An estuarine management unit, therefore, should consist not only of 
the estuarine waters, bottoms, and associated marshlands ; but it should 



a? 

also include all the shoreline surrounding the estuarine waters them- 
selves and as much of the adjoining land as is necessary to regulate the 
discharge of wastes into estuarine waters. 

Allocation of part of the estuarine resource for an exclusive single- 
purpose use is a necessary fact of estuarine management. The shoreline 
IS a necessary location for shipping docks and for swimming beaches, 
but they cannot both occupy the same place on the shoreline. Similarly, 
frequently dredged channels and oyster beds cannot occupy the same 
space at the same time. Resolution of such conflicts can be achieved by 
allocation of adequate space to each use through whatever institutional 
mechanism is established. 

The evaluation of the ejffeots of prohibitive uses on the estuarine en- 
vironment is probably the most difficult problem currently facing 
technical management. The immediate and obvious effects of the habi- 
tat loss associated with such uses can be measured and described fairly 
easily, but the ultimate results of the modification of water movement 
patterns and flushing characteristics can only be estimated in general 
terms. 

In nearly every problem associated with prohibitive use conflicts, 
however, the area of primary concern is the effect on the estuarine 
ecosystem of any physical modifications proposed; the limitations of 
knowledge mentioned above, therefore, present a critical problem in 
present efforts to resolve prohibitive use conflicts. 

A more difficult problem arises where there is involved a massive 
dredge or fill operation with its concomitant immediate effect on the 
ecosystem. When such modifications are a necessary or desirable de- 
velopment of the environment it may be necessary to forego the habitat 
use ; however, in many cases it may be possible to create niaw, equivalent 
habitat in a different part of the management unit, or it might be pos- 
sible to restore part of the damaged environment. 

While the resolution of prohibitive use conflicts requires the aban- 
doning of one use in favor of another, the potential for carrying out 
any modifications necessary so as to increase habitat value as well as 
economic value should be a key factor in the resolution of such 
problems. 

Disposal of liquid wastes to the estuarine environment is the major 
restrictive use impact of the socioeconomic environment. This use con- 
flict can be resolved completely either by treating all wastes to such an 
extent that they do not interfere with any other uses or else removing 
them entirely from the environment. 

Technology exists to provide thorough treatment for nearly every 
kind of municipal and industrial waste, and there is no reason not to 
provide treatment sufficient to protect the environment from damage 
and to permit other uses. Treatment requirements for different wastes 
may vary from place to place according to local conditions, but dam- 
age to the environment and restriction of other uses can be prevented. 

Water quality standards have been set and are now being imple- 
mented in all the coastal States. These standards are the foundation 
upon which the effective control of estuarine pollution rests, and they 
provide the framework within which technical management can ef- 
fectively operate. 

Estuarine waters even in busy harbors are used for recreational pur- 
poses by those who cannot afford to go elsewhere, regardless of whether 



the waters are safe for body contact or not. Also the role of the estu- 
arine zone as a nursery for some fish, passage for others, and a resi- 
dence for still more is readily apparent although its full implications 
in the energy conversion chain are not understood. For these reasons 
the long-range achievable water quality goal of estuarine manage- 
ment should be to keep all waters safe for direct contact by humans and 
also usable as a fish and wildlife habitat. 

Management and Knowledge 

A great deal of technical and socioeconomic knowledge is necessary 
to support a comprehensive program of estuarine management. This 
knowledge must be supplied through multidisciplinary efforts. The 
knowledge thus developed must include: (1) Knowledge and under- 
standing of the biological, physical, and chemical factors of the estua- 
rine zone, (2) knowledge of the institutional framework governing 
each portion of the estuarine zone, (3) knowledge of the demographic, 
social, and economic factors and their trends, (4) establishment of 
goals and uses so that future studies can be relevantly oriented, and 
(5) an augmentation and synthesis of all this knowledge. 

The available pertinent information on these subjects has been 
gathered, organized, and coordinated into the National Estuarine In- 
ventory. This compilation revealed many areas in which information is 
poor or is lacking; some can be obtained by^ careful, routine monitor- 
mg of the estuarine environment. The acquisition of other knowledge 
requires an integrated, multidisciplinary research and study program. 

The most important knowledge to be gained is an understanding of 
the estuarine environment adequate to permit the recognition and 
interpretation of interrelatonships which, in turn, provides the capa- 
bility to predict the effects of natural and human activities in the estu- 
arine zone. The research and study programs which will yield this 
information are in the categories of : 

(1) Ecology, taken to include base line information, broad 
ecological studies, biology, water quality, natural variability, and 
interface factors. 

(2) Toxicity, taken to include bioassay needs and methodology, 
sublethal effects, and mortality phenomena. 

(3) Microbiology, taken to include the regeneration of plant 
nutrients, biodegradation of organic wastes, eutrophication, and 
pathogens. 

(4) Physics and mathematics, taken to include hydraulics, sedi- 
mentation, effects of structures and physical modifications, and 
physical and mathematical modeling. 

(5) Planning, taken to include economics, law, social and de- 
mographic factors and trends, resource evaluation and allocation, 
and the role of technical research and study in supporting a com- 
prehensive management program. 

(6) Needs of researchers, taken to include environmental mod- 
eling, methodology (both laboratory and field techniques), data 
processing, training needs, and estuarine zone laboratories. 

The various agencies and institutions working in estuaries should 
coordinate their activities; results of research should be widely dis- 



39 

seminated. The national program for estaiarine study should be devel- 
oped with strong regional emphasis based on ecology, geography, 
and a commonality of problems and objectives. Planning for estuarine 
use and development must be based on broad public benefits rather 
than narrow private interests. A system of criteria by which to gauge 
estuarine quality is necessary. Key management roles require ade- 
quately trained people in ecology, engineering, economics, planning, 
and law. Finally, the public must be informed of its stake in the 
estuary. 

The Federal and State roles in estuarine monitoring, research, and 
study should be a joint one with their respective actions complemen- 
tary. The State role is basically to manage its estuarine and coastal 
zone resources, coordinate the research activities of its appropriate 
agencies and institutions, and to augment and encourage the develop- 
ment of new knowledge applicable to its estuaries and coastal area. 
The Federal role, a residual one, is primarily to assist the States 
through such means as : grants to States and to academic institutions, 
organizations, and individuals to support needed investigations ; per- 
form broad studies not of a local nature ; participate in State and local 
studies; coordinate Federal estaurine and coastal zone research and 
study activities ; and organize and coordinate its laboratory resources 
so as to cooperate with and assist States, localities, and academic insti- 
tutions supporting and using research in the estuarine and coastal 
zones. 

CoNCLTJSioisrs 

The ever-increasing and often conflicting social and economic 
demands of modern human civilization are placing significant pres- 
sures on the limited estuarine resources of the United States. The 
delicately balanced natural ecology of the estuarine zone has been sub- 
jected to over 300 years of exploitation and alteration; objective 
analysis of the results of this use and misuse shows that positive action 
is needed now to preserve, conserve, and enhance the finite resources of 
the coastal zone. 

Natural estuarine ecosystems are communities of living organisms 
existing in reasonably delicate balances determined by definable but 
poorly understood external environmental conditions. These systems 
exist only in the geographically and physically limited narrow inter- 
face where the land meets the sea ; where over one-third of this Nation's 
present population and industry is concentrated into 15 percent of the 
land area. 

This society uses the resources of the estuarine zone and coastal zone 
to serve not only those social and economic purposes for which the 
zone is uniquely valuable, such as recreation, fishing, and navigation, 
but also to satisfy other requirements of civilization wherever 
organized human society exists. These uses include industrial, residen- 
tial, and commercial land development, exploitation of mineral re- 
sources and fossil fuels, water supply, and a place to dispose of the 
wastes from all of these activities. The economic pressures of these 
diverse and often conflicting uses have often resulted in a preemption 
of the estuarine resources for individually profitable uses to the limita- 
tion or exclusion of other valuable, but much less quantifiable, uses. 

The natural aesthetic and habitat qualities of the estuarine and 

42-847 O — 70 4 



coastal environment enhance its value for many economic uses and also 
make it a recreational resource of great commercial, as well as social 
value. It is the value of the estuarine zone as a fish and wildlife habitat, 
a recreational resource, and an aesthetic attraction that make the 
estuarine zone a unique feature of the human environment, yet it is 
these very values that have been generally ignored in satisfying the 
immediate social and economic needs of civilization. The overall value 
of the estuarine zone for commerce, navigation, and transportation 
has been detailed in this report to the extent that definitive economic 
data are available. The values of the estuarine zone as a fish and wild- 
life habitat, as a recreational facility, and as an aesthetic experience are 
probably greater than they are for commercial exploitation but, un- 
fortunately, we have not yet developed the ability to adequately express 
these social and humanistic values in quantitative terms. 

The pressures of population growth and economic development 
associated with increasing urbanization and industrialization in the 
estuarine zone have permitted and, indeed, encouraged dredging and 
filling operations, resulting in the destruction of many valuable areas 
of estuarine marsh and wetlands. The complete and irreversible loss 
of this habitat eradicates not only the resident and transient wildfowl 
dependent upon it, but also the life support system of the bulk of the 
Nation's sport and commercial fish. True, we cannot now establish a 
direct quantifiable relationship describing the acreages of wetland, 
marsh, or estuary necessary to support our coastal fisheries, but we do 
know that this relationship does exist and that the necessary habitat 
must be protected. Activities generated by these same social and eco- 
nomic pressures have degraded estuarine waters, severely damaging 
not only the estuarine ecosystem, but also the other essential human 
uses of the estuarine resource. 

The value of the estuarine resources to the Nation lies more in the 
multiple purposes it can serve than in the economic worth of a single 
use, and it is this overriding national value which has been minimized 
or ignored. Population and economic development pressures are in- 
creasing more rapidly now than they have in the past, and continuation 
of present attitudes and approaches toward use of the estuarine and 
coastal zone can bring only an increasing rate of damage to its ecology 
and to the resources it supplies. 

Properly supported and managed research and studies to increase 
present knowledge and information can contribute greatly to effective 
technical management of the estuaries and coastal areas. 

Over and above this, though, must be added a stronger and better 
institutional environment to provide the umbrella for the integrated 
and comprehensive planning needed to convert the processes of loss 
and damage to actions leading to enhanced and broadened values. The 
program for accomplishing this is presented in Part III. 



PART III. RECOMMENDATIONS— THE PROPOSED 

PROGRAM 

Introduction 

At present, planning and development in the estuarine zone is done 
on an independent, piecemeal basis. The resultant losses to fish and 
wildlife resources, the habitat upon which they depend, and the inipact 
on recreational, scenic, esthetic qualities, and water quality itself 
appear to be proceeding at an increasingly rapid rate. Whole sectors 
of the public object, but economic and political pressures, particularly 
at the local level, seem to win out and the irreparable damages to 
estuarine and coastal regions continue. 

It is thus evident that a higher order of planning and evalution is 
needed. The planning must be both integrated and comprehensive and 
in the concurrent evaluation, involve all the use of the waters and the 
adjacent lands. The impact on the total environment must be con-' 
sidered and be paramount to single-purpose aspects. 

It is the purpose of this part of the study to recommend the progi-am 
that will provide for the necessary planning and its implementation 
at the various levels of government. Tliis was directed in the words of 
Congress as follows : 

Recommendations for a comprehensive national program for the preservation, 
study, use, and development of estuaries of the Nation, and the respective 
responsibilities which should be assumed by Federal, State, and local govern- 
ments and by public and private interests. 

As the study proceeded it was determined quite early that the direct 
relationship of the coastal areas to the estuaries made it impractical 
to attempt to consider them separately. This was true because of their 
close proximity, their continuous influence upon each other, and be- 
cause both are affected by the same economic and social pressures; thus 
the recommendations that follow apply equally to the estuarine areas 
proper and to the entire coastal zone, that overall area where the con- 
tinent and the islands meet the sea. 

A comprehensive program for the management of the estuarine and 
coastal zones of the Nation, must have as its primary concern the in- 
stitutional environment, that is, the framework which includes the 
forms of law, political institutions, and organizational mechanisms, 
that man must use to provide himself the capability to control, de- 
velop, and use these zones. Once this framework is established it be- 
comes more easily possible to conduct activities designed to improve 
the biophysical environment and the socioeconomic environment. 

What is proposed is a program that recognizes the primary re- 
sponsibilities of the States in a management program for their estua- 
rine and coastal areas, and on the Federal side provides for the co- 
ordination of Federal activities in these areas and for assistance to the 
States in their management activities. 

(41) 



42 

Any comprehensive national program for the estuarine and coastal 
zones must provide flexibility in many ways to fit regional and local 
conditions and situations, but regardless of variables it must establish 
a guiding policy and a set of objectives. Regardless of variables, in 
order to be effective the program must provide for: (1) planning and 
implementation; (2) active administration in terms of regulation, 
control, coordination, and financing; and (3) the development of the 
knowledge and data necessary as a basis for all action. 

This report does not recommend any particular type of organization 
at the State level but only what it must accomplish. The particular 
organization, it is felt, will vary to fit the situation. Also, there is 
awareness that some States have established estuarine and coastal 
management programs and that others have them in the planning 
stage. These programs, where known, have been studied, and their 
ideas included herein. 

The Elements of a OoMPKEHENsrvE National Program 

It follows, therefore, that any program of management must contain 
at least the following elements : 

(1) Mutually agreed-upon policy, objectives, and functions. 

(2) Le^slative authorization to carry out the program's func- 
tional activities. 

(3) Development of the basic knowledge necessary for effective 
management. 

(4) Provisions for planning and implementation. 

(5) Active administration m terms of regulation, control, and 
coordination. 

(6) Financial and manpower resources. 

(7) Public awareness and acceptance. 

The mutually agreed-upon policy and objectives are the basis and 
the reason for this study, and is described below, as a national 'policy, 
not a Federfd policy. 

The remaining elements are contained in the roles and recommended 
responsibilities to be assumed at the various levels of government. For 
most activities required, there is a continuous series of concurrent 
Federal, State, and local jurisdictions. This is present now under cur- 
rent law, and it must be assumed that the situation will continue to 
exist, as many functions must be carried out at each level of govern- 
ment. There is also that essential element of public awareness, the 
nongovernmental public and private interests, whose support of a 
national program through political and social processes can bring 
much progress toward better management. 

It must be kept in mind that the importance of the estuarine and 
coastal areas is not limited to the coastal States and communities. The 
economic, social, and environmental use and well-being of the estua- 
rine and coastal zones of the Nation are of vital interest to the inland 
States as well. It is for these reasons that there must be a national 
program that gives adequate consideration to this breadth of interest 
and which embraces well-defined roles for the Federal, State, and 
local levels of government as well as for public and private interests. 

Any recommended national policy must reflect the fact that there is 



43 

strong national interest in the effective management and protection 
of the estuarine and coastal zone for the following reasons : 

(1) The pressui'^es of population growth and economic develop- 
ment, including requirements for industrial, commercial, resi- 
dential development, recreation, exploitation of mineral resources 
and fossil fuels, transportation and other navigation, waste dis- 
posal, and exploitation of fish and other living marine resources, 
impose an increasing number of conflicting demands upon the 
finite resources of the coastal zone. 

(2) Estuaries, marshlands, and other parts of the coastal zone 
contain extremely valuable habitat for fish and wildlife which 
move beyond State boundaries; such areas are vital to the life 
support of a major part of the Nation's commercial and sport 
fisheries harvest ; such areas, particularly the estuaries, constitute 
ecological systems which are susceptible to destruction and dis- 
ruption by man. 

(3) Continued unplanned or uncoordinated development ac- 
tivities in the coastal zone pose an immediate threat of irreversible 
harm to the coastal zone and its resources and a loss of the benefits 
it offers. 

(4) The coastal zone is a valuable area for multiple economic, 
recreational, and resource uses. 

(5) The interest in the coastal zone extends to the citizens of all 
the States, and is not limited to the citizens in the coastal States. 

POLICY AND OBJECTIVES OF A COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL ESTUARINE AND 
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM 

The Recommended NatiorwiL Policy 

Achievement of the best use of the values of the estuarine and coastal 
zones through a balance between: (a) multipurpose development; (b) 
conservation ; and (c) preservation over both the short and long range. 
Priority consideration should be given to those resources that are non- 
renewable and to maintaining those resources and uses which are 
estuarine-dependent. It shall also recognize that the primary responsi- 
bility for management of the estuarine and coastal zones rests with 
the States. 

This recommended national policy recognizes the vital need in pres- 
ent and future programs to: 

Encourage urban and industrial growth and the resulting land 
use in a manner to preserve the maximum of the estuarine and 
coastal zone resources and to insure the greatest number of bene- 
ficial uses. 

Recognize that estuarine-dependent land uses require preference 
and that some uses such as residential and some industrial uses 
do not need shoreline locations. 

Conserve the estuarine and coastal environment to sustain and 
enhance its nursery value, its wildlife habitat value, and its com- 
mercial fisheries value. 

Develop and make accessible the many forms of outdoor recrea- 
tion and the aesthetic values offered by the estuaries and coastal 
areas. 

Reduce to an acceptable minimum the adverse effect of man's 



44 

use of the estuaries and coastal areas and accept preservation as 
one means of reasonably guarantying the opportunity to exercise 
future options. 
The recommended national policy will put in effect a comprehensive 
national program for the effective management, beneficial use, protec- 
tion, and development of the estuarine and coastal zone of the Nation 
involving Federal, State, and local governments, and public and pri- 
vate interests in an appropriate manner. It will permit the optimum 
use of this vital resource by recognizing the existence of competing 
uses and accommodating them through appropriate management and, 
further, conserve these resources in such a manner as to keep open the 
options for various uses in the future and not foreclose them. This 
management system will recognize the primary and constitutional role 
of the States in managing their resources as well as the role of the 
Federal Government in protecting the wider national interest. The 
principal goal of the national program is the use of the estuarine and 
coastal zone for as many teneficial purposes as possible and, where 
some uses are precluded, to achieve that mix of uses which society, 
based on both short- and long-range considerations, deems most 
beneficial. 

The Objectpves of a National Program of Management 

Without attempting to assign responsibilities of functions to the 
various levels of government at this point, the objectives of a compre- 
hensive management plan are listed below. These objectives also con- 
stitute a reasonably thorough set of guidelines for an acceptable man- 
agement plan. 

(1) Equitable consideration in management decisions of the views 
of all public and private interests concerned with the use and preser- 
vation of estuarine and coastal resources. 

(2) Adequate planning, that is, the preparation and adoption by 
the appropriate government, of plans governing the balanced develop- 
ment, conservation, and preservation of coastal and estuarine resources. 
Elements of such a plan may vary but ordinarily should include de- 
terminations of immediate and long-range needs and objectives, water 
quality standards, zoning of land use, and any public or private fa- 
cilities, sites, et cetera. "What is needed is the construction of an op- 
timum resource utilization profile for each estuary and coastal area 
based on an objective means of value identification and appraisal. 
Specific uses for various parts of an estuary or coastal area must be 
determined and comparative values placed on these uses in terms of 
the accepted national policy. Specific uses are : 

Industrial and commercial location and use ; 

Recreation and scenic enjoyment ; 

Preservation of fish and wildlife and their habitat ; 

Residential — both urban and suburban development; 

The exploitation of mineral resources including oil, gas, sulfur, 
sand and gravel, and others ; 

Generation of electrical power ; 

Water supply ; 

Exploitation of living resources including fish, shellfish, other 
wildlife, and the pursuit of aquaculture ; 



45 

Transportation ; 

National defense; 

Waste disposal ; and 

Scientific research. 
In placing a value on the above uses, consideration must be given to 
the following criteria : 

(a) Multipurpose use; 

(h) Preservation of the estuarine habitat essential to living 

(c) Use for estuarine dependent activities; and 
resources ; 

{d) Conservation of nonrenewable resources. 

(3) Implementation, that is, the making and execution by govern- 
ment of decisions as to which alternative plan will achieve for all con- 
cerned the best use of the resource. The three broad forms of govern- 
mental regulation include: 

(a) The establishment and enforcement of policies controlling 
use and/or modification of estuarine and coastal resources by 
public authorities through : 

[1] Water quality and other standards, zoning of land use, 
and official use and management plans. 

[2] Permits, licenses, et cetera, governing permissible uses 
and/or modification of estuarine and coastal resources. 
(&) Promotion of established plans and policies through vari- 
ous forms of incentives and assistance. 

(c) Control of use by selected acquisition, development and/or 
administration by government itself. 

(4) Service activities to assist planning, regulation, and the use 
of estuarine and coastal resources including : 

(«) Funding, through grants, credit, subsidies, or other finan- 
cial inducements; 

(5) Technical assistance; 

(c) Research, studies, and inventories; and 

(d) Information and educational programs to improve public 
awareness and manpower development programs to provide 
trained personnel. 

(5) Participation in management by all levels of government, with 
the primary management responsibility of the States preserved and 
enhanced, and with existing management authority and programs re- 
tained where these contribute to achieving the other objectives. 

Responsibilities and Recommended Role of the States in the 
Comprehensive National Estuarine and Coastal Management 
Program 

The States, in our Federal system of government, occupy a strategic 
position in the management of the Nation's estuarine and coastal re- 
sources. As holders of residual sovereignty, they possess ample au- 
thority to manage these resources as they see fit, subject only to 
limitations imposed upon them by the Constitution, by the Congress 
acting pursuant to constitutionally authorized powers, and by their 
own constitutions. Moreover, even in those areas in which the Federal 
Government exercises exclusive or primary authority, the nature of 
our political process gives State officials substantial power to influence 
the objectives and exercise of Federal policies. 



46 

The strategic State position is also a direct result of the on-scene 
nature of the State function — the interface between the forces of 
politics, business, and people and their respective ambitions for put- 
ting to use the storehouse of available estuarine and coastal resources. 
It IS in the State Capitols that many of the major decisions will be 
made that will determine the success of a national estuarine and coastal 
management program. 

THE STATE RESPONSIBILITIES 

Seven aspects of the States' possession of this residual sovereignty 
which relate more specifically to the management of estuarine and 
coastal resources, help underscore the States' strategic and primary 
responsibility. First, although the Federal role has expanded in recent 
years, the States retain primary authority and responsibility for the 
prevention and control of water pollution. Second, they hold title to 
wholly or partially submerged lands and mineral resources in the 
estuarine and coastal zone and are responsible for administering these, 
through retention by the State or through their disposal or lease, in 
the public interest. Third, the States possess primary authority to 
decide, either directly or through their local subdivisions, how the 
shoreline and related uplands in the estuarine and coastal zones are 
to be used for various purposes, that is, trade and commerce, industry, 
parks, recreation, et cetera. Fourth, the authority of local govern- 
ments generally in managing the water and land resources in estuaries 
is determined by the States. Fifth, the exploitation of the fisheries and 
other living estuarine and coastal resources is under State control to 
the seaward boundary of U.S. territorial seas. Sixth, the nature and 
forms of interstate cooperation in managing the Nation's estuaries is 
a matter which the States largely decide. And, finally, each State 
presides over the common law which governs private relations in the 
development and use of estuarine and coastal resources, and resolves 
the conflicting rights, interests, and privileges of its citizens in using 
these resources. 

THE RECOMMENDED STATE ROLE 

Clearly, therefore, it is upon the States that the Nation must place 
its major reliance in achieving that reasonable compromise between 
private rights and expectations, on the one hand, and the collective or 
public interest, on the other. It is also upon the States that the Nation 
must rely primarily for the integration of Federal service functions 
into State programs and, even more important, for the development 
of suggested reconciliations where the regulatory or service programs 
of dili'erent Federal agencies in a specific estuary are in conflict, rhese 
are the heart of this study's recommendations for sound management 
of the estuarine and coastal resources. 

Responsibilities inherent in this strategic and primary role of the 
States in improving management of the Nation's coastal resources are 
both immediate and of a more long-range nature. The immediate role 
to be played by the States includes : 

(1) Vigorous implementation of water quality standards es- 
tablished for each State's estuarine and coastal waters. 

(2) Maximum use of the States' available existing authority 



47 

to halt or minimize further undesirable physical modification of 
estuaries through dredging, filling, and drainage. 

(3) Immediately establishing and maintaining, if presently 
lacking, effective interstate, interagency, and State-local coordina- 
tion of estuarine and coastal management pro-ams. 

(4) Conducting an early evaluation of the impact on the estu- 
aries as a result of upstream water and related land resource de- 
velopment and the occurrence and growth of upstream waste 
discharges, taking into account the interstate nature of particular 
interstate streams. 

(5) Making an immediate review of the jurisdictional relation- 
ship between the States and the subordinate units of government 
in matters dealing with the establishment and enforcement of 
land-use plans, and the importance of the relationship between 
land use and the quality of the estuarine and coastal environments. 

(6) Undertaking a thorough review of the present estuarine 
and coastal management capabilities of the State and its sub- 
ordinate governmental units for the purpose of identifying steps 
needed to strengthen the State's long-range management 
effectiveness. 

(7) Formulating and putting into operation a comprehensive 
statewide program for the management of its estuarine and 
coastal resources. 

Recx)mmendations for New State Programs and Organizations 

Effective discharge by the States of the all-important role which 
they occupy in achieving comprehensive and sound management of 
estuarine and coastal resources will in many instances re<juire legisla- 
tion establishing new management authority and organization. 

The exact form such new authority and organization should take 
may well vary from State to State. Each State's action in this regard 
will, as it should, reflect its own special political and governmental 
traditions, the present organization of the State government, and the 
current division of authority and responsibility between the State and 
its local governmental units. Moreover, the estuaries themselves vary 
in their nature and the uses for which each is most suited, the degree 
to which the estuarine and coastal zone has been developed for various 
purposes, and the dimensions and complexity of their management 
problems. These differences, too, suggest that, as they seek more ef- 
fectively to manage estuarine and coastal resources, the response from 
the States need not, and should not, be rigidly uniform. 

Indeed the innovations and experiments which the States' responses 
can be expected to produce are regarded as a positive good and are 
therefore encouraged. The recommendations which follow should be 
viewed in that light and also as reflecting and drawing upon the sig- 
nificant improvements which some States already have instituted m 
their estuarine and coastal management programs. 

It is recommended that each 8tate^ if it has not dheaxiy done so, 
take action along the following lines to improve its estuarme and 
coastal management capability and effectiveness: 

(1) There is a primary need to provide organizational arrange- 
ments in the State governmental structure with the authority and 



48 

resources to administer State-level estuarine and coastal manage- 
ment functions, or, alternatively, to coordinate State-level man- 
agement activities in the estuaries, including State-local, 
interstate, and State-Federal relations. Such organizational ar- 
rangements should be facilitated by the proposed new program 
of Federal grants (outlined under "Federal Kole") for the admin- 
istration of the State estuarine and coastal management programs. 
The State should coordinate its own programs with the appropri- 
ate part of Federal programs. 

(2) Improve the States' long-range management capability 
through such other measures as : 

(a) Preparation of an official use and management plan 
for each of the States estuaries and coastal zones, either by 
the State or by general or special purpose subdivisions with 
State participation and assistance and through the use of 
public hearings at critical stages in the development process. 
This plan should be appropriately coordinated with Federal 
agencies, State agencies, local governments, and other inter- 
ests; and with plans for managing the land and water re- 
sources in the estuary's tributary streams, metropolitan 
area plans, economic development plans, and so forth. 

(5) Instituting State-level permit requirements for dredg- 
ing, filling, or other modification of wetlands and other estu- 
arine and coastal resources in areas not subject to exclusive 
Federal regulation. 

(c) Requiring all State and local agencies engaged in ac- 
tivities which may physically or otherwise modify estuarine 
or coastal resources, either directly or through issuance of 
permits, licenses, leases, and so forth, to comply with the 
approved use and management plan for the estuary in ques- 
tion. In the absence of such plan, the agency should be re- 
quired to: 

[1] Give notice of the intended action and hold a pub- 
lic hearing before acting, if another governmental agency 
gives notice that a substantial adverse effect on estuarine 
or coastal resources or their use is a likely result. 

[2] Minimize adverse effects on estuarine and coastal 
resources and their use. Provisions for such requirements 
also should authorize denial of such permits, licenses, 
and so forth, based the possibility of such adverse effects. 

(d) Where necessary, initiate legislative and judicial pro- 
ceedings to resolve problems in establishing the States title 
to tidal lands, wetlands, and so forth, and in regulating use of 
estuarine and coastal lands under private ownership. 

(e) Strengthening selective land acquisition and develop- 
ment programs for recreation and conservation purposes. 

(f) Instituting State-level authority to review land use, 
zoning, and other action by local governments and to veto if 
inconsistent with the State-adopted management plan for 
that estuary. 

(g) Augmented funding of all components of the States 
comprehensive management programs. 



4d 

(h) Developing interstate agreements for the conduct of 
joint or coordinated planning or other management functions 
m interstate estuaries. 

(^) Establishing appropriaite intrastate regional mana^- 
agement organizations or special districts to provide effective 
local implementation of the use and management plans for 
intrastate estuarine and coastal zones. 

(j) Authorizing local governments to exercise tax policies 
designed to facilitate the preservation of estuarine and 
coastal sites which should be preserved and used in their 
natural state. 

Responsibilities and Recommended Role of Local Government in 
THE Comprehensive Estuarine and Coastal Management 
Program 

The local governments of this coimtry are subdivisions of the States 
and are created by the States for a wide variety of purposes. These 
purposes may range from specific functions such as water supply, 
sewage collection and treatment, port development and operation, etc., 
to general-purpose units of government such as counties, cities, and 
towns. 

responsibilities of local government 

It is with the general purpose units of government that the responsi- 
bility rests for many of the day-to-day decisions that have impact on 
the quality of the estuarine and coastal environment. The responsi- 
bility to control the character and location of shoreline developments 
through land use planning and zoning and the enforcement of zoning 
requirements resides with the local governments. The responsibility 
to control waste discharges and land drainage exists largely with 
local governments. The interface between people and government 
takes place largely at the local level. Because of these responsibilities 
and relationships it is important that we be aware of the extent to 
which the local governments have been effective in influencing the bal- 
ance between the destruction or misuse of the ^tuarine and coastal 
resources, and the development of plans for their effective comprehen- 
sive management. For the most part local governments have not made 
a significant contribution toward bringing about balanced use of the 
estuaries and their related land resources. 

While the States have retained control of the uses of estuarine 
waters, local governments have been delegated the prime responsi- 
bility for managing the adjacent land areas, which in many cases 
has included much of the marsh and wetland resources. The local 
governments, inadequately staffed and frequently too small to encom- 
pass an entire estuarine or coastal area, laxiking funds and receiving 
little guidance, coordination, and supervision from the States, often 
have been subjected to severe economic and policital pressures to pro- 
ceed with unplanned or limited purpose development without an ade- 
quate appraisal of the long-range adverse impacts on the estuarine 
and coastal environment. As a result all too many valuable estuarine 
and coastal resources continue to be destroyed or greatly diminished 
in their usefulness. 



50 

THE RECOMMENDED ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

Despite this rather unhappy picture, the role of local government in 
the management of the estuarine and coastal zones is a crucial one 
because it is "on scene" and directly concerned with the people, indus- 
try, the land, and water. 

This singularly important role in estuarine and coastal management 
includes such things as waste collection, treatment and disposal, land 
use planning and control, and the development of estuarine and coastal 
areas for commerce, transportation, recreation, et cetera. It also in- 
cludes the development of support for regional programs for estuarine 
and coastal management and the crucial function of explaining to its 
citizenry the importance and impact of local governmental activities 
upon estuarine and coastal resources and their use. 

With increased attention to coordinated planning of the estuarine 
zone and its related land resources and with increased assistance and 
improved supervision from the State level much more can be accom- 
plished at the local level of government. As this takes place there 
should be an expanded and increasingly effective role for the local 
government to play. 

This expanded role should pr&vide for : 

(1) Improvement in the collection, treatment, and disposal 
of wastes. 

(2) Development of local laws and ordinances for estuarine 
and coastal zone preservation and management, including control 
over shoreline construction activities. 

'3) Effective enforcement of local laws and regulations. 

^4) Comprehensive surveys of ownership, land claims, and 
leases through title checks and an updated land register to clarify 
land ownership. 

(5) Sounder land and water use planning and zoning practices, 
including the development of more flexible and imaginative ap- 
proaches, such as planned unit development, cluster zoning, and 
subdivision control. 

(6) Use of tax assessment and land valuation policies to induce 
sound conservation and development practices through such 
means as preferential assessment and deferred taxation. 

(7) Providing public ownership or access to selected estuarine 
and coastal areas for whatever purposes that are necessary for 
sound management of estuarine and coastal zones and related 
land resources. 

(8) Active participation in State and Federal estuarine and 
coastal management pro-ams. 

(9) Active participation in appropriate regional management 
organizations, which would cover the entire estuarine and coastal 
zone problem area. These organizations may be multifunctional, 
and in urban areas, metropolitan in character, dealing with such 
problems as water pollution control, port development, transpor- 
tation, hurricane, flood and erosion control, architectural preserva- 
tion, recreation, and so forth. The regional management organiza- 
tion may have limited purpose or broad management responsibil- 
ity, including regulatory power over dredging and filling, zoning. 



51 

land- water use, eminent domain and revenue-raising power, and 
so forth. 

(10) Development of public education, information programs, 
including cooperative efforts with private groups in order to en- 
courage local initiative and support for balanced use of estuarine 
and coastal zones. 

(11) Development of local professional and technical training 
programs for employees of Governmental agencies and private 
industry to foster understanding of and capability to resolve 
problems and carry out functions related to the estuarine and 
coastal management program. 

The Responsibilities of Public and Private Interests 

If the Nation is to achieve a sound balance between the develop- 
ment of its estuarine and coastal resources for all beneficial purposes 
and their conservation and preservation for future use, it is essential 
that public and private interests in the nongovernmental sector of our 
society meet their responsibilities for achieving that goal. It 'is also 
essential that the public and private interests have an opportunity to 
exercise their responsibilities against the backdrop of an announced 
national policy and in terms of announced plans for estuarine and 
coastal zone management toward which they have made a constructive 
contribution. 

Many of this Nation's estuarine and coastal resources continue to be 
endangered because of a failure to achieve in governmental programs 
a proper balance between the development of these resources for all 
beneficial purposes and their preservation and conservation. The re- 
sponsibility for this dire condition ultimately rests with the public and 
private forces within American society that thus far have controlled 
the use and management of these resources. 

This means too that the reversal of shortsighted policies now in 
force will not occur until there emerge within our society new concep- 
tions of what constitute the real public and private interest in the use 
of these resources. Only as these expressions of desirable new goals 
and values evolve, and receive strong and effective articulation by 
public and private interests within the nongovernmental sector, will 
our management of estuarine and coastal resources, both in the private 
sector and by governments responding to social and political pressure, 
be redirected toward sounder use and management objectives. 

responsibilities of public interests 

From public interests — citizen groups, conservation organizations, 
professional societies, the Nation's educational institutions, and 
others — ^there is need for continuing action in three broad areas. The 
first is educational activitjr which is the prerequisite to the successful 
reversal of present shortsighted estuarine and coastal management 
policies ; and, further, through active and vigorous participation in the 
political and governmental processes, to work for the implementation 
of sound estuarine and coastal zone programs at all levels of govern- 
ment and in the private sector. 

A second broad area of responsibility is the support of research 
programs of governmental bodies through nongovernmental studies 



52 

leading to improved understanding of the nature and behavior of 
estuarine and coastal resources, their interrelationship, and so forth. 
Continuing studies directed toward appraising and improving Federal, 
State, and local management of the estuaries and coastal areas also are 
a cr^itical need and a special responsibility of groups outside 
government. 

The third broad area of responsibility is to support the objectives 
of the national policy through public, but nongovernmental, acquisi- 
tion of estuarine and coastal sites which should be preserved in their 
natural state and to demonstrate new ways of achieving balanced 
development, conservation, and preservation of estuarine and coastal 
resources. 

RESPONSIBILITIES OF PRIVATE INTERESTS 

From private interests — ranging from the largest national indus- 
trial corporations to the local individuals developing real estate in the 
estuarine and coastal zone — ^there is an equally important need for 
action in four broad areas. These are, first, to recognize that the 
pubic interest often is identical with the true private interest, partic- 
ularly if the latiter is viewed in the perspective that includes all other 
private interests and the long run; and further, to recognize that 
where such is not the case, the private interest must be subordinated 
to the larger public interest. 

A second responsibility, and one private interests share with gov- 
ernmental and other public entities, is to consider in advance the 
effects of proposed actions in the estuarine and coastal zone on other 
uses of estuarine and coastal resources and to minimize, wherever 
possible, the adverse effects upon these other uses. 

Third, as special beneficiaries of the development and use of es- 
tuarine and coastal resources for their own private purposes, private 
interests have the responsibility of joining in research and educational 
programs aimed at broadening and improving the general public's 
understanding of the importance and nature of estuarine and coastal 
resources. To make this possible there is need for support for research 
institutions affiliated with academic institutions to provide to govern- 
ments at the Federal, State, and local level the knowledge necessary 
for management. There should be governmental and private partici- 
pation in such institutions and part of the States' goals should be the 
training of both professional and technical personnel in the problems 
of the estuarine and coastal zone. 

Finally, it is the responsibility of the private sector to participate 
in political and governmental processes so as to insure the proper recog- 
nition, both in the national program and in use and management plans 
for specific estuarine and coastal areas, of legitimate private interests. 

Responsibilities and Recommended Role of the Federal Govern- 
ment IN THE Comprehensive National Estuarine and Coastal 
Zone Management Program 

The responsibility for leadership in defining the policy and objec- 
tives of a national program for the comprehensive management of the 
estuarine and coastal zones of the United States rests with the Federal 
Government. It is also the responsibility of the Federal Government to 
implement its portion of the announced national program ; to coordi- 



53 

nate the activities of its respective departments and agencies; to define 
the Federal role to be established and maintained with State, inter- 
state, and local governments as well as with a wide variety of public 
and private interests ; to identify Federal jurisdictions in the estuarine 
and coastal zones, and to relate these jurisdictions to those of State, 
interstate, and local governments to exercise its jurisdictional re- 
sponsibilities to prevent the destruction and misuse of the resources 
of the estuarine and coastal zones ; to evaluate the impact of Federal 
and federally supported water and related land resource projects upon 
the downstream estuaries and coastal areas, especially for interstate 
and international river basins ; to perform the functions that are ex- 
clusively Federal in nature in such a manner as to establish a leader- 
ship example for other governmental, public, and private interests. 

NATIONAL INTERESTS 

These responsibilities coupled with the role that follows make up a 
rather thorough and detailed picture of the national interest in the 
estuarine and coastal zones. 

THE RECOMMENDED FEDERAL ROLE 

The role described herein includes what is now being carried out by 
Federal agencies and that which must be done, in addition, to dis- 
charge Federal responsibility in achieving comprehensive and effective 
management of the Nation's estuaries and coastal areas. It is important 
to stress that the Federal role is not the primary one in this regard, 
let alone the exclusive one. It is rather one of sharing authority over 
resources over which the States exercise primary jurisdiction. Nor is 
the Federal role, in general, new, much of it having developed through 
the years. 

Wliat is increasingly evident, however, is that the national program 
directed toward achieving the best use of estuarine and coastal re- 
sources requires also a strengthening of the role of the Federal Govern- 
ment in that program. 

Viewed against that backdrop, the Federal role should be to : 

(1) Provide the impetus for the initial establishment, and pro- 
gressive improvement, of the national program by the enactment 
of Federal legislation enunciating a national policy and providing 
grants to States for the development and implementation of 
comprehensive estuarine and coastal zone management plans. 

(2) Provide continuing support and guidance to the States 
through : 

(a) Grants to State, interstate, and local programs for the 
purposes of : 

[1] Development of use and management plans for 
specific estuaries and coastal areas. 

[2] Selective acquisition and development of estuarine 
and coastal sites for recreation and preservation purposes. 

[3] Eesearch, study, and training in estuarine and 
coastal problems. 

[4] Inventory activities in the States' estuarine and 
coastal zones. 

[5] Administration of State (including special intra- 
state districts created by the State) and interstate 



54 

management programs to implement State-approved 
management plans. 

[6] Waste collection and treatment facilities. 

[7] Support of estuarine and coastal zone laboratories. 

(b) Cooperative activities to prepare estuarine and coastal 
management plans initiated either by the States or by a Fed- 
eral agency pursuant to established authority. 

(c) Technical advice and assistance. 

(d) Provision of services such as navigation channels; 
flood control and protective works, beach restoration, aids to 
navigation, and environmental prediction, including weather, 
tides, etc. 

(e) Promotion of, and guidance and support to, coopera- 
tion among the States in managing interstate estuaries. 

(f) Recommendations and advice to the States and inter- 
state agencies concerning their estuarine and coastal zones 
management policies. 

(g) Provision of information and education to the public 
concerning estuarine and coastal resources, programs, and 
problems. 

(3) Complete and maintain the broad national inventory of the 
estuaries and coastal areas and their resources initiated by the 
National Estuarine Pollution Study and the Inventory directed 
by the National Estuary Protection Act (Public Law 90-454). 

(4) Continue broad estuarine and coastal studies not of a local 
nature. Examples are the National Estuarine Pollution Study by 
the Department of the Interior; the same agency's study under 
the National Estuary Protection Act of the feasibility and de- 
sirability of establishing a nationwide system of estuarine pre- 
serves; the comprehensive study by the Corps of Engineers of 
Chesapeake Bay, authorized in 1965 ; and the survey, authorized in 
1968, by the Corps of national shoreline erosion problems. 

Additional broad scientific studies in hydrology, living re- 
sources, and ecology are needed ; and, in particular, a study of the 
means of establishnig values associated with the various uses of 
the estuarine and coastal zones. 

(5) Participate in local and regional studies where appropriate 
to assist local and regional management. 

(6) Assure appropriate Federal performance under regional 
and international obligations for the management of flyways, 
fishei^ies resources, etc. 

(7) Exercise regulatory authority, presently assigned and pro- 
posed in S. 7 and H.R. 4148 (if enacted), in the following areas: 

(a) Enforcement of water quality standards, as necessary, 
and various other controls over pollution including : 

[1] Oil, thermal, and radioactive pollution ; 
[2] Disposal of vessel wastes ; 

[3] Disposal of solid wastes and other refuse, dredged 
fill, et cetera, in navigable waters ; 

[4] Treatment of wastes at Federal installations. 

(b) Issuance of permits, licenses, or other controls govern- 
ing certain permissible uses or modification of estuarine and 
coastal resources including : 



56 

[1] Permits for structures over and in navigable 
waters ; 

[2] Regulations establishing harbor lines; 

[3] Regulations restricting use of navigable waters 
for various purposes (danger zones, fishing grounds, 
et cetera) ; and 

[4] Licenses regulating the construction and opera- 
tion of non-Federal hydroelectric and nuclear facilities 
for generating electric power. 

(8) Coordinate Federal estuarine and coastal management ac- 
tivities and provide means for coordinating these activities with 
those of the States, their subdivisions, and interetate agencies. 

(9) In cooperation with the States, continuously monitor de- 
velopments and conditions in estuaries and coastal areas and eval- 
uate the effectiveness of the national program. 

(10) Provide adequate investigation and consideration for the 
protection of estuarine values in the formulation of comprehensive 
river basin development programs under the aegis of the Water 
Resources Council by assuring cooperative State-Federal recogni- 
tion of the impacts of upstream water quality and hydrology and 
related land resources development upon the resources of the 
estuaries. 

Before leaving the recommended Federal role it is important to note 
that several of the above items are already the subject of legislation 
currently being considered by Congress. 

Recommendations Concerning New Legislation at the Federal 

Level 

If the Federal role in the national estuarine and coastal zone manage- 
ment program is to he carried out successfully, critical needs are new 
legislation authorizing a Federal program directed specifically to the 
problems of the estuarine and coastal zone and provisions for coordina- 
tion of that new program with existing programs directly or indirectly 
affecting those zones. 

Accordingly, it is first recommended that there he: The enactment 
of legislation establishing the comprehensive national management 
program. Amon^ its purposes, this legislation should : 

(1) Specify the national policy, its broad objectives and guide- 
lines. 

(2) Establish and fund two new programs of grants as follows : 

(a) Matching program development grants to a State for 
the purpose of assisting the State in preparing a comprehen- 
sive State program for the management of its estuarine and 
coastal zones. To be eligible for such grants the State must 
demonstrate that the grant wall be used to develop a compre- 
hensive management program meeting the requirements set 
forth in the following section on operating grants. 

(b) Upon approval of the State's comprehensive manage- 
ment program, annual operating grants to the State to assist 
in the administration of the State program for comprehensive 
management of its estuarine and coastal zones. 

In the administration of such operating grants it shall be 

42-847 O— 70 5 



insured that the coastal State is organized to implement the 
comprehensive management plan. 

It shall also be insured that the State has at least certain 
specific authorities as follow : 

( 1 ) Permit authorities to control dredge, fill, and alter- 
ation of the lands and waters below the mean highwater 
marks. 

(2) Zoning authority, or authority to require local 
zoning to conform with the State management plan. 

(3) The power of eminent domain as necessary for 
implementation of the plan. 

The comprehensive plan of management shall be consistent 
with the policy and objectives of the national estuarine and 
coastal zone management program and shall include the 
following : 

( 1 ) A feasible land and water use plan consistent with 
existing water quality standards. 

(2) Recognition of the national interests and State 
and local interests in the preservation, use, and develop- 
ment of the estuarine and coastal zone. 

(3) Appropriate consideration of other resources use 
and management plans bearing on the use, conservation, 
and management of the estuarine and coastal zones. 

The plan should be adopted only after public hearings and 
consultation with all appropriate interested parties and shall 
contain in addition to the above the following : 

(1) A description of the coastal State's current 
programs. 

(2) A program for regular review and updating of 
the management plan, with procedures for modification 
of it that include public hearings. 

(3) Provision for adequate review of State, local, and 
private projects for consistency with the plan and for 
advice regarding the consistency of Federal and federally 
assisted projects with the plan. 

(4) An identification of the boundaries of the por- 
tions of the coastal State subject to the management plan. 

(c) With the approval of the Secretary, the Governors of 
the respective States may designate an existing interstate 
agency to receive a portion of both the planning and operat- 
ing grant to the individual States. 

(d) Provide that operating grant support shall be with- 
drawn when there is failure to adhere to a comprehensive plan 
of management. 

(3) Authorize the Secretary of the Interior to : 

(a) Administer the proposed new program of Federal 
grants to States and interstate agencies. 

(b) Develop after appropriate consultation and review the 
necessary rules and regulations needed to administer the pro- 
posed new program. 

(c) Conduct a continuing review of State programs for the 
development, conservation, and use of the Nation's estuaries 
and coastal areas : 



57 

(d) Establish advisory bodies in the Department of the In- 
terior to advise, consult with, and make recommendations to 
the Secretary on matters of policy in the national estuarine 
and coastal zone management program. 

(e) Cooperate with other Federal departments concerned 
with the comprehensive management of the estuarine and 
coastal zone and to establish the mechanisms necessary for 
such cooperation. 

(f ) The Secretary should not approve State plans until he 
has solicited the views of Federal agencies principally affected 
by such plans or has evidence that such views were provided 
the State in the development of the plan. 

(4) All Federal agencies conducting or supporting activities 
in the coastal area should seek to make such activities consistent 
with the approved plan for the area. States and local governments 
submitting applications for Federal assistance in coastal areas 
should indicate the views of the appropriate State or local agency 
as to the relationship of such activities to the approved plan for 
the coastal area. Federal agencies should not approve proposed 
projects that are inconsistent with the plan without making in- 
vestigation and finding that the proposal is, on balance, sound. 
The Secretary should be advised by the heads of other agencies 
of such problems and be provided an opportunity to participate in 
any investigation. 



THE NATIONAL ESTUAMNE POLLUTION STUDY 

Volume II 



(59) 



PART IV. IMPORTANCE OF THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

Introduction 

The comprehensive management program presented in part III es- 
taiblishes a framework to reguilate man's activities in the estuarine zone 
to preserve and develop the estuarine resource while achieving full use 
of it. Effective management, however, must be firmly based on an un- 
derstanding of what the estuarine resource is, what use it has to man, 
and what impact man's acitivities have on it. 

The comprehensive management program is in essence a working 
relationship among the institutional, biophysical, aud socioeconomic 
enviromnents in the estuarine zone. This part of the report deals with 
the existing relationship between the biophysical environment and 
the socioeconomic environment. It describes first the estuarine zone 
without man ; then it considers how man uses the estuarine zone and 
how these activities affect the land, the water, and the life. Finally, it 
seeks to show what Avill happen to the estuarine zone unless man con- 
trols his impact on this part of his environment. 

The biophysical eiiA^ironment divides naturally into 10 geographical 
regions, each dominated by a different combination of environmental 
conditions. The discussion revolves about these biophysical regions as 
the primary subdivisions of the natural environment of the estuarine 
zone. Because of the similarity of environmental conditions within it, 
each region hais estuarine systems, uses, and problems which are typical 
of the region, if not miique to it. 

The use of the biophysical regions as the basic units for discussion 
illustrates regional similarities and differences. These serve not only to 
point out the essential imity of the estuarine zone as a unique resource, 
but also to emphasize how an effective national management program 
can use knowledge gained in one region to solve prdblems in another. 

Certain photographs of a purely illustrative nature, and not essential 
to the continuity of the text, have been omitted in this part of the re- 
port as presently duplicated. 

(61) 



GHAiPTER 1. THE ESTUAEINE SYSTEM OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

Man uses and is influenced by the whole world ocean, but that nar- 
row zone where the land conttaining his civilization meets the sea is 
unique. This is the point where man, the sea — his immeonorial ally and 
adversary — and the land meet and challenge each other. That narrow 
zone is the subject of this chapter ( IV-1-1 ) . 

The estuarine zone has many forms ; nearly all are represented along 
the coastline of the United States. These include the classic drowned 
river mouth, exemplified by Delaware Bay and in greater variety by 
its neighbor, Chesapeake Bay. There are the entrance cuts and deltas 
of great rivers such as the Columbia and the Mississippi ; there are the 
marshlands of Georgia and the barrier island systems of North Caro- 
lina. There are the coral formations of the Florida Keys and the fjords 
of Alaska and Washington; there are the rocky coast of Maine, the 
bluffs of California, and the sandy shores of Texas. There is infinite 
variety but there is also the common theme of the sea, the land, and— 
along much of the U.S. coastline — man. 

The estuarine zone of the United States was the gateway to a con- 
tinent. The many deep, natural harbors of the Atlantic and the gulf 
coasts provided safe anchorages for the ships which brought the first 
colonists to these shores and which carried the produce of the land to 
distant markets. The teeming coastal waters pro\dded a never- failing 
supply of food to vary and supplement the results of farming and 
hunting. 

The great population and industrial centers which developed around 
these seaporte served as supply bases and takeoff points for those who 
moved weist, north, and east to settle the enormous heartland of North 
America, leaving the estuarine zone and its problems far behind, but 
still using tliis zone to send their produce across the sea. 

This zone between land and sea is a unique environment deriving its 
properties from both land and sea, but having characteristics resulting 
from the existence of the interfacial zone itself and from the inter- 
action of land and sea upon each other. 

SECTioisr 1. General Description 

The estuarine zone is best characterized as a region of constantly re- 
curring change. The constanicy of change and the dynamic equilibriiun 
associated with the changes comprise the visible features of the estua- 
rine environment. The obvious complexity of structure, movement, 
and life in the estuarine zone hides the inherently simply basic causes 
of the existence and character of the estuarine environment. 

All life is dominated by gravity and by the sun's radiant energy, 
but the effects of these are especially apparent in the estuarine zone. 
The earth's gravity pulls the rivers down to the sea; at sea level the 
gravitational attraction of the earth itself reaches a dynamic balance 

(62) 



63 

wkh the gravitational attracition of the sun and the moon. The results 
of this are the imique estuarine water movement patterns caused by 
the differenceis in density between fresh river water and salt ocean 
water, and the tidal ebb and flow which is noticeable only in the estua- 
rine zone. 

All forms of life on earth depend on the sun as their ultimate source 
of energy. Tliis energy is incorporated into plant material which in 
turn supports all animal life. Plants need water and light to grow. 
There is a profusion of both in the estuarine zone together with a 
plentiful supply of dissolved nutrients derived from both land and sea. 
These conditions make coastal areas the most productive environments 
in the world, and as a result very specialized biological communities 
have developed in the estuarine zone. Such communities cannot only 
tolerate the dynamic balance of conditions but actually depend on the 
constantly recurring environmental variations to sustain themselves. 

The wide range of interaction of the two basic driving forces of 
gravity and solar energy brings about a bewildering variety of indi- 
vidual environments in the estuarine zone, each being dominated and 
controlled by a different combination of factors. Some may be domi- 
nated by tidal range, some by river flow, some by geometry of the 
coastline, some by climate, some by the sediments deposited, and some 
by combinations of these. The variety is infinite. 

Yet, within this variety, there is order which lends itself to measure- 
ment and through measurement to management of the estuarine zone 
to preserve it for continuing multiple use. The purpose of this dis- 
cussion is not to present a detailed analysis of the differences among 
the parts of the estuarine zone, but rather to outline what these dif- 
ferences are, why they exist, and what must be measured to establish 
a basis for sound teclinical management within the overall framework 
of wise institutional management. 

It would be convenient if the state of knowledge were such that the 
estuarine environment and its variety could be described in terms of 
the primary forces which control it ; then it would be possible to man- 
age each estuarine system efficiently and exactly for optimum use. 

Unfortmiately, the present extremely limited state of knowledge 
requires the measurement of a wide variety of attributes, and manage- 
ment must be derived through the pragmatic application of knowl- 
edge gained from such measurement. 

There are six different kinds of characteristics that should be under- 
stood to make a rational effort at sound technical management : 

Shape and size. — Fresh water carries sediments eroded from the 
land to the coast where they are deposited and molded along with the 
original shoreline by the energy of ocean waves and currents. Shape 
and size go far toward determining water movement, the life forms 
present, and the speed with which pollutants can be absorbed or passed 
through the estuarine zone. These are characterized by length of shore- 
line, water and marsh area, and water volume. 

Water movement. — The slight difference in density between fresh 
water and ocean, combined with tidal, weather, and shape effects, 
causes diversity of water movement patterns in the estuarine zone. 
These patterns are important in pollution control and in determining 
the ecological balance. Parameters of water movement are river inflow, 
tidal range, currents, density difference, and volume of tidal inflow. 



64 

Life forms. — The estuarine zone is recognized as the most produc- 
tive part of the natural environment. The many forms of life include 
animals and plants which live in the bottom, on the bottom, in the 
water, on the water, and in the marshes Avhich border much of the 
coast. The various communities in the estuarine zone are characterized 
by measuring the identity, distribution, and abundance of the species 
present, ranging from bacteria and the minute phytoplankton which 
are the primary users of solar energy to the fish, shellfish, and other 
wildlife Avhich are the final steps in the food chain concentrating 
solar energy for man's use. 

Water' quality. — Even raw domestic sewage is over 99 percent pure 
water, but the infinitesimal amount of dissolved and suspended ma- 
terial has effects far out of proportion to its mag-nitude. While ocean 
water contains dissolved solids measured in concentrations of parts 
per thousand, water quality measurements, except for temperature, 
are couched in terms of parts per million and parts per billion whether 
they are measurements of dissolved oxygen, plant nutrients, organic 
pollutants, toxic chemicals, or any of the other parameter by which 
pollutional levels are characterized. 

Upon the very delicate tests by which such minute concentrations 
are measured depends the quantitative knowledge of pollution and 
how to control it. 

Nature of the bottom. — The land under the water in the estuarine 
zone can tell much of the history of water flowing over it. Solids are 
deposited from the water on the bottom, and creatures and plants 
living on and in the bottom draw their nourishment from the water 
itself. Estuarine bottoms are characterized by the kind and amomit 
of sediments, vegetation, and animal life found there, both near the 
surface and much deeper. 

Esthetic a'p'peal. — Not all people enjoy the same things; the bustle 
of the Port of Baltimore might not be appreciated by a salmon fisher- 
man from Alaska, for example, nor might a shrimp fisherman from the 
marshes of Louisiana appreciate the bluffs along the California coast. 
Yet an estuary w^hich has no debris along its edge or floating in it, 
no smell of oil, or chemicals, or sewage, no dead fish, no floating mats 
of algae, and no peculiar color is pleasing to all. These things are gen- 
erally subjective, and since they do not lend themselves to quantitative 
measurement, are sometimes overlooked in evaluating the quality of the 
estuarine environment. 

Through measurement of these six kinds of characteristics, the domi- 
nating environmental factor in the estuarine zone can be understood 
and made to work for the ultimate benefit of mankind. 

Section 2. The Dominating Environmental Factors 

The diversity of the estuaries, bays, inlets, lagoons, marshes, and 
other features which make up the estuarine zone presents a discon- 
certing picture of apparent individual uniqueness and complexity 
without evident unifying principles for technical and political man- 
agement. Such unifying principles do exist, however, and the estuarine 
zone as an environment is governed by a small number of often com- 
peting dominating factors, having interrelationships which determine 
the nature of each individual estuarine system. Similarities and con- 
trasts among estuarine areas in different parts of the coastline point 



65 

out the limitations of technical management in the various portions 
of the estuarine zone, and show the realities of nature within which 
the managing political entities must work. 

CONTINENTAL SHELF 

The submerged land next to the continent slopes gently to a depth 
of about 600 feet, then it drops more rapidly to form the deep ocean 
basins (see fig. IV.1.1). This fringe of slightly sloping submerged 
land, which along much of the Atlantic and gailf coasts would appear 
quite flat to the naked eye, is called the Continental Shelf, and its 
width and general configuration along the coastline of the 
United States is one of the offshore conditions affecting the estuarine 
environment. 

The large ocean waves lose much of their energy in the relatively 

FIGURE IV.1.1 MAJOR OCEAN CURRENTS AFFECTING THE UNITED STATES 



ifc.^ 




Continental Shelf 



pdyoonc proJccNon 



66 

shallow water depths over the continental shelves, thus reducing the 
force with which they strike the shore (fig. IV. 1.2). Where the Con- 
tinental Shelf is wide, waves reach the shore with greatly decreased 
power and tend to move existing sediments around rather than cutting 
the shoreline to produce new ones. 

Along the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the continental United States 
the Continental Shelf is generally about 50 to 100 miles wide and ter- 
minates at depths ranging from 300 to 900 feet. Within this regime 
four significant differences in conditions on the shelf are reflected in 
the estuarine zone : 

(1) The Gulf of Maine forms an embayment between Cape 
Cod and Nova Scotia, and the general configuration of deep 
basins close to shore with broad banks seaward of them is unique 
to this part of the coast (fig. IV.1.3). Wliile the shoal waters 
on the shelf serve to protect the New England coast from the full 
force of the ocean swells, the deep embayment near shore and 
the narrow trough which connects it to the ocean cause the great 
tide ranges and strong currents characteristic of the region. 
These currents tend to reduce deposition of sediments close in- 
shore, particularly along the Maine coast where the tide range 
is greatest and the currents strongest. 

(2) Cape Hatteras is a region where the deposition of sedi- 
ments on the wide shelf at the meeting place of two major ocean 
currents has resulted in the building of a series of barrier islands 
out over the shelf and the formation of a Avide shallow embay- 
ment (Pamlico Sound) behind them (fig. IV.1.4). This sedimen- 
tation process has reduced the width of the 'Continental Shelf 
to less than 20 miles at this point and created the infamous 
Diamond Shoals seaward of the barrier islands. 

(3) South Florida, from Miami to beyond the Florida Keys, 
has virtually no Continental Shelf; this is probably related to 
the passage of the Gulf Stream through the narrow channel 
between the Bahama Islands, Cuba, and Florida (fig. IV.1.5). 
These same islands, however, serve to protect the southern part 
of Florida from heavy ocean swells, while the steady current 
keeps sediments from depositing on the offshore coral forma- 
tions of the Florida Keys and tends to spread coral growth 
northward along the Florida Coast. 

(4) The Mississippi River, draining about 41 percent of the 
continental United States, has built a delta entirely across the 
Continental Shelf and now deposits most of its sediments on the 
slope beyond (fig. IV. 1.6). The generally enclosed nature of the 
embayment forming the Gulf of Mexico has permitted the for- 
mation of this delta and its associated channels and marshlands, 
as well as the combination of barrier island and coastal marsh- 
land formation which makes up the majority of the Gulf of 
Mexico estuarine systems. 

On the Pacific coast of the continental United States, the Conti- 
nental Shelf is 2 to 20 miles wide and terminates at depths of 300 to 
600 feet. Pouring over this narrow, steep shelf is the full force of 
the Pacific Ocean swell; this makes for excellent surfing, but it also 
leads to considerable erosion of the shoreline. Shoreline erosion by 
wave action with the development of a beach and bluff configuration 
is typical of this part of the coastline (fig. IV.1.2). Strong currents 



67 

and turbulent waters near the shore tend to remove eroded material 
rai)idly, and extensive shoal areas rarely occur. 

The (Continental Shelf alon^ all the coasts of Alaska is wide; in the 
Bering Sea it averages 400 miles. The Bering Sea shelf is the flattest 
area of this size on the face of the earth, primarily because of the 
fine silt deposited on an irregular rocky platform by glacier-fed 
rivers, 

OCEAN CURRENTS 

The major ocean currents impinging on or passing close to the 
continent exert strong, if subtle, effects on the estuarine zone; see 
figure IV. 1.1. 

The best knoAvn of these is the Gulf Stream which moves northward 
along the South Atlantic coast from Florida to Cape Hatteras, where 
it turns east out across the Atlantic. Between Cape Hatteras and 
Newfoundland, water from the Labrador Current moves slowly south- 
ward between the Gulf Stream and the coast. 

The Labrador Current, a cold water mass with abundant plant 
nutrients, makes the Grand Banks off Newfoundland one of the most 
productive fisheries of the world. While much of the Labrador Current 
mixes with the Gulf Stream, some of its water enters the Gulf of 
Maine as part of the strong tidal and wave-driven flow^, and still more 
drifts down the Middle Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to North 
Carolina. 

The Gulf Stream is very warm water from subtropical latitudes, 
and carries with it subtropical life forms as well as heat. Its warming 
effect on the land can be seen in the difference in vegetation above and 
below Cape Hatteras, as w^ell as in differences in kinds of aquatic 
life (fig. IV.1.7). 

A major part of the Gulf Stream emerges from the warm, sub- 
tropical Gulf of Mexico and flows around the tip of Florida. These 
waters nurture the great shrimp fishery and warm the coasts of 
northern Europe as well as those of the southeastern United States. 

Along the west coast of North America the eastward-flowing warm 
current of the Pacific Ocean (the North Pacific Current) splits at 
about the latitude of the United States-Canadian border ; the portion 
moving south is called the California current, while that moving north 
into the Gulf of Alaska is called the Alaska Current. 

The California Current exerts a moderating effect on continental 
temperatures as it moves southward; the major effect, however, occurs 
during the spring and early summer when the winds are such that in 
some places the California Current moves away from the coast and 
cold, nutrient-laden deep water comes to the surface near the shore. 
Two major zones of this "upwelling" are off Santa Barbara and off 
Cape Mendocino, near the northern part of California. During other 
seasons a complex series of eddies and conn tercur rents develops, all 
of which tends to make the nearshore areas very productive. 

The Alaska Current exerts a warming effect on the southern part of 
Alaska, similar to that of the Gulf Stream in northern Europe. The 
Bering Sea, which receives some water from the Pacific Subarctic 
Current, is the birthplace of the cold deep currents of the northern 
Pacific, and the waters within the Bering Sea are very cold and 
rich in nutrients. 

None of the effects of Continental Shelf and ocean current structure 



68 

are clearly visible and dramatic. They are a matter of slight differences 
in degrees of temperature, of concentrations of certain chemical com- 
pounds, or of speed of motion. Yet they help to explain why lobsters 
grow in Maine and not along the coast of South Carolina, and they 
form one basis for regarding the national estuarine system as a unified 
whole, not as a group of unique coastal systems. 

STRUCTURE OF THE COASTLINE 

The configuration of the coastline itself, even though subject to 
additional molding by the flow of rivers to the sea, is closely related 
to the shape and structure of the Continental Shelf. A wide Continental 
Shelf is generally associated with lowland next to the coast, while a 
narrow shelf is associated with mountainous terrain. These associations 
throughout the estuarine zone of the United States have produced 
estuarine systems characteristic of particular regions. 

The northern part of the North American Continent was once 
covered by an ice sheet of continental dimensions, Avhich left its impress 
on the estuarine zone as far south as New York City on the Atlantic 
coast and Puget Sound on the Pacific coast. These massive glacial 
rivers, sometimes over 1 mile thick, cut their way to the ocean, ter- 
minating somewhere in the vicinity of the edne of the Continental 
Shelf on both coasts (fig. IV.1.8).' 

The result of their passage is the sharply sculptured and generally 
steep shoreline associated with the New England, Puget Sound, and 
southeast Alaska regions. The submarine topography of these regions 
is similar to that above the water, except where earth and rock have 
eroded from the land above the water and been deposited on the land 
mider the water. The estuarine zone along formerly glaciated coasts 
is a region of deep, heavily indented embayments, many islands, steep 
rocky shores, predominantly evergreen forests reaching nearly to the 
water, irregular bottom topography, and vistas of great scenic beauty 
(fig. IV.1.9). 

The unglaciated parts of the Atlantic coast and of the gulf coast 
consist of relatively flat terrain in which coastal embayments and 
marshes are the predominant estuarine features. These are coasts 
formed primarily of sediments eroded from ancient mountains, and 
along which the embayments and marshes form traps for sediments 
the rivers bring down to the sea. 

The estuarine zones along these coasts may be of many forms, but 
the general impression is one of great expanses of shallow water and 
aquatic vegetation, extensive sand dunes and sandy ocean beachfront, 
and narrow and carefully maintained navigation channels with port 
facilities well inland (fig. IV.1.10). 

The Pacific coast of the conterminous United States is actively 
being eroded by wave action against the exposed shoreline. The major 
coastal feature is narrow beach or rocks at the base of steep bluffs. Deep 
embayments behind headlands or shallow indentations in the coast are 
typical of the estuarine zone. 

The southern coast of Alaska is the only part of the United States 
with glaciers existing in the estuarine zone. Glacier-fed estuaries have 
much floating ice, usually in the form of small icebergs, and very steep 
sides. The water is icy cold and often milky with sediment from earth 
and rock ground to a fine flour by the movement of the ice across the 
land (fig. IV.1.11). 



69 



RtVER FLOW 

The estuarine zone is also shaped through erosion and sediment 
transport by fresh water making its way to the sea. Along the coast- 
lines of the Continental Shelf of the United States are streams and 
rivers carrying water from land runoff to the sea. These waterways 
range from the Mississippi River down to the tiniest stream trickling 
across the sands of a beach. 

Figure IV. 1.12 illustrates typical seasonal variation in river flow 
into the estuarine zones of the United States. Everywhere there is a 
pronounced annual cycle ; peaking sharply in the sprmg in Alaska and 
New England, peaking from early summer to early fall along the 
Atlantic and gulf coasts, and reaching a maximum in late winter along 
the Pacific coast. 

Annual cycles of river flow depend on the annual variation of tem- 
perature as well as of precipitation, and the total volumes of water 
and sediment moved reflect not only the total amount of precipitation, 
but also the sizes and slopes of drainage basins and the types of soil 
over which the rivers flow in their fall to the sea. 

All river flows begin as either rain, snow, or ice. While rain moves 
almost immediately into the hydrologic system as ground water and 
as surface runoff, snow and ice may remain for several months on the 
ground until they melt under the warmer temperatures of spring. This 
sudden influx of several months' precipitation into the hydrologic 
system frequently results in severe erosion and flooding with heavy 
transport of sediment into the estuarine zone. 

River basin drainages unaffected by winter f reezeup conditions, such 
as most of those on the southeast Atlantic and gulf coast, also erode 
and carry sediment loads, but their effects are distributed more equally 
around the year. Coasts with low-lying drainage basins tend to have 
marshes which trap sediments, reducing erosion in coastal areas. 

TABLE IV.1.1— RIVER FLOW IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE OF THE UNITED STATES 



Biophysical region 



Total 

Drainage freshwater 

area runoff 

(square (cubic feet 

miles) per second) 



Drainage Runoff 

area per per mile 

mile of of total 

ocean tidal 

coastline shoreline 



Major river basins (more than 
1,000 square miles drainage) 



Total gaged 

drainage 

area 

Number (square 

of rivers miles) 



Average 

annual 

runoff 

(cubic 

feel per 

second) 



North Atlantic _. 40,700 72,000 

Middle Atlantic 69,700 106,000 

Chesapeake _- 66,500 79,800 

South Atlantic 149,500 154,000 

Caribbean 10,400 11,500 

Gulf(total) 1,704,000 799,000 

Excluding Mississippi 464,000 249,000 

Southwest Pacific 94,300 83,400 

Northwest Pacific (total) 314,000 368,000 

Excluding Columbia 56,000 133,000 

Alaska (total)____ 700,000 (i) 

Excluding Yukon 340,000 0) 

Pacific islands 6,710 0) 

Total (including Alaska and 

Pacific islands) 3,116,800 .2,000,000 

Total (excluding Alaska and 

Pacific islands) 2,410,100 1,568,700 

Total (excluding Alaska, Pacific 

islands, Mississippi River and 

Columbia River) 912,000 784,000 



30 16 

54 15 

15 

182 16 

7 3 

750 52 

274 19 

79 27 

469 77 

84 28 

47 

22 

6 _- 

124 

264 29 



106 



5 
6 
6 
12 

21 
20 



16 
15 




18,600 

35,300 

47, 100 

68,600 



1, 394, 000 

249, 000 

49, 000 

275, 000 

38, 000 

345, 000 

86, 000 





30, 900 

51, 400 

55,600 

70, 200 



706, OOO 

156,000 

30, 500 

293, 000 

98, 000 

351, 000 

176, 000 





83 2,232,600 1,588,600 
67 1,978,600 1,237,600 

65 596,000 492,600 



1 Not available. 

Reference: The National Estuarine Inventory. 
Data sources: U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



70 



FIGURE IV.1.12 EXAMPLES OF VARIATION IN RIVER FLOW 



SALINAS. 




PENOBSCOT 



SUSQUEHANNA 



SANTA MARGARITA 



i '•> 




i n- 





u M.tm 



OCT JAM an JULT 



OCT lui tni WLT 



OCT urn tf* iw.r 



UVAMMM, !.&■«*. 






JAM An JULT 
MTAKKA. njL 





JAM *P« JULT 



71 



FIGURE IV.1.12 EXAMPLES OF VARIATION IN RIVER FLOW (continued) 



< '•oJ 



< "•ml 



I 7..-. 
" W.IH 



tW UAMtC, TU. 



OCT MM Am JULY 
UMTA «*l«*ttrT*, ChLir. 




SALBUS, CALir. 




§ x^J 



§ ».. 




OCT JAM Mn JM.T 





42-847 O — 70 6 



72 

Table IV.1.1 shows the magnitude and distribution or river flows 
entering the estuarine zone of the United States. Two river systems, 
those of the Mississippi and the Columbia, drain 62 percent of the land 
area of the conterminous United States and account for 50 percent of 
the land runoff passing through the estuarine zone. The Yukon has a 
drainage area of about 360,000 square miles in Alaska and Canada, 
about one-third that of the Mississippi, and ranks between the 
Mississippi and Columbia as one of the three major river systems of 
the Nation. 

The mouths of these three rivers form estuarine systems unique in 
the estuarine zone of the United States. The tremendous volumes of 
water discharged ^ by each of these is the dominating environmental 
factor where the river enters the sea. 

The Mississippi and Yukon reach the ocean after passing through 
many hundreds of miles of low-lying, easily erodable land. Immense 
deltas formed at the mouth of each river as the great volumes of 
suspended material accumulated in this passage Avere deposited at the 
place where the river currents were slowed down by the sea (fig. 
IV.1.12A and fig. IV.1.6). The Columbia collects relatively little sedi- 
ment in its passage over rocky terrain, and is confined near its mouth 
to a narrow channel where it has cut its way to the ocean through 
coastal mountain ranges. The deposited sediments form only an 
offshore bar which is continually cut away and reestablished by the 
ocean swells and currents sweeping in over the narrow Continental 
Shelf (fig. IV.1.12B). 

There are 80 other river basins in the United States having drainage 
areas of over 1,000 square miles ; these, with the three river systems 
already mentioned, account for land runoff from 85 percent of the 
entire land area draining to the estuarine zone. Over half of these are 
in the Gulf, Alaska, and South Atlantic biophysical regions. There 
are none in the Caribbean and Pacific islands regions. 

The ratio of drainage basin size to miles of ocean coastline in each 
region, as shown in table IY.1.1, is an index of the relative importance 
of upland runoff conditions to the estuarine zone. In the North Atlan- 
tic biophysical region, for example, runoff comes on the average only 
from a distance of 30 miles inland. In the South Atlantic region, 
however, runoff comes from an average distance of 182 miles, thus 
indicating that large river basins are far more important to the 
estuarine zone in the South Atlantic region than in the North Atlantic. 

The ratio of runoff to total miles of tidal shoreline is an index of 
the importance of land runoff in estuarine stratification and water 
movement patterns. A low ratio means there is little runoff in propor- 
tion to the size of the estuarine zone, as in the Caribbean region, and 
water stratification generally is not significant in this region; while 
high ratios, as in the two Pacific regions, indicate high proportionate 
land runoff and stratification-dominated estuaries. 

Regional averages like those in table IY.1.1 are important in that 
they show that there are general unifying criteria through which les- 
sons learned in one part of the national estuarine system can be applied 
to other parts of the estuarine zone. 



1 In a Httle over an hour on an average day, the Mississippi discharges into the Gulf of 
Mexico enough water to supply the domestic water needs of the entire present population 
of the United States. 



73 



SEDIMENTATION 

The general outlines of the estuaries, lagoons, and embayments in 
the estuarine zone of the United States were formed by erosion from 
land runoff during the last ice age when sea levels were much lower 
than they are now. As the sea level rose, the drowned river mouths be- 
came zones of mixing, sediment deposition, and erosion where the 
rivers and tidal currents met. These erosion and sedimentation proces- 
ses molded the estuarine zone into its present shape and contmue to 
change it. 

The greatest changes occurred in those regions where the surface soils 
and clay on wide, gently sloping coastal plains rapidly eroded from 
the land and came to rest in the estuarine zone or farther out on the 
continental shelf. Least change occurred where coastal plains and con- 
tinental shelves are narrow or consist mostly of resistant rock. 

Figure IV.1.13 illustrates the evolution of an estuary from a 
drowned river valley to a coastal marsh. The estuarine zone of the 
United States from New York to Texas abounds with examples of 
this evolutionary process (fig. IV.1.14). Delaware Bay has not yet 

Figure IV.1.13 

STAGES IN ESTUARINE SYSTEM MODIFICATION 
DUE TO SEDIMENTATION 





74 

been cut off from the sea by barrier islands, Mobile Bay illustrates the 
initial formation of offshore bars, Matagorda Bay shows the full de- 
velopment of barrier islands, and the marshes around the mouth of 
the Satilla River represent the ultimate stage in the filling of an 
estuary. 

The great ice sheet which once covered the estuarine zones of New 
England, northwest Washington, and southeast Alaska scoured off 
much of the readily erodable surface material in the coastal water- 
sheds, thus, natural sedimentation has been a relatively minor factor 
in modifying estuaries in these areas. Narragansett Bay and Puget 
Sound, among many others, still maintain the great depths typical 
of glacially formed embayments. 

Near the edge of the ice sheet, however, where the scoured-off earth 
and rock carried along under and in the ice finally stopped as the 
glaciers met the sea and melted, small, shallow bays formed in the 
glacial debris and subsequently developed offshore sand spits and 
barrier islands as illustrated by Moriches Bay (fig. IV.1.15) on the 
south side of Long Island, which is formed of such glacial debris. 

Abundant sediment eroded from the coastal ranges along the Pacific 
coast of the continental United States has nearly filled several estu- 
aries, and wide tidal flats are common in the few estuaries along these 
coasts (fig. IV.1.16). The Columbia, however, collects a proportion- 
ately less suspended load of sediment as it comes down through the 
less-erodable volcanic mountains and plateaus of the Pacific 
Northwest, 



TABLE IV.1.2.- 



-CHARACTERISTICS OF SEDIMENT LOADS ENTERING AND SEDIMENTS RESIDENT IN THE 
ESTUARINE ZONE 



Biophysical region 



Average annual suspended 
sediment load 



Tons per 
square mile 



Tons 



Number of 
rivers 
sampled Kinds of sediments in the estuarine zone 



North Atlantic _.. 0) 

Middle Atlantic. _ 220.0 

Chesapeake Bay 130.0 

South Atlantic. 389.0 

Caribbean (i) 

Gulf: 

(1) Excluding 124.0 

Mississippi. 

(2) Mississippi 244.0 

Pacific Southwest: 

Pacific slopes 398.0 

Central Valley 71.4 

Pacific Northwest: 

Pacific slopes 3,610.0 

Columbia 112.0 

Alaska (i) 

Pacific Islands 0) 



(') 



15,300,000 

8,640,000 

58, 100, 000 


5 
3 
1 


(') 





57,600,000 


7 


305, 000, 000 


1 


21,000,000 
3, 000, 000 


2 
2 


98, 000, 000 

29, 000, 000 

0) 


3 
2 




(0 



Glacial debris — Little input from rivers; clay 
silt in deep areas; sand, gravel around edges. 

Silt, clay in deep areas; fine sand elsewhere. 
Do. 

Fine sand predominates; organic silt in rivers 
and swamps. 

Fine sand, except for coral reefs and mangroves. 

(1) Silts and clays with sands abundant around 
margins only. 
1 (2) Fine silts and clays, covered by fine sand 
where delta-making is inactive. 

Fine sand in channels, silts and clays around 
edges and on tidal flats. 

Do. 

Mixture of gravel, silt, and general glacial debris 
on southeast, south. Extremely fine "flour" 
on some parts of south and southwest. 

Sand, coral, slight amounts of silt near rivers. 



■ Not available. 

Reference: The National Estuarine Inventory. 
Data sources: U.S. Geological Survey. 



75 

The southern part of the Florida peninsula is far from the sources 
of coastal plain sediment which has filled estuaries immediately to 
the north. Locally derived sediments, combined with the results of 
plant and animal activity, are the great estuarine modifiers in this 
region. Mangrove swamps on the southwest coast and coral reefs on 
the southeast (fig. IV.1.17) are typical coastal formations. 

Table IV.1.2 gives estimated total quantities of suspended sedi- 
ments entering the estuarine zone and shows the kinds of sediments 
typical of each region. The data leading to this table include the effects 
of human activity as well as natural sedimentation. The most signifi- 
cant thing about this table is the paucity of data leading to these esti- 
mates. The sediments carried by only 26 of the rivers entering the 
estuarine zone have been measured sufficiently well to permit even 
these estimates (IV-1-2). 

The great volume of sediments carried by the Mississippi, as con- 
trasted to the quantity carried by the Columbia, illustrates one of the 
major differences between a river forming a delta and one not forming 
a delta. The contrast between the sediment loads being carried by the 
rivers of the middle Atlantic and Chesapeake regions and those of the 
south Atlantic and gulf also illustrate why the evolution of drowned 
river valleys has progressed farther in the latter regions. 

The two Pacific coast regions are striking in that rivers with drain- 
age only from the coastal mountain ranges carry much greater sedi-* 
ment loads than those which drain the interior ranges. 

CLIMATE 

Solar energy striking the earth sets up complex cycles of water arid 
energy flow from the oceans to the sky and the land and back again. 
That part of the energy cycle occurring in the atmosphere gives rise 
to the various combinations of weather phenomena which make up lo- 
cal climates. Land, sea, and sky are mutually dependent in produc- 
ing specific climates, and the great ocean currents play their indirect 
roles in modifying the climates of the estuarine zone in addition to 
their direct effects discussed earlier. 

The annual distributions of temperature, precipitation, sunlight, 
and prevailing winds as well as the total amounts of each are of the 
greatest significance. Table IV.1.3 and figure IV.1.18 summarize the 
major climate characteristics in the estuarine zone of the United 
States. 

Precipitation may fall as rain, snow, or other forms of ice, depend- 
ing on temperature ; the form of i^recipitation has not only local im- 
pact, but also affects annual patterns of river flow in rivers draining 
to the coast. There is a tendency for precipitation along the northern 
Atlantic coast to be heaviest during the cooler months and for much 
of it to fall as snow ; the Pacific coast, except for Alaska, has a similar 
precipitation pattern with much less snowfall. The southern Atlantic, 
Gulf, and Alaskan coasts receive their heaviest precipitation in the 
summer and fall, as do Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 



76 



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77 



FIGURE IV.1.18 SEASONAL VARIATION IN CLIMATE AROUND 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE 



SAN DIEGO 



POBTL^NO 




PUERTO RICO & VIRGIN ISLANDS 



Portland, Maine 






8 





Baltimore, Maryland 



i" 




I 3 3 4 S « 7 • • ion 12 
MONTH 



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X . 

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a »l I 

* l>34St7lfiaill> 



78 



FIGURE IV.1.18 SEASONAL VARIATION IN CLIMATE AROUND 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE (continued)* 



Cape Hatteras, North Carolina 



2 ~t 

S 




5 ' 



Jacksonville, Florida 




ES; 




! ' I 1 3 4 s « 7 • • ion l> 

MONTH 



Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands 




£ s 



S 7 ' 

± ' I 1 3 4 s t 7 i t ion II 
MONTH 



Pensacola, Florida 



8 




S ' 



79 



FIGURE IV.1.18 SEASONAL VARIATION IN CLIMATE AROUND 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE (continued) 



Astoria, Oregon 




i ' 




Anchorage, Alaska 





Yukutat, Alaska 





Barrow, Alaska 





80 



FIGURE IV.1.18 SEASONAL VARIATION IN CLIMATE AROUND 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE (continued) 



Corpus Christ! , Texas 




San Diego, California 



-^^ 




i ' 



8 




Eureka, California 



% ~ 



Hilo, Hawaii 




S8 
o - 

I ^ 

S 3 

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i'. 



V 



81 

Local air, water, and ground temperatures, which govern the 
form in which precipitation occurs, are primarily a matter of solar 
radiation, which becomes more intense in latitudes nearer the equator. 
Local temperatures are, however, greatly moderated b^^ local precipita- 
tion, cloud cover, nearby ocean conditions, and prevailing winds. Two 
examples serve to illustrate this point : 

(1) Key West, Fla., on an island in the warm waters of the 
Gulf of Mexico, has an average temperature of Y7° F. ; Browns- 
ville, Tex., in about the same latitude but on the mainland, has an 
average temperature of 74° F. At Key West annual temperatures, 
moderated by the marine environment, range over only 49 degrees, 
whereas the range at Brownsville is 85 degrees. 

(2) Astoria, Oreg., at the mouth of the Columbia River, and 
Portland, Me., are both in the same latitude in zones of prevail- 
ing westerly winds. At Astoria, where the winds are blowing off 
the Pacific Ocean, there are Y6 inches of precipitation, including 
4 inches of snow. At Portland the prevailing winds blow off the 
continental land mass and there are 43 inches of precipitation, but 
72 inches of snow. 

TIDE 

The tide stands alone as a controlling force in the estuarine envi- 
ronment. The ebb and flow of the tide are the great facts of the 
estuarine zone, and have determined much of man's history from the 
time Julius Caesar lost a fleet because of the tides in the English 
channel to the time of D-Day in 1944, which was set because of the 
right combination of tide and moon. 

Tides are easily understood. The Sun, the Moon, and the Earth 
mutually attract each other, according to Newton's law of gravita- 
tion ; 2 the great masses of fluid in the ocean, being more sensitive to 
tiny changes in gravitation force than the solid land, are pulled about 
rather freely in a predictable fashion based on the relative positions of 
Sun, Moon, and Earth. They are predictable to such an extent that 
tables of accurate predictions of tidal height are published for each 
day of each year for each major j)ort of the world. Such predictions 
are valuable both to the captain trying to dock a large oil tanker and 
to the fisherman who is trying to find where the big ones are biting. 

Perhaps because tides are so easily understood and predicted, and 
are so easily observable everywhere, their importance in the estaurine 
zone has been largely overlooked. 

Table IV.1.4 gives typical tidal characteristics in several estuaries of 
the United States. It is immediately apparent that tides on each coast 
of the United States are different. Along the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts there are semidiurnal tides, i.e., two complete tides in a little 
over one day, but the Atlantic tides are equal and the Pacific tides 
are unequal. In the Gulf of Mexico most places have one tide a day, 
i.e., diurnal, but some places such as Tampa Bay exhibit both kinds 
of tides at different times of the month. 



2 It Is Interesting to note that observations of the rhythmic rise and fall of the tide 
led to the mathematical concepts through which the law was formulated. 



82 



TABLE IV.1.4.— TYPICAL TIDAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ESTUARINE ZONE OF THE UNITED STATES 



Biophysical region 



Type of tide 



Tidal range (feet) 



Mean Spring Diurnal i 



Maximum Current 
tidal velocity 
flood ebb 



North Atlantic: 

Eastport, Maine (Bay of Fundy) Equal semidiurnal... 

Isle deHaut, Maine: (Penobscot Bay) do 

Portsmouth Harbor, N.H do 

Boston Harbor, Mass do 

Middle Atlantic: 

Dumpling Rocks (Buzzard Bay) do 

The Narrows (New York Harbor) do. 

Cape May Harbor, N.J do._- 

Virginia Beach, Va do 

Chesapeake Bay; 

Wolf Trap Light (lower bay) do 

Point No Point(midbay) do 

Chesapeake Bay Bridge, Maryland do 

Washington, D.C. (Potomac River) do 

South Atlantic: 

Wilmington, N.C.(Cape Fear River) do 

Savannah River entrance, Georgia do 

Mayport, Fla. (St. Johns River) do 

Fort Pierce Inlet, Fla do 

Caribbean: 

Miami Harbor, Fla _ do 

Key West, Fla do 

San Juan, P.R. do 

Christiansted, St. Croix Diurnal 

Gulf of Mexico: 

St. Petersburg, Fla. (Tampa Bay) do. 

Pensacola Bay entrance, Florida. do.. 

Barataria Bay, La do 

Aransas Pass, Tex ...do 

Pacific Southwest: 

Sen Diego Bay entrance, California.. Unequal semidiurnal. 

Monterey Bay, Calif do 

San Francisco Bay entrance, Califor- do 

nia. 
Point Arena, Calif ...do — 

Pacific Northwest: 

Humboldt Bay entrance, California do — 

Yaquina Bay entrance, Oregon do.. 

Grays Harbor entrance, Washington do.. 

Puget Sound (Elliott Bay). Wash do 

Alaska: 

Juneau (Gastineau Channel) do 

Anchorage (Cook I niet) .do 

Goodnews Bay (Kuskokwim Bay) do.. 

Point Barrow .do 

Pacific Islands: 

Honolulu, Hawaii (Oahu).- .do 

Hilo, Hawaii (Hawaii) do 

Apra Harbor, Guam ...do.. 

Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa do 



18.2 
9.3 
8.7 
9.5 

3.7 

4.5 
4.4 
3.4 

1.0 

1.3 

.8 

2.9 

3.6 
6.9 
4.5 
2.6 

2.5 
1.3 

1.1 



3.9 
3.5 
4.0 

4.0 

4.5 
5.9 
6.9 
7.6 

13.8 

25.1 

6.2 

.3 

1.2 
1.6 
(') 
2.5 . 



20.7 
10.7 
10.0 
11.0 

4.6 
5.5 
5.3 
.1 

1.2 

1.5 

.9 

3.3 

3.9 
8.1 
5.3 
3.0 

3.0 
1.6 
1.3 



0.8 

2.3 
1.1 
.9 
1.7 

5.6 
5.3 
5.7 

5.8 

6.4 
7.9 
9.0 
11.3 

16.4 

28.1 

8.9 

.4 

1.9 
2.4 
(») 

4.0 



3.5 
1.6 
1.4 
2.0 

.9 
2.0 
2.1 
1.3 

1.8 
.5 



2.0 
1.8 
2.5 
3.0 

2.2 
1.2 
(2) 
(?) 

.3 
1.8 
1.7 
1.6 

1.2 
(2) 
3.3 

1.3 

1.8 
2.8 
2.5 
(2) 

2.3 
3.3 
2.6 
(2) 

(») 
(«) 



3.5 
1.7 
2.1 
1.5 

1.3 

2.3 

2.5 

.9 

2.2 
.7 

1.0 
.3 

1.7 
3.0 
3.5 
3.5 

2.4 
2.0 

(2) 

(0 

.3 
2.1 
1.7 
1.0 

1.4 
(0 
3.9 

1.3 

2.3 
2.6 
2.2 
(2) 

2.3 
3.3 
2.4 
(0 

(') 
(') 

3.4 

(') 



1 For an unequal semidiurnal tide, the diurnal range is the extreme range over the 2 sequential tides in slightly over 1 
day. 

2 Weak and variable. 

3 No data. 



Reference: The National Estuarine Inventory. 
Deta source: U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



83 

Tide ranges, i.e., the difference between high water and low water, 
are not so uniform. These are largely a matter of shape, size, and 
bottom material in individual estuarine areas. Ranges vary from the 
barely noticeable rises and falls of some lagoons along the Gulf of 
Mexico to the tremendous 28-foot range in Alaska's Cook Inlet.^ 

Even with small tidal ranges and small estuaries, the volumes of 
water being moved by tidal flow are fantastic. At Charleston, for 
example, in 6.5 hours 25 billion cubic feet of water move into or out 
of the harbor in one tidal cycle (IV-1-3). This is more than enough 
volume of water to supply the entire population of the United States 
with water for 1 day. The volume of water flowing into or out of Great 
South Bay on Long Island in one tidal cycle is adequate in volume to 
supply the city of New York for 1 week. 

The combination of tidal action and river flow gives rise to that 
unique phenomenon called an "estuarine circulation pattern," which 
usually means that fresh water flows in one direction m one layer and 
salt water flows in the opposite direction in another layer with various 
degrees of mixing at the interface between them. This type of circula- 
tion pattern is of great importance in some of the estuaries along the 
Atlantic and gulf coasts, and to a large extent governs the capacity 
of such estuaries to rid themselves of waste materials. 

Section 3. The Biophysical Estuarine Regions 

Each estuarine system along the coastline is affected to some extent 
by all of these dominating environmental factors. In some cases, as in 
the example already given, the dominance of one particular factor is 
readily apparent. It is much more often the case that the competing 
environmental factors are so evenly balanced that none can be said to 
dominate and the estuarine zone appears to be composed of a bewil- 
dering variety of unique systems. 

Yet, as an individual person can be identified as a member of the 
human species by general common characteristics and as a member of 
particular race by more specific characteristics, so can individual 
estuarine systems be recognized as belonging to regional and national 
groupings. 

Table IV.1.5 summarizes the dominating environmental factors in 
the estuarine zone of the United States. Combinations of environmen- 
tal conditions characteristic of various parts of the coastline permit 
the grouping of the national estuarine system into ten biophysical 



^ A tidlal bore, a single breaJiing wave bringing in the flood tide, is cliaracteristic of 
Turnagain Arm of Cook Inlet at certain times. This is the only tidal bore in the United 
States. 



84 






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86 

estuarine reg^ions of dissimilar Environmental characteristics (fig. 
IV.1.19). 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BIOPHYSICAL REGIOTSTS 

North Atlantic estuarine region. — ^Canadian border to Cape Cod. 

Cool, fertile waters with a large tidal range strike a steep, indented 
coast with deep water close inshore, but protected from the fnll force 
of the ocean waves by a wide continental shelf. Moderate precipitation 
with heavy snowfall leads to heavy spring river runoff which domi- 
nates local circulation. Natural erosion and sedimentation are not 
severe problems, and the evolution of drowned river valley estuaries 
is in an early stage in this region. 

Middle Atlantic estuarine region. — Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras, 
exclusive of Chesapeake Bay. 

A wide, gently sloping continental shelf with a smooth shoreline is 
cut by the entrances of several major river systems carrying moderate 
amounts of sediments. The same cool, 'fertile waters as in the North 
Atlantic estuarine region wash this coastline but with a smaller tidal 
range. The evolution of drowned river valleys into coastal marshes 
is in a secondary stage in the larger estuarine systems, Avith sand spits 
and barrier islands forming. 

OhesapeaTce Bay estuarine region. — All of the Chesapeake Bay sys- 
tem from Cape Charles and Cape Henry inland. 

Isolation from direct oceanic effects in much of the greatly branched 
system, the many subsystems with major river flows, and the reduced 
concentration of the ocean salt throughout the bay and its tributaries 
make this a unique estuarine system. This is a drowned river valley 
with numerous similar tributary systems in various stages of evolution. 

South Atlantic estuarine region. — Cape Hatteras to Fort Lauder- 
dale, Fla. (about 26° north latitude) . 

The generally wide continental shelf is brushed by the warm waters 
of the well-defined Gulf Stream. The low-lying coastal plain termi- 
nates in barrier islands and marshes in which large amounts of sedi- 
ments are being continually deposited by moderate sized rivers fed 
by heavy summer rainfall. Many of the drowned river valley estuaries 
have evolved all the way to coastal marshes. Tidal ranges are small to 
moderate, depending on local conditions. 

Caribhean estuarine region. — Fort. Lauderdale to Cape Romano (the 
Florida peninsula south of 26° north latitude) , plus Puerto Eico and 
the Virgin Islands. 

High temperatures, heavy rainfall, and warm ocean currents along 
practically nonexistent continental shelves result in tropical estuarine 
environments throughout this region. Coral reefs and mangrove 
swamps are the typical coastal features of south Florida, while the 
islands are mountainous and are fringed with coral reefs and beaches. 
Tidal ranges are small. 

Gulf estuarine region. — Cape Romano to the Mexican border. 

A wide continental shelf extends all the way around this large em- 
bayment, in which warm tropical waters are moved gently by weak 
currents and small tidal ranges. Heavy rainfall over most of the area 
brings sediments from the broad coastal plain to be deposited in the 
estuarine zone. Most of the drowned river valleys have evolved to a 
point intermediate between those of the Middle and South Atlantic 
regions — ^barrier islands are extensive and have large shallow bays 
behind them. 



87 




42-847 O — 70- 



88 

The Mississippi forms one of the major deltas of the world. This 
delta is unique among the estuarine systems of the United States, both 
in its size and in the extent to which it has built out over the continental 
shelf. 

Paciftc Southwest estuarine region. — Mexican border to Cape 
Mendocino. 

Because of the narrow continental shelf, periodic upwelling of deep 
water close inshore as winds force the California Current offshore 
brings cool, fertile water near the coast for several months of the year. 
The coastline has a typical beach and bluff configuration with only a 
few shallow embayments and the unique earthquake-born valley of 
San Francisco Bay which, in the delta formed by the confluence of 
the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, show what erosion and sedi- 
mentation might have done along the southwest coast if rainfall were 
greater in that area (fig. IV.1.20) of easily erodable mountains. 

Paciftc Northioest estuarine region. — Cape Mendocino to the 
Canadian border. 

The continental shelf and coastal configurations are similar to those 
of the Pacific Southwest, but ocean water temperatures are lower here; 
the movement of the California Current away from the coast is not as 
pronounced, and heavier rainfall has resulted in some major rivers 
cutting through the coastal mountains to form deeply embayed estua- 
rine systems. See figure IV.1.21. Extensive erosion and sedimentation 
have caused wide tidal flats, bars, and shoals to be typical of these 
systems. 

The straits of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, which were glacier- 
formed, do not have as severe sedimentation as exists along the ocean 
coast, and have retained much of their original configuration. 

Alaska estuarine region. — All of Alaska including the Aleutian 
and Bering Sea Islands. 

The dominant factors in this region are temperature and precipita- 
tion. Water temperatures are near freezing, and much of the precipi- 
tation falls as snow. The continental shelf is wide all through the 
region, and tide ranges are verj large. The southeast and south coasts 
have active glaciation and consist primarily of glacier-cut embayments 
and fjords ; the west and north coasts are much flatter and have been 
modified to some extent by sediments eroded from the interior, includ- 
ing glacial silt, and by the grinding action of pack ice during winter. 

Pacific Islands estuarine region. — The Hawaiian Islands, American 
Samoa, Guam, 

This region consists of tropical ocean islands of volcanic origin. 
Dominating factors are lack di a continental shelf, full exposure to 
oceanic conditions, and pleasantly warm temperatures. Coral reefs 
and beach and bluff configurations are typical (fig. IV.1.22). 

MANAGEMENT AND THE BIOPHYSICAL REGIONS 

The environmental factors upon which this subdivision of the 
national estuarine system is made all represent transport of solar or 
gravitational energy to the estuarine zone. Inherent in this subdivision 
is acceptance of the fact that the input of energy — upon which all life 
is based — differs in quantity and type in the several regions of the 
estuarine zone. 

In managing estuaries for human benefit, these regional differences 
in energy form and quantity represent the environmental realities 



89 

within which management must operate. In the fullness of time and 
with greater understanding of the world it may be possible to modify 
the environmental conditions to some extent, but for the present the 
existing environmental limitations must be accepted.^ 

This discussion has so far considered only those environmental 
factors which dominate the estuarine environment, not the environ- 
ment itself. Management's fundamental concerns, however, are with 
the appearance and quality of the individual environment and with 
the variety and usefulness of the life forms a particular environment 
will support. 

There are many life forms which exist throughout the estuarine 
zone, most of them being particularly adaptable forms of plankton, 
crustaceans, and fish. In addition to these, however, there are some less 
adaptable life forms which require a limited range of conditions to 
survive and yet others which need a very specific environment to 
reproduce. 

Maine lobsters, for example, are numerous in the North Atlantic 
estuarine region, scattered in the Middle Atlantic, and cannot be found 
in other regions. The commercial shrimp, on the other hand, are 
abundant throughout the Gulf, Caribbean, and South Atlantic regions, 
but sparse beyond this range. Maine lobsters thrive in the cold Labra- 
dor Current waters, while the major commercial species of shrimp need 
warm waters like those of the Gulf Stream to reproduce. 

Within the general range of the regional estuarine environment are 
specific local conditions with which management in particular estua- 
rine systems must deal. The next part of this discussion considers local 
conditions of land and water interaction and their relationship to the 
living communities present. 

Section 4. The Land and the Water 

Nowhere on the earth's surface are land and water as intimately 
related as in the estuarine zone, and nowhere are their interactions so 
significant in the ultimate effect on man's environment. 

Concern with the quality of the environment is couched ultimately 
in terms of its effect on life forms — -whether it is safe for human beings 
to be near, whether it looks clean, and whether desirable aquatic life 
forms can live and reproduce in it. These conditions are measured in 
terms of the magnitudes of water quality parameters which tell in- 
directly what the w^ater quality is. These magnitudes depend not only 
upon the character and concentrations of waste materials, but also 
upon the rapidity with which a particular system can purge itself of 
damaging agents. 

The shape of land along the land-sea interface goes far toward deter- 
mining what water movement and circulation patterns exist in partic- 
ular local areas, and, consequently, how fast a particular estuarine 
system will rid itself of pollutants. Within the estaurine regions dis- 
cussed in the preceding section, different structural types define 
patterns of water movement typical of particular structures, no matter 
what the external environment may be. 



1 One environmental factor, river flow, is already being freely modified — sometimes with 
less understanding than may be desirable. A case study on damages associated with river 
flow modification in Charleston Harbor is presented in chapter 5 (IV-1-3). 



90 

MORPHOLOGY OF THE ESTTJARINE ZONE 

Those characteristics shown in table IV. 1.6 describe differences in 
structure and form of the estuarine zone among the estuarine re^ons. 
The descriptive ratios presented in this table result from combining 
areas and distances characteristic of the estuarine zone of each region. 
Such ratios are numerical indices of the relative sizes of the estuarine 
zone in each region and also give quantitative measures of its relative 
composition among regions. Their greatest value, however, is in com- 
paring individual estuarine systems so as to apply the lessons learned 
in one estuary to the problems of another. 

Alaska has by far the longest general coastline and tidal shoreline 
as well as the greatest estuarine water area of any estuarine region, 
but the Chesapeake Bay region has a much greater proportion of esta- 
rine shoreline and area for its size than any of the other regions. Estu- 
rine systems within the Chesapeake Bay region consist of a group of 
branched rivers entering the Chesapeake Bay itself, which is in turn 
the former valley of the Susquehanna River. The estuarine systems on 
the western side of the bay tend to be surrounded with somewhat 
hillier land and less extensive marsh areas than those on the eastern 
shore, though nearly all systems tributary to the bay are drowned river 
valleys. 

The Middle Atlantic and Gulf estuarine regions have about equal 
amounts of tidal shoreline and estuarine water areas per mile of ocean 
coastline, but in the Middle Atlantic region the estaurine zone con- 
sists primarily of a few large drowned river valley embayments (e.g. 
New York Harbor, Delaware Bay, and Narragansett Bay) and some 
small marsh and barrier beach sy^ms receiving only coastal fresh 
water runoff. The estaurine zone of the Gulf region on the other hand 
consists mainly of moderate sized embayments with barrier beaches 
and extensive marshes, but receiving river flow from upland drainage 
areas and representing an intermediate state in the evolution of 
drowned river valleys into coastal marshes in the gulf region. 

The North Atlantic is unlike any of the other regions in overall 
structure, but is similar to Puget Sound and southeast Alaska. Char- 
acteristic of the North Atlantic region are very irregular, hilly coast- 
lines with deep water close inshore and long, narrow embayments with 
open access to the sea. 

The South Atlantic region has two dominant types of estuarine 
structure. From Cape Hatteras to about Jacksonville, there is a gen- 
eral input of upland river drainage to the estuarine zone and the 
estuarine systems are typical drowned river valleys in the later stages 
of evolution represented by barrier beaches or coastal marshes backed 
by extensive swamps. South of Jacksonville fresh water runoff comes 
primarily from local coastal drainage, and there are uniform and ex- 
tensive barrier beaches or coastal marshes backed by extensive swamps. 
South of Jacksonville freshwater runoff comes primarily from local 
coastal drainage, and there are uniform and extensive barrier island 
beaches with long narrow embayments behind them. Continuous but 
generally narrow strips of marsh lie along the embayments. This 
structure fades into the extensive swamplands of the Everglades 
farther down the Florida peninsula. 

Both the Pacific Northwest and Pacific Southwest regions have few 
estuaries. The estuarine systems of the Northwest Pacific region tend 



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to be the mouths of rivers which have cut their way through coastal 
mountain ranges, either of their own accord or aided by glaciers as in 
the case of Puget Sound. Shallow coastal embayments with little and 
sporadic river flow are characteristic of the few estuarine systems of 
the Southwest, except for San Francisco Bay, which receives fresh 
water runoff from much of central California. 

Alaska presents the greatest variety in estuarine form and struc- 
ture of any of the estuarine regions. Nearly all kinds of systems typi- 
cal of other regions are found there. In addition, Alaska has the only 
glaciated coast and most of the fjords found in the United States. 

The rivers entering the estuarine zone drain nearly 90 percent of 
the U.S. land area. They carry to the sea sediments eroded from this 
vast expanse and deposit much of it in the narrow band of 274 coun- 
ties which comprise the basic political subdivisions of the estuarine 
zone. These coastal counties form a strip of land averaging about 50 
miles wide along the coast, except where the large embayments of the 
Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound make this strip reach more 100 
miles from the ocean. 

The total area of the coastal counties is 552,000 square miles with 
the bulk of this in the Alaskan estuarine region and the smallest part 
in the Pacific Island estaurine region. In the Middle Atlantic, South 
Atlantic, and Gulf regions, the coastal strip is low-lying plain com- 
posed of easily erodable materials which tend to be deposited in the 
estuarine zone and moved about by waves and currents. The ocean 
coast is mostly sand throughout these regions, overlain near river 
mouths by some mud and clay. The Mississippi delta is entirely mud, 
clay, silt, and sand washed down from the heartland of the continent. 
Sand, mud, and clay predominate in the embayments, with sand char- 
acteristic of open waters and mud common in marshes. 

Rock, gravel, and sand are the common bottom materials along the 
North Atlantic coast, with the rock overlain by fine mud and silt in 
confined areas and sand common in the offshore areas. 

The Pacific coast counties form mountainous strips along the coast. 
Sediments reaching the ocean in this region tend to be deposited in 
broad tidal flats or bars where currents permit, or washed off into 
the ocean where wind and waves motion is sufficiently vigorous. Bot- 
tom sediments are rock and clay covered in some places with fine mud. 

The characteristic sediment of the Alaskan estuarine region is 
glacial flour, that extremely fine material ground from the land and 
carried along by glaciers. Many of the estuaries and much of the con- 
tinental shelf off the western Alaskan coast are covered with this 
material. 

Coral reefs, sand, and rocks are typical of estuarine bottoms in the 
Pacific and Atlantic Islands. Except in extremely shdtered areas, 
sediments are rare because of the continuous wind and wave action. 

A MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

The estuarine zone can 'be classified according to its local morphol- 
ogy into major categories, several of which exist in each of the estua- 
rine biophysical regions. Within each of these categories, the 
similarities in structure reflect similarities in water movement, water 
quality, and ecology which make it possible to apply lessons learned in 
managing an estuarine system in one region to similar estuarine 
systems in other regions. 



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FIGURE IV.1.23 MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ESTUARIES 
AND ESTUARINE ZONES 



1.1 SMOOTH SHORELINE WITHOUT INLETS 




1.3 SMOOTH SHORELINE WITH SMALL EMBAYMENTS 




2.2 INDENTED SHORELINE WITH ISLANDS 



95 



FIGURE IV.1.23 MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ESTUARIES 
AND ESTUARINE ZONES (continued) 




3. MARSHY SHORELINE 




5.1 EMBAYMENT WITH ONLY COASTAL DRAINAGE 




5^ EMBAYMENT WITH CONTINUOUS UPLAND RIVER INFLOW 




6. FJORD 



96 

Figure IV.1.23 illustrates each category. Table IV.1.7 shows the 
numbers of different kinds of estuarine systems in each estuarine bio- 
physical region. Unrestricted river entrances and embayments domi- 
nate and are rather evenly distributed throughout all the regions, with 
the common type of estuarine system being a coastal embayment with 
drainage from only the local coastal area. Many of these latter em- 
bayments have large marsh areas, but the Middle Atlantic, South 
Atlantic, and Gulf are the regions in which marshes are the predomi- 
nant feature in some parts of the estuarine zone. 

WATER MOVEMENT IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

The unique nature of water movement and circulation patterns in 
the estuarine zone is the result of the meeting and mixing of fresh 
river water and salty ocean water of slightly greater density under 
the oscillating influence of the tide. There may be additional compli- 
cating factors such as temperature and wind action, but the resulting 
circulation nearly always reflects the interaction of river flow and 
estuary shape with the tidal flow of the ocean water. 

General water movement patterns are predictable for each category 
of estuarine shape. Where there is little or no fresh water inflow, water 
moves toward and away from the shore, being reflected into currents 
paralleling the shore in some cases. On ocean beaches, this parallel type 
of water movement builds sandspits and barrier islands to begin the 
transformation of drowned river valleys into embayments and coastal 
marshes, as illustrated by figure IV. 1.24. 

Where fresh water runoff reaches the sea as a series of small streams 
or as seepage across the surface, coastal marshes often form and cir- 
culation patterns are weak and undefined. This situation may exist 
where local coastal drainage runs off to the sea, where a drowned river 
valley has filled in so much that the river channel is no longer defined, 
or where sediment deposition at the mouth of a large river forms a 
delta (fig. IV.1.6). 

Fiords are formed where a glacier, having gouged out a deep em- 
bayment, melts as it reaches the sea and deposits the entrained dirt 
and rock as a shallow sill across the entrance of the embayment (fig. 
IV.1.25). This sill isolates the lower water of the fjord from the sea; 
the only significant water movement is in the layers above the sill level. 

It is where moderately large rivers and streams meet the sea that 
the unique estuarine circulation patterns occur mostly frequently. 
Large fresh water flows in well-defined channels tend to slide over the 
top of denser sea water without rapid mixing. Water movement in 
such cases exhibits various degrees of stratification. 

Narrow channels and high fresh water flows result in a well-defined 
sea water layer moving upstream along the bottom of the channel and 
a nearly fresh layer moving toward the sea along the surface (fig. 
IV.1.25). 

The Mississippi and Savannah Rivers are classic examples of this 
"salt- wedge" circulation pattern. With this type of water movement, 
salt and water from the bottom layer mix constantly into the top 
layer, and more salt water flows in from the sea to replace it so that 
the total amount of water in motion may be many times the river flow 



97 



FIGURE IV.1.24 SAND SPIT BUILDUP (SANDY HOOK BAY, N.J.) 




COURTESY OF T.R. AZAROVITZ AND U.S.B.S.F. & W., SANDY HOOK MARINE LAB. 



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plus the tidal flow. Such estuarine systems purge themselves very 
rapidly of waste discharges. 

With wider channels, smaller river flows, and greater tidal ranges 
more mixing occurs and other forces come into play. Enibayment 
shape, bottom configuration and material, and the effects of the earth's 
rotation all may play a role. In some estuarine systems of this type, 
the degree of stratification may change with changes in river flow, 
temperature, wind, or other transient conditions. 

The James River is a drowned river valley in the Chesapeake Bay 
estuarine region (fig. IV.1.27). Its length of tidal influence is 
great in proportion to its width, and it exhibits some vertical stratifi- 
cation. Delaware Bay is much wider than the James and is stratified 
laterally (fig. IV. 1.28) ; that is, salt content along the eastern shore 
tends to be higher than that along the western shore. This phenomenon 
probably results from forces, associated with the earth's rotation, 
which in large bodies of water tend to cause lateral stratification as 
a result of the different rates of slipping of salt and fresh water on the 
spinning earth's surface. 

Hillsborough Bay, an arm of Tampa Bay, is nearly unstratified and 
quite salty during much of the year. During high flows, however, the 
Hillsborough River pushes the salt out of the upper part of the bay 
and often kills heavy growths of a salt water plant which is not toler- 
ant of fresh water. 

Some very large embayments with small ocean entrances such as 
Pamilco Sound have very small tidal ranges, very little stratification, 
and throughout most of their area, very weak currents (fig. IV. 1.4) . 
Only at the channels to the ocean are currents strong, and there they 
are often extremely violent and dangerous. Wastes discharged into 
such embayments tend to remain for long periods and exert their 
effects in the estuary rather than moving out to sea. 

NATURAL WATER QTJALrrY IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

Estuarine water quality is the product of both land and water. From 
the land, erosion and solution in river water bring suspended and dis- 
solved minerals, while decaying vegetation adds dissolved organic 
material. Sea water itself contains three percent dissolved salts, but 
negligible quantities of organic matter. 

In the estuarine zone these two different solutions meet and mix. Salt 
concentrations range from that of the oceans to the almost unmeasur- 
able amounts present in some ri^'ers. Where little stratification exists, 
sea salt dominates mineral concentrations in estuarine waters; in strati- 
fied systems, however, the small amounts of minerals entering in the 
fresh water may be as important in some parts of the estuarine zone as 
tJie mudh larger concentrations from the sea are in others. The inter- 
face between fresh and salt water is a region of complex chemistry 
where some material may be precipitated out or otherwise changed, 
much as lye soap used to be "salted out" when soap was made by boil- 
ing lard with wood ash extract in the backyard. Organic matter from 
decaying vegetation is particularly susceptible to this type of chemical 
effect. 

Climate also plays a direct rtJle in determining estuarine waiter qual- 
ity. Excessive evaporation can drive salinities far above those of ocean 



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102 

water, as in Laguna Madre, and create an inverse estuarine system. 
Sunlight beating down on shallow embayments may raise temperatures 
so hi^h that use of the estuarine waters for cooling may be seriously 
impaired. 

Table IV. 1.8 summarizes ocean and river water quality in each of the 
estuarine regions. Ocean water quality itself varies in different areas 
off the coast, generally reflecting ocean currents and climate as dis- 
cussed earlier. Ocean temperatures reflect not only the variation in lat- 
itude, but also the temperature differences of the cold and warm 
currents around the coast. The temperature difference north and south 
of Cape Hatteras is particularly striking, because the Gulf Stream and 
Labrador Current water each dominate on one side of the Gape. 

Nearshore ocean surface salinities are strongly influenced by river 
runoff and local precipitation. The effects of the Mississippi on the 
Gulf of Mexico are shown in figure IV.1.29. Less dramatic but none- 
theless significant, are the effects of the Hudson on the Atlantic and of 
the Columbia on the Pacific. 

FIGURE IV.1.29 SURFACE SALINITY DISTRIBUTION AROUND 
THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA 



28< 



Surface Salinity Distribution (%o} 
November 9-16, 1966 





S=30-34%» 



91* W 90' 89» 

SOURCE 'Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Galveston, Texas 



88« 



103 

The turbidity of ocean water is generally low except where it meets 
the shore; there the amount of turbidity is a direct reflection of the 
intensity of wave action and the nature of bottom material. 

Dissolved oxygen is essential for all aquatic life. The amount of 
dissolved oxygen present in surface ocean water is very close to 
the total amounts the water can contain. Since this saturation con- 
centration depends on both temperature and salt concentration, the 
w^arm, saline waters, of the Gulf contain far less oxygen than the cold, 
relatively fresh waters off the Alaskan coast. 

The natural quality of water free from human impact in the rivers 
entering the estuarine zone depends primarily on the nature of the 
ground over which they flow. Minerals enter the water by dissolving 
from soil and rock as the water flows over it or carries it along. Water 
flowing over limestone or other sedimentary material usually has 
greater concentrations of dissolved minerals than water flowing over 
volcanic rock and sand. Insoluble minerals are carried along as sedi- 
ments, some dissolving slightly and others settling out in quiet reaches 
of the rivers or in the estuarine zone. 

Decaying plant and animal materials also dissolve into the flowing 
streams. These materials use oxygen in the decaying process and in 
some streams, particularly in swampy areas, very low- dissolved oxy- 
gen concentrations are normal. Dissolved organic material frequently 
has a very intense yellow-black color which may make a water body 
appear jet black. This condition is common in the estuarine zones of 
the south Atlantic and Gulf regions. 

Variable as estuarine water quality and water circulation are, estu- 
arine waters in each of the estuarine regions have typical character- 
istics for different morphological categories. Table IV. 1.9 outlines 
such typical natural estuarine zone conditions. 

SEcnoN" 5. The Life Energy and Life in the Esttjaeine Zone 

It is in the variety and diversity of estuarine life that the input of 
energy to the estuarine zone finds ultimate expression. Whether energy 
comes directly, as in the solar radiation stimulating photosynthesis, 
or whether it comes indirectly, as with tidal flows or wind and rain 
pounding on the shoreline, its absorption and conversion to other forms 
of energy (such as food) are essential steps in the continuation of life 
in the water, in the marshes, and on the land. 

Energy input from gravitational forces, as illustrated by tidal 
action and river flow, depends primarily on local or regional condi- 
tions, but direct energy input from solar radiation depends largely on 
the latitude, the tropics receiving more energy per acre than the 
Arctic. The relative amounts of energy entering an estuarine system 
govern the kinds of life found there, and natural ecosystems show 
systematic variations related to the sources and amounts of energy 
received. 

Estuarine zones with strong mechanical energy inputs from waves, 
currents, tides, or river flows develop similar ecosystems no matter 
whether in the tropics or the Arctic. Exposed ocean beaches at all 
latitudes have communities of burrowing animals such as snails, 
worms, clams, and crabs. Rocky sea fronts develop communities of 
attached algae and moUusks (fig. IV.1.30). Channels with strong 

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106 

currents develop firmly attached communities where bottoms are hard, 
and only microbial life where sediments are constantly in motion or 
bein^ deposited. Where, however, such energy inputs do not dominate 
the input of radiation solar energy, natural communities develop 
compositions typical of Tropical, Temperate, or Arctic latitudes. 

Tropical systems (fig. IV.1.31) are subject to only slightly vary- 
ing warm temperatures; light energy input is both greater and more 
regular than in other latitudes. Within this general group there are 
the sparse populations along coasts with deep clear water close inshore ; 
the teeming and colorful populations of coral reefs; and the man- 
groves and the submerged grasslands associated with shallow, nutri- 
ent-laden water. Only the southern part of Florida and the islands are 
of this type. 

Arctic systems are subject to wide fluctuation of sunlight and tem- 
perature but ice is the key factor. Ecological systems develop in, on and 
under the ice and in the fiords associated with glaciers. (Fig. IV. 1.32.) 
Only a small part of Alaska includes estuarine systems of this type. 

Temperature systems are subject to moderate solar energy inputs, 
temperatures that change regularly with the seasons, and generally 
larger tide ranges and more wave action than either tropic or arctic 
sj^tems. Most of the estuarine systems of the United States lie in the 
temperate zone, and the balancing of solar energy input against me- 
chanical energy input in this zone leads to a great variety of ecosystem 
types, even within small geographic areas 

The tropical coral reefs have their counterparts in oyster reefs where 
hard surfaces and constant currents exists, and where there is sufficient 
particulaite food in the water. The mangroves and submerged grass- 
lands also have their counterparts in extensive marches and submerged 
algae and grass beds which are among the most productive parts of the 
estuarine zone (fig. IV.1.33). 

There are also intertidal ecosystems of burrowing animals, such as 
clams, where bottoms are soft (fig. IV.1.16) and of attached animals 
and plants where they are not (fig. IV.1.34). The predominant influ- 
ence of great amounts of river flow and the associated rapid salinity 
changes and stratification also result in ecosystems specific for different 
salinity zones or types of stratification. Where there is little river run- 
off, characteristic plankton and attached algae communities develop 
(fig.IV.1.35). 

The ecosystems described relate primarily to organisms that tend to 
stay in one place or move only short distances during their life. Of 
these, the oyster, the clam, the crab, and the lobster are the only eco- 
nomically significant animals. The great importance of such ecosys- 
tems, however, lies in the fact that these communities form interme- 
diate steps in the conversion of solar and gravitational energy to forms 
useful to mankind ; upon them depend the great pelagic fisheries whicih 
the estuarine zone nurtures. Without these communities mankind 
would be without shrimp, salmon, and menhaden, as well as the oysters, 
crabs, and lobsters which spend all of their lives there. 

The grouping of ecosystems outlined here describes a limited range 
of recurring variation of chemical and physical properties to which 
certain forms of life have adapted and on which they are now de- 
pendent. The basic environmental needs for all living plants and 
animals in such zones are zones of salinity consistently fluctuating 



107 

over a limited range of concentration ; solar energy ; water temperature 
variation; water quality and nutrients favorable to their propagation, 
growth, and survival; and, for some life forms, bottom conditions 
suitable to their unique needs. 

Many forms of plant and animal life can tolerate salinity ranging 
from ocean concentrations (35 parts per thousand) to practically 
zero. Other life forms must have a much narrower salinity range in 
which to live and reproduce. There are animals which require differ- 
ent salinities at different parts of their life cycle and which migrate 
to find it. Figure IV.1.36 shows the range of salinity tolerance of 
some characteristic estuarine plants and animals. Most of those with 
a limited salinity tolerance can also withstand temporary exposure 
to salinities outside that range. 

Solar radiation governs the photosynthetic process by which plants 
manufacture the basic food upon which all life ultimately depends. 
The primary producers of food in the aquatic environment are the 
microscopic plants upon which the succession of more advanced life 
forms feed. Planktonic communities exist in all ranges of salinity and 
temperature, but their composition may vary even with constant tem- 
perature and salinity. The rate of input of solar radiation is greater 

FIGURE IV.1.36 COMMON SALINITY RANGES OF OCCURENCE FOR SOME 
ESTUARINE-DEPENDENT PLANTS & ANIMALS 



Salinity Range 
(parts per thousand) 





( 


D 5 


1 


P 'l 


2 


P \ 


5 


3 


P ' 




40 






















Atlantic Oyster 












8fti 




















Oyster Drill 




i$9b 




;. 








Blue Crab 


:::|_0:::V-;-V;.V 




" 


: 






















Adult Shrimp 
















Turtle Grass 
















Salt Marsh Grass 


■ 






■ 




(Spartina) 

















Source: Odum, H. T. , op. cit . 



108 

in the tropics than in Arctic, and life in tropical environments is more 
prolific than in the Arctic. 

Although water temperatures in the estuarine zone are closely 
related to the input of solar radiation, they are also greatly influenced 
by the temperatures of nearby cold or warm ocean currents. Many plant 
and animal species tolerate a wide enough temperature range to sur- 
vive in considerable stretches of the estuarine zone from north to south. 

There are a considerable number of plants and animals that have 
adapted to temperature ranges in the colder estuarine zone; others 
have adapted to temperature ranges occurring in the warmer tem- 
perate and subtropic waters of the estuarine zone ; and there are some 
that have adapted to the colder waters of the northern estuaries, the 
warmer waters of the southern estuarine zone, and the gradations in 
between. Figure IV. 1.37 shows the temperature ranges tolerated by 
some characteristic estuarine organisms. 

The quality of water in the estuarine zone has sometimes dramatic, 
sometimes subtle, effects on estuarine life. The disolved and particulate 
nutrients so plentiful in the coastal zone make this area very produc- 
tive compared to other parts of man's environment. The coral reef 
communities of the tropics, where energy conversion is primarily a 

FIGURE IV.1.37 COMMON TEMPERATURE RANGES OF OCCURENCE OF 
SOME ESTUARINE-DEPENDENT PLANTS & ANIMALS 



Atlantic Oyster 

Striped Bass 

Chinook Salmon 

Sockeye Salmon 

California Grunion 

Turtle Grass 

Salt Marsh Grass 
(Spartina) 



30 



40 



Temperature Range 
(degrees F. ) 

00 60 70 80 90 



100 



Sources: Odum, H. T., op. cit. 

"Industrial Waste Guide on Thermal Pollution," 
FWPCA, p. 40-42 (1968) 



109 

matter of photosynthesis, are nowhere near as productive as the 
oyster reefs and marshlands of the temperate zone^ where particulate 
organic foods as well as solar energy are converted mto plant and ani- 
mal tissue for use by animals higher in the food chain. 

DEPENDENCE OF FISH AND SHELLFISH ON THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

DependencjT is governed by particular environmental requirements 
for reproduction, protection, food supply, or a combination of these. 
Estuarine dependent species are of three types : 

(1) /Species restricted to estuaries. 

Amon^ the relatively few species of fish and shellfish that complete 
their entire life cycle in the estuarine zone is the Atlantic oyster. It 
will die after long exposure to freshwater although it can stand lim- 
ited periods of such exposure and can thrive in relatively high salinity 
water. Tlie spotted sea trout occupies the estuary for all its life pur- 
poses and only occasionally leaves the estuary under unusual extremes 
of salinity and temperature. 

[2) Anadromous and catadromous species 

Anadromous species pass through the estuarine zone on their jour- 
ney from the sea to the freshwater environment where they spawn. 
Some species, such as the Pacific salmon, die after spawing and others, 
such as the striped bass, live to return to the estuarine zone and the sea. 
The young of all anadromous species spend varying periods of time in 
the freshwater areas where they were spawned, but all eventually 
migrate to the estuaries and then the sea. 

There are few truly catadromous species that mature in the fresh 
or brackish water environments, and then migrate to higher salinity 
waters of the estuary of the adjacent sea to spawn. The American eel 
and the blue crab are examples of this type. 

{3) Migratory esimarine species 

The great majority of estuarine dependent species fall under this 
classification. Some use the brackish and freshwater areas of the estu- 
arine zone for reproduction ; some as a source of food ; some for shel- 
ter, either as adults or young; and some for all these reasons. They 
all have in common the basic need for both estuarine and ocean 
environments at some point in their life cycle. This group includes 
the great majority of fish and shellfish of direct importance to man, 
such as shrimp, menhaden, flounders, and red drum. 

Various types of dependency are illustrated by several examples. 

SHRIMP 

The commercially important shrimp are of three kinds: brown, 
white, and pink. These species are concentrated along the South Atlan- 
tic and Gulf coast of the United States. The pink shrimp spawns in 
offshore waters at depths of 100 to 150 feet, salinity between 3.61 and 
3.77 percent, and temperatures between 64° and 77° F. After 13 or 14 
hours, the eggs hatch and the larval shrimp begin to pass through 
a series of developmenta;l stages, at the same time beginning to move 



no 

or drift towards the Florida mainland about 100 miles distant 
(fig. IV.1.3S). 

Movement to the estuary probably takes from 3 to 5 weeks and, de- 
spite the large numbers of postlarvae entering the estuary, only an 
estimated five out of every hundred eggs produce shrimp that survive 
to this stage. 

By the time the estuary is entered, the postlarvae have developed 
from planktonic to benthic feeders and have developed a wide tolerance 
to varying salinity and temperature conditions. From aibout 2 to 4 
months the juvenile ehrimp grow rapidly from perhaps one-half inch 
in length to commercial size before returning to the sea and completing 
the life cycle. 

The life cycle of the three primary commercial species are similar 
but the species differ in their penetration of the estuary and their util- 
ization of the estuarine environment after the adult stage is attained. 
The brown shrimp spawns in waters 150 to 230 feet in depth and re- 
mains <a relatively short time in the estuary. The white shrimp rarely 
is found in waters deeper than 100 feet and possesses a greater affinity 
for fresh water than do the others. 

The estuary fulfills two primary functions: (1) Provision of ade- 
quate nourishment during a period of rapid physical growth and (2) 
protection from predators. A large proportion of the slirimp's diet ap- 
pears to consists of small, invertebrate animals, such as worms, mollusk 
larvae, and small crustaceans, as well as fish larvae and nematodes. 

Shrimp is a primary food item for various estuarine animals, includ- 
ing red drum, spotted seatrout, snook, and gray snapper ; but the estu- 
ary undoubtedly provides more vegetation and debris for protection 
than open waters, and sufficient alternative foods exist in the estuaries 
to move some of the pressure from the shrimp. 

MENHADEN 

Spawning occurs at sea along the continental shelf, and the eggs 
natch in the ocean after about 2 days. Larvae move into the estuaries 
as far as the freshwater interface. A transformation of physical char- 
acteristics accompanies the entrance into the estuaries as larvae grow 
and shift from bem^ selective, particulate feeders to being nonselective, 
filter- feeding juvenile menhaden which can tolerate wide variations in 
both salinity and temperature. 

The menhaden population of a particular estuarine system seems 
10 be determined by the number of larvae entering the waters, food, 
oxygen, competition, and predators. Because they are primary con- 
sumers, feedmg directly upon the natural vegetation, menhaden rep- 
resent the base of the food chain for many predators, such as the 
bluefish, striped bass, and sharks. 

SALMON 

There are today only token runs of Atlantic salmon into a few rivers 
in Maine to spawn, although in colonial times this species was ex- 
tremely abundant from the Housatonic River to the St. Croix River. 

In the shallow estuarine areas of the Bay of Fundy and the coastal 
bays and sounds of Maine they are frequently caught in herring weirs 



Ill 



Figure IV.l. 38 

TYPICAL LIFE HISTORY 
OF THE GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP 




o o ® 



Source: W.C- Guest, The Texas Shrimp Fishery , 1958. 



a Shrimp Eggs d Mysis Q Adolescent Shrimp 

b Nauplius Larva 6 Postmysis h Adult Shrimp 

C Protozoa f Juvenile Shrimp 



112 

set in shallow water. The waters in these estuaries provide an abun- 
dance of food for the salmon in the form of the young sea herring and 
euphausiid shrimp. 

All five species of salmon on the west coast have one basic difference 
from the Atlantic salmon. They die subsequent to spawning. The 
total spawning range of these species is from Monterey Bay, Calif., to 
the northwest tip of Alaska. Only the King salmon occupies the 
spawning streams of the full range. The Silver salmon has the next 
longest range along the coast extending from the Sacramento River 
to the Bering Strait. The Red, Pink, and Chum salmon range from 
Washington State to the Bering Sea, and are rarely found south of this. 

The distance upstream that the Pacific salmon migrates to spawn 
varies from species to species, as well as within species, varying from 
the extreme headwaters 1,500 miles from the estuarine zone to within 
a few miles of the estuary. Both the young and adult salmon of all 
species pass through the estuarine zone, either to reach the spawning 
ground in fresh water or to reach the sea. During the passage through 
the brackish estuary the adult ceases feeding, whereas the young of 
all species utilize the food available in the estuarine zone as they pass 
through to reach the sea. Young Silver salmon are known to remain 
within the estuarine portions of their natal stream, growing rapidly 
on the abundant food supply in this highly productive environment. 
Adult Silver salmon are caught throughout the year within the estu- 
arine zone. The Pink salmon fry enter the brackish estuarine waters 
soon after hatching in the Spring, and are known to remain there until 
August. 

OYSTERS 

The Atlantic oyster has evolved into an animal of broad adaptability 
relative to salinity, temperature, and food requirements, as indicated 
by its range, on the Atlantic and gulf coasts of North America from 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mexican coast. 

The Atlantic oyster is most abundant in estuarine systems charac- 
terized by considerable inflows of fresh water, with constant water 
movement, and fluctuating local salinities. The currents bring food 
to these fixed animals and distribute the larvae. Two of the most pro- 
ductive areas for the Atlantic oyster are the Chesapeake Bay and the 
Louisiana bays and sounds affected by the great flow of the 
Mississippi River. 

The salinity range most favorable to the Atlantic oyster lies between 
five and 30 parts per thousand. Below five little or no reproduction 
takes place and the feeding ability is affected. Oysters occupying 
areas with salinities exceeding 15 parts per thousand are subject to a 
number of predators such as the oyster drill. 

The Atlantic oyster has adapted to wide ranges of temperatures. 
It survives in temperatures of around 34° F. and in temperatures of up 
to 90° F. Intertidal oysters in the warm climate of Texas survive a 
number of hours out of the water with internal temperatures of as 
much as 120°F. This oyster ceases feeding when temperatures fall 
below 43°F. or rise above 107°F. Oysters spawn only when the 
temperature of the water rises above 68°F., whether in Long Island 
Sound or Apalachicola Bay. In its southern range the oyster has a 
much longer spawning period and feeds all year long. 



113 

Section 6. Energy and Management in the Biophysical 
Environment 

Solar energy and gravitational energy are the basis for everything 
that happens naturally in the estuarine zone. This discussion of the 
biophysical environment has been concerned primarily with the trans- 
formation of these energies into forms useful in living processes and 
exploitable by man. Three different sets of subdivisions of the bio- 
physical environment were used in this discussion (fig. IV.1.39). 

Differences in the external environment divide the estuarine zone of 
the United States naturally into 10 geographic regions, each subject 
to a particular combination of the external influences of tide, ocean 
currents, wave action, sedimentation, and climate. This subdivision 
into estuarine biophysical regions gave broad ranges of conditions in 
each region, but the importance of local coastal conditions in deter- 
mining energy flows via water movement paved the way for a subdi- 
vision of the estuarine zone according to 11 morphological groups 
having similarities in water movement, circulation, and the ability to 
rid themselves of wastes. 

A subdivision according to ecological communities is also based 
primarily on geographical location, but again local coastal conditions 
make it necessary to identify small ecosystems within each major 
grouping. This subdivision rests not only on the shape and form of 
coastal areas, but also on the composition of the estuarine bottom. 

As an illustration of the relationships of these groupings, consider 
the ways to classify a group composed of all the deliverymen in the 
United States. They work in 50 States (the biophysical regions) ; 
they work in cities, towns, and rural areas (the morphological classifi.- 
cation) ; they deliver different kinds of things, such as groceries, 
clothes, furniture, and hardware (the ecosystems) . 

Each of these different groupings of the estuarine zones is signifi- 
cant to management. The biophysical regions are contiguous geo- 
graphic zones with similar general environmental conditions that 
would be appropriate for an institutional management unit. The mor- 
phological grouping can serve as a guide to useful physical modifica- 
tion and necessary waste treatment, while the ecological grouping tells 
what can and can't be done with the living resource. 

REFEaiENCES 

IV-1-1 Tlie material presented in this chapter was distilled from a number of 
sources. While individual citations are given in some cases, the com- 
plexity of the source information precludes detailed references. The 
more informative general references are these : 

Kuenen, Ph. H., Marine Geology, New York, Wiley, 568 pp (1950) 
Shepard, F. P., Submarine Geology, New York, Harper and Row, 

557 pp (1963) 
Harvey, H. W., The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters, Cam- 
bridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 240 pp (1963) 
Sverdrup, H. V., M. W. Johnson, and R. H. Fleming, The Oceans, 

Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1087 pp (1942) 
Pickard, G. L., Descriptive Physical Oceanography, New York, 

MacMillan, 199 pp (1963) 
Von Arx, W. S., An Introduction to Physical Oceanography, New 
York, Addison Wesley, 422 pp (1962) 



114 

Stommel, H., The Gulf Stream, Berkeley, Calif., University of 

California Press, 202 pp (1958) 
Encyclopedia Britaunica, 1967 ed. 
Encyclopedia Americana, 1967 ed. 

Odum, H. T., Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States, 
North Carolina (Report prepared by the University of North 
Carolina under FWPCA Contract No. 14-12-429, for the Na- 
tional Estuarine Pollution Study), 1878 pp (1969). (In Press) 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Coast Pilot. Volume 1 (1965), 
2 (1966), 3 (1966), 4 (1964), 5 (1967), 7 (1963), 8 (1962), 9 
(1964) . Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States. 
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950 pp 
(1967) 
U.S. Geological Survey, Surface Water Supply of the United 
States. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Papers, Washing- 
ton, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office. (Published 
annually) 
IV-1-2 Carstea, D. D., W. S. Haushild, and N. M. Baker, Annotated Bibliog- 
raphy of Sedimentation in Coastal Bodies of Water (Prepared by 
U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, under reim- 
bursable agreement with the Federal Water Pollution Control Ad- 
ministration for the National Estuarine Pollution Study), Washing- 
ton, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey ( mimeographed copy ) (1969) 
IV-1-3 Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Charleston Harbor 
Water Quality Study, Charleston, S.C. Washington, D.C., U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior, mimeographed copy, 88 pp (1966). 



CHAPTER 2. USE OF THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

The predominant uses of any particular estuarine area depend on 
historical and economic development, population pressures, and the 
kinds of natural resources available for exploitation. The socio- 
economic environment of the estuarine zone is the direct result of the 
value of the estuarine zone as a means of sustenance, a place to live 
and work, a source of enjoyment, and a means of transportation. This 
chapter describes that environment in terms of how the biophysical 
environment is exploited to serve man's needs and shows conceptually 
how valuable it is to his society (IV-2-1) . 

The major values of the estuarine zone to society form the framework 
for discusing the relationships of individual uses, their compatibil- 
ity with other uses, and the physical modification that has taken place 
to support these uses. 

Section 1. Sustenance: Use as a Fish and Wildlife Habitat 

FISH 

Estuarine dependence is a convenient term for describing a nor- 
mally complex biological interrelationship between the estuarine en- 
vironment and an aquatic organism. This dependence includes a vast 
spectrum of biological relationships. Practically all of the sports fish 
species are dependent upon the estuarine zone for one or more phases 
of their life development, and approximately 65 percent of all commer- 
cial fish species are estuarine-dependent. The discussion in chapter 1 
concerning life in the estuarine zone described the nature of estuarine 
dependence and gave examples of several estuarine-dependent species 
important to human society. 

Many fish species live their entire lives in the estuarine zone and are 
well-adapted to this type of environment. The oyster, for example, has 
lived in the estuary for millions of years, as evidenced by the huge 
deposits of shell on the bottoms of bays. The shallow water, salty 
substrate, and intermediate salinities are ideal for oyster culture. 

Other species may use the estuary only as a passage zone on their 
way to freshwater streams or to the open ocean. However, in doing so, 
they also utilize the high production of food that is characteristic of 
estuaries. Even some continental shelf species, such as bluefish, and 
most marine predators (including tuna), can be considered depend- 
ent upon the estuary as an ultimate source of most of their food. 

The economically important fish species are those sought by either 
the sports fisherman or the commercial fisherman ; however, the sports 
fishes are usually taken by hook or with hand-held equipment. Table 
IV.2.1 lists some of the more important estuarine-dependent species 
of sports and commercial fish and shellfish. It also shows the type of 
dependency of each. 

(115) 



116 



TABLE IV.2.1.— ESTUARINE DEPENDENCE OF IMPORTANT SPORT AND COMMERCIAL FISH 



Sports fish : Type of dependence 



Biophysical region 



Permanent residence 



Passage zone 



Nursery zone 



North Atlantic. . . 

Middle Atlantic. 

Chesapeake 

South Atlantic... 

Caribbean.. 

Gulf of Mexico... 

Pacific Southwest. 
Pacific Northwest. 

Alaska 

Pacific Islands... 



Croaker, Atlantic mackerel, blue- Atlantic salmon, shad Striped bass. 

fish. 
Croaker, drums, Atlantic mack- Shad Do. 

ere!, spot, bluefish. 
Crabs, croaker, drums, spot, do Do. 

bluefish. 
Crabs, croaker, drums, spotted do... Do. 

sea trout, spot, bluefish. 

Spotted sea trout, spot, bluefish _ 

Crabs, croaker, drums, spotted Shad. _ Striped bass. 

sea trout, spot, bluefish. 

Abalone, rockfish, barracuda _ 

Abalone, rockfish _ Salmon (chum, coho. Pink salmon. 

king, red). 

Crabs. do Do. 

Barracuda 



Commercial fish: Type of dependence 



Biophysical region 



Permanent residence 



Passage zone 



Nursery zone 



North Atlantic. 
Middle Atlantic. 
Chesapeake 



South Atlantic 

Caribbean 

Gulf of Mexico 

Pacific Southwest. 
Pacific Northwest. 



Alaska 

Pacific islands. 



Oysters, clams, croaker, flatfish... Atlantic salmon, eel Menhaden, lobsters. 

do Eel Menhaden. 

Oysters, clams, crabs, croaker, do Do. 

flatfish. 

Oysters, crabs, croaker, flatfish do Shrimp, menhaden. 

Flatfish Lobsters. 

Oysters, crabs, croaker, flatfish Shrimp, menhaden. 

Clams, abalone, flatfish 

Oysters, abalone, crabs, flatfish. . . Salmon (chum, coho. Pink salmon, 

king, red). 

Crabs, flatfish do Shrimp, pink salmon. 

Oysters, flatfish Lobsters. 



Figure IV.2.1 illustrates the geographic ranges of some of the estu- 
arine-dependent sport and commercial fish throughout the United 
States, and many of these different kinds of sports fish can be caught 
as one goes from salt water to fresh water within an estuary (fig. 
IV.2.2) . Fishermen have nearly as much variety as the fish they catch, 
as figure IV.2.3 demonstrates. Even the ocean fisheries are to some 
extent related to the estuarine zone, because most fishing and the most 
productive fishing grounds are close to continents. Latitudinal ranges 
of some maior commercial fish off U.S. coasts are shown in figure 
IV.2.4. 



WILDUFE 

Estuarine wildlife can be classified into four categories with differ- 
ing economic significance : (1) fur bearing mammals, (2) game water- 
fowl, (3) ornamental shore birds, and (4) the comnion wildlife that 
can tolerate human presence. The relative abundance of some charac- 
teristic species in the biophysical regions is discussed below. 

Fii/r hearers 

The primary estuarine fur bearers are the fur seal in Alaska, nutria 
in the South Atlantic and Gulf States, the common eastern muskrat 
in New Jersey, the Virginia muskrat in the Central Atlantic States, 
and the Louisiana muskrat in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and 
Texas. Secondary in importance are the racc(X)n, mink, and otter. 



117 



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FIGURE IV.2.3a A YOUNG SALT-WATER FISHERMAN GETS HIS START 
IN THE BAYOUS OF LOUISANA 




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121 

Foxes, weasels, opossum, and bobcats are not sought for their fur 
but may occasionally be trapped (fig. IV.2.5). 

For economic levels of fur production, the marshes must be man- 
aged specifically for the fur bearers. This means control of undesirable 
plants, prevention of excessive populations and, in some cases, control 
of predators. The primary food plants are threesquare and cattails; 
these, however, are easily supplanted by invading needleruch, cord- 
grass, sawgrass, and other undesirable plants. Hence, the marshes are 
burned annually, usually in the fall, and are subsequently flooded to 
eradicate the pest plants and enhance growth of threesquare (fig. 
IV.2.6) . Dikes or other water control devices are used to help minimize 
the intrusion of salt water into the fresh or brackish water of the pro- 
ducing marshes. Thus, the marshes managed for fur production are 
not normally available for other valuable aquatic species, especially 
shrimp and estuarine-dependent fish (fig. IV.2.Y) . 

Game umterfoiol 

The dependence of waterfowl on the estuarine zone is both complex 
and not completely understood. The primary sport species, such as mal- 
lards and canvasbacks, have been successfully adapted to man-made 
changes in their environment, particularly those which do not affect 
the nesting sites. In some cases, the construction of roads, drainage 
canals, and other works have enhanced nesting areas by stabilizing 
water levels, providing flood-proof nesting sites and drought-proof 
rearing ponds. Furthermore, most species do not appear particularly 
dependent on any aspect of the estuarine zone, being able to use fresh- 
water marshes, lakes, and ponds with equal ease. This ambivalence 
has been sharply enhanced in the gulf area by extensive rice cultivation 
and cattle farming which enable many species, such as the white- 
fronted geese, to shift habitats away from estuarine marshes. Other 
species, such as Canada geese and mallards, have demonstrated even 
more adaptability, many remaining the entire winter in the freshwater 
bodies of the Midwest (fig. IV.2.8). Many sea ducks feed upon small 
crustaceans, fish, and insects that are estuarine-dependent. These ducks 
have not learned to feed on agricultural lands, and tend to migrate to 
deeper saltwater environments during the winter. 

In summary, while game waterfowl are frequently observed in the 
estuarine areas, they do not appear dependent upon specific estuarine 
conditions. There are some exceptions, such as the American brant, 
but research has not determined the relationship between altered hab- 
itat and declining numbers. 

OmamentaX hirds 

Shore and sea birds are a particularly aesthetic attraction among 
the national fauna. However, they rarely have a direct tangible eco- 
nomic value, except as a component of the natural ecosystem. These 
birds are generally more dependent upon estuarine conditions than the 
more mobile waterfowl, and have demonstrated a greater sensitivity to 
the overall encroachment of man. The saga of the virtually extinct 
Avhooping crane is well known and documented; and the trials of 
several other groups, such as the egrets, have received periodic public- 
ity. Among the bird life most threatened by changing environmental 
conditions, especially in the estuaries, are the. larger fish-ea.ters of the 
Nation's coast. 



122 

The brown pelican has already disappeared from the gulf coast of 
AlaJbama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, where it was a common 
sight prior to 1960. This disappearance coincided with the heavy fish 
kills of 1960-64 in the lower Mississippi River, which were caused by 
excessive residues of pesticides. One theory proposed that the dead and 
dying pelicans observed during that period had accumulated lethal 
dosages (fig. IV.2.9) . This assumption, however, was not verified and 
another theory used to explain the lack of any recovery was the de- 
struction of nesting grounds in black mangroves by the severe cold. 

The 80 species of waders, which include the egrets, storks, herons, 
ibis, and spoonbills, are predominantly residents of the southern 
United States, particularly in Florida. The recent drought and man- 
made changes in the Everglades have drastically reduced the number 
of these species in Florida. For some species, this represents a serious 
setback in their gradual recovery from near extinction at the hands of 
the plume hunters. Waders elsewhere on the southern coast have also 
diminished in numbers, apparently because of irresponsible shooting 
and manmade environmental changes. 

AQUACULTURE 

The great fish and shellfish resources of United States coastal waters 
have adequately supplied the seafood demands of the increasing pop- 
ulation for over 300 years. Now, however, the demand for some prod- 
ucts is so large that the normal fishing grounds and fisheries are in 
great danger of being exhausted, both from overfishing and from 
the indirect effects of man's encroachment into the esuarine environ- 
ment. To supply future needs of some fish products new approaches 
toward commercial fishing are needed, both in harvesting the natural 
growth and in controlling the entire fishery. 

Aquaculture is defined as the rearing of aquatic organisms, both 
plants and animals, under controlled conditions using the techniques 
of plant and animal husbandry. It involves a variety of operations: 
some are highly sophisticated where man exercises control over the 
principal environmental factors affecting the cultured species, and 
others are very simple with only minimal control or manipulation of 
the habitat and the cultural animal. 

The following examples illustrate the variety of aquacultural activi- 
ties that are now practiced : 

(1) Rearing aquatic species from selectively bred strains to com- 
mercial size under controlled conditions where the optimum require- 
ments for food, temperature, salinity, and other physiological and 
environmental needs are provided; predators and competitors are 
eliminated and diseases controlled, and highly mechanized methods 
are used to reduce labor costs. This is the ultimate in aquacultural 
operations and has been achieved only for a few species (e.g., carp). 

(2) Rearing aquatic species in natural or artificial enclosures to 
commercial size, with or without supplemental feeding, predator con- 
trol, environmental adjustment, and selective breeding. Enclosures 
may be man-made tanks, natural or artificial ponds, or enclosed areas 
of the sea. Such techniques are now used for the production of oysters, 
clams, shrimp, catfish, carp, and baitfish. (fig. IV.2.10) . 

(3) Rearing aquatic species in hatcheries through the juvenile 
stages, the period of greatest natural mortality, to stock natural areas. 



123 



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124 

This effort may be used to replenish stock reduced by natural or artifi- 
cial changes in the environment, overfishing or other factors, or to 
introduce new species into an environment. Such methods are being 
used to maintain salmon and trout fisheries and to provide sportfish 
in areas of heavy fishing pressure. 

(4) Transplanting wild stocks as eggs, young, or spawning adults 
from one natural area to another to provide more suitable habitat 
for spawning, growth, or survival, and to introduce species into new 
environments. This method has been the backbone of present day 
oyster culture on leased grounds. This method was also used to intro- 
duce striped bass and shad from the east coast to west coast waters. 
Widespread transplants of salmon have also been made with varying 
success. 

(5) A variety of other techniques have been developed to increase 
abundance and survival of commercially valuable species, e.g., cultch- 
ing oyster beds with shell to increase setting ; suspending shell strings 
from floats or piling to catch larval oysters and grow the adults using 
the total water column (fig. IV.2.11) ; moving oysters to predator or 
disease-free areas; construction of artificial reefs to provide more 
suitable habitat for oysters, lobsters, and fish (fig. IV.2.12) ; and 
opening or closing breaches in barrier islands to improve environ- 
mental conditions of essential lagoons. 

(6) Aquaculture is also practiced in the experimental rearing of 
larval fish and shellfish to study the importance of environmental 
factors on survival and to determine causes of the marked variation 
in year-class size. 

Aquaculture, with a few minor exceptions, appears to be today 
where agriculture was 50 or more years ago. True farming of the sea 
is still in its infancy. At the present time almost all of the oysters pro- 
duced on the west coast of the United States have at least one manipu- 
lation by man before they are harvested; on the Atlantic seaboard 
approximately 50 percent are manipulated at least once before harvest. 
Other than oysters, there are no known enterprises in marine aqua- 
culture that are expecting a significant profit. Many ventures are 
presently underway to develop pilot plants for commercial farming 
in the future. 

Table IV.2.2 lists the range of species that are presently being 
studied for marine aquaculture. Research is at private, university, 
State government, and Federal Government laboratories. 

Table IV.2.2. — Species under marine aquaculture research 

Organism : state 

Algae Florida. 

Shrimp Alabama, Florida, Texas, Louisiana, 

South Carolina, Oalifornia. 

Orabs Oalifornia, Maryland, Oregon. 

Lobsters Maine, Florida, California, Massachu- 
setts. 

Crayfish Louisiana. 

Freshwater Shrimp Florida, Alabama, Hawaii. 

Mussel California, Oregon. 



125 

TaT)le IV.2.2. — Speoics under marine aquaculture research — Continued 

Organism — Continued State 

Oyster North Carolina, Delaware, Virginia, 

Connecticut. New York, California, 
Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Massachusetts, Washington, 
Oregon, Rhode Island, Florida, 
Georgia. 

Scallops New York, Florida. 

Clam New York, Oregon. 

Marine Worms Maine, Florida. 

Alligators Louisiana. 

Freshwater Catfish (brackish 
water) Louisiana. 

Spot Louisiana. 

Croaker Louisiana. 

Mullet Louisiana, Hawaii. 

Pompano Florida, Louisiana, Texas, South Caro- 
lina, Alabama. 

Sea Trout Florida. 

Abalone Oregon, California. 

Section 2. Enjoyment : Use for Eecreation 

The demand for outdoor recreation has increased significantly 
over the past decade. The trend toward higher personal income and 
more leisure time has made it possible for a greater percentage of the 
populace to seek new outlets. The advertising industry has campaigned 
vigorously to sell the public on the need for recreation. Companies 
manufacturing equipment for outdoor recreation, and service facili- 
ties to support the "recreationalist" are blossoming in all parts of the 
country. In addition, the unique availability of resources, in close 
proximity to large population centers, offers an unparalled recrea- 
tional opportunity for many who previously could not afford to travel 
far from their homes. 

Since there is this wide variety of land and water recreational ac- 
tivities available in the estuarine zone, many estuarine systems are 
intensively used for these pursuits. This is primarily because people 
rarely have a single activity as the sole objective of a recreational 
outing. Clusters of activities that require similar environmental con- 
ditions, but differ in environmental quality needs, can be grouped as 
follows: (1) Swimming and associated shore activities, which include 
picnicking and camping; (2) sports fishing from the shore or a small 
boat; ( 3)" boating which is one of the most popular water-based ac- 
tivities, and boat-centered activties, such as fishing, water skiing, 
cruising, hunting, and even traveling or socializing; and (4) aesthetic 
appreciation of the total environment. 

Based on attendance, the most hea^dly used beaches in the United 
States are Long Island in New York and the coastal beach^ of Mary- 
land, Virginia, Massachusetts, Florida, and California. The majority 
of these beaches face the open sea rather than an estuary or coastal 
sound. It is estimated that less than 10 percent of the entire coastal 
swimming activity, or less than 3 percent of all swimming participa- 



126 

tion, occurs inside embayments.This apparent lack of utilization of 
swimming is based on several factors varying from personal preference 
to environmental quality. The most significant reasons are these: 

(1) There is a lack of large sandy beaches, surf, and expansive 
seascapes. 

(2) Public access is limited because of marshy terrain and pri- 
vate development along the shoreline. (For example, of all Mary- 
land's 41 State parks, including those authorized or under con- 
struction, only five are on the estuaries. In Connecticut only five of 
the 82 State parks are located on the coast, despite a recreation 
shoreline of 162 miles) . 

(3) Swimming is often prohibited or is disagreeable in embay- 
ments because of low water quality. 

The fishing aspects have been discussed previously, but are men- 
tioned again because of the relationship between sport fishing and 
recreation, especially as an associated activity. Pleasure boating and 
shoreline activities are frequently extensions of sport fishing trips or 
vice versa. 

Boating is a major recreational use of the estuarine system. On a per 
capita basis however, the coastal States do not have a high propensity 
towards boating activities. While representing 61.5 percent of the 
Nation's population in 1966, the coastal States accounted for only 
55.4 percent of the total sales in outboard motors. Only about 25 per- 
cent of all pleasure boating is estimated to occur in the coastal waters, 
most of which is in protected areas. 

Aesthetic enjoyment is probably the most widespread use of the 
estaurine environment today. Tourists from the interior States are al- 
ways eager to view such sights as ships coming under the Golden Gate 
Bridge into San Francisco Bay, the lonely solitude of Foi-t Sumter as 
it rests seemingly impregnable in Charleston Harbor, and the parade 
of ships in and out of New York Harbor. The attractive scenic vistas 
are not for the tourists alone, but hold a certain magnetism for residents 
of the coastal cities as well. One has only to scan the real estate adver- 
tisements to realize the premium value on waterfront or waterview lots. 

Many of the coastal cities have had the foresight to reserve the estu- 
arine shoreline for parks and scenic parkways. The George Washington 
Memorial Parkway in Virginia is a good example, for it allows un- 
paralleled view of the historic Potomac River near the Nation's capital. 

Aesthetic appreciation of the estuarine zone is not limited to the 
enjoyment of the scenic grandeur, but also includes observation of its 
wide variety of wildlife. This includes birds of all types, the fascinat- 
ing creatures of the tide pools, and playful porpoises cavorting in the 
water with an enviable freedom. 

A portion of the estuarine wildlife also serves another recreational 
use — hunting. Some of the estuarine marsh areas offer miexcelled 
waterfowl hunting opportunities. To a lesser degree the estuarine areas 
in certain sections of the country offer other types of hunting opportu- 
nities, such as coastal deer in South Carolina and Florida and big game 
in Alaska. 



127 

There are certain ancillary facilities and services necessary to realize 
the full potential of estuarine recreation. First and foremost is ade- 
quate access to the rese^rved areas such as parks, wildlife refuges, 
beaches and roadways, waterways, and paths. The Chesapeake Bay 
is an excellent example of a large estuarine system with limited public 
access; most of the access sites available to the public are privately 
controlled and charge user fees. 

Additional support services and facilities may range from nothing 
but access trails for wilderness areas to expensive resort type commu- 
nities with shopping, hotel or motel accommodations, and restaurants. 

The activity on which the recreation area is based generally deter- 
mines the minimum support facility and service needs. Swimming 
requires, in addition to beach, sanitary facilities and life guards, as well 
as such items as food shops and beach equipment rental booths. If the 
beach is extremely popular, motels, specialty shops, and a whole spec- 
trum of commercial enterprises will develop. If boating is the prime 
activity, launching ramps, marinas, and repair shops will be needed in 
addition to basic sanitary facilities. If fishing is the prime activity, 
bait and tackle shops are needed. It is evident that the extent of devel- 
opment of support service is almost unlimited, depending on the pop- 
ularity of the recreational area (fig. IV.2.13) . 

Just how the popularity or importance of a particular recreational 
activity or area is measured presents another problem. Ideally, the 
importance could be defined as the sum of all the individual users' 
values. Since this figure is difficult if not impossible to obtain, some 
index of use must be developed. Table IV.2.3 shows some possible 
indices of use and some of their characteristics. 

TABLE IV.2.3.— INDICES OF RECREATIONAL USE OF ESTUARINE AREAS 

Index factor Advantages Disadvantages 

Number of visitors... Direct indication of popularity May have to be estimated; does not indicate 

type ot activity. Difficult to evaluate eco- 
nomically. 

Duck stamps sold _ Readily available from records; gives a Does not relate to estuarine area alone; not 

partial dollar value. always an indicator of use. 

Hunting licenses sold-- ..do Do. 

Fishinglicensessold ..do Many States do not require licenses for salt 

water fishing. 

Fishing participation days An indicator of one specific type of No records to furnish figures; no indicator of 

recreational use; shows pressure on fisherman success. No monetary values 
a particular area. attached. 

Yacht club memberships.. Records available to supply information. May not be true i ndicator of participation in 

use. Applies to only a small segment of 
total user group. 

Marina slips Information readily available; indicates Not a true indicator of boating activity be- 

a capacity figure; gives indication of cause of the mobility of transient boats, 
value. 
Parking area atlaunching ramps.. Indicates estimated use importance of Does not reflect actual use; no indication of 
popularity. number of people or size of boats or type 

of use. 

Boat registrations Available from records Not all boats required to be registered. 

Trailer boats are extremely mobile and 
registrations do not show area of use. 
Charter boats operating including May be indicative of potential traffic Could be difficult to obtain. Does not reflect 
tours and passenger spaceavail- from given location or of desirability actual use, only capacity, 
able. of an area for fishing or sightseeing. 

Nonresident hunting and fishing Information readily available from Not necessarily specific to estuarine zone; 
licenses. records. Indicates interest by out- fishing licenses may not be required in 

of-State residents. salt water areas. 



128 

The relative intensity of recreational use of the estuarine zone varies 
in different sections of the country. Data pertaining specifically to the 
estuaries are not available ; however, some information on the impor- 
tance of recreation in the coastal area, which serves as an index to 
estuary potential, is given in table IV.2.4. This table presents a break- 
down of recreation shoreline by shore type, ownership, and degree of 
development. The recreation shoreline is defined according to accessi- 
bility and usefulness for recreational pursuits. It comprises about 
one-third of the entire tidal shoreline of the United States. 

TABLE I V.2.4.— ESTIMATED MILEAGE OF THE U.S. RECREATION SHORELINE (STATUTE MILES) 



Biophysical region 



Extent of 

Total develop- 

shoreiine ment 



Type of shoreline 



Beach 



Bluff Marsh 



Ownership 



Public 



Recrea- Re- 

ation stricted Privately 
areas areas owned 



North Atlantic 

Middle Atlantic 1.-- 

Chesapeake Bay 

South Atlantic 

Caribbean (Florida only). 

Gulf of Mexico 

Pacific Southwest 

Pacific Northwest 

Alaska 

Pacific Islands 

Total 



2,983 High 

2,929 do... 

1,798 Low 

2,517 Moderate. 
809 Low 

3,642 do... 

1, 136 Moderate. 

2,039 do... 

(') - 

(') 

17,853 



158 
742 
157 
746 
328 

1,247 
253 
284 
(») 
(') 

3,915 



2,683 

1,146 
941 
283 
124 
586 
788 

1,570 
(') 
0) 

8,121 



142 
1,041 

699 
1,489 

357 

1.809 

95 

185 



43 

147 

5 

149 

49 

81 

133 

163 



3 
66 
125 
72 
37 
94 
89 
38 



2,937 
2,717 
1,667 
2,295 

722 
3,469 

913 
1,839 



5,817 



770 



524 16,559 



1 Middle Atlantic region mileages include New York Great Lakes frontage and excludes all Pennsylvania frontage. 
> No data available. 

Reference: Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Rept No. 4. 

Analysis of the data in the table shows the differences in shoreline 
development in various sections of the country. The heavily populated 
northeast section of the country, including the North Atlantic and 
Middle Atlantic regions, has a fairly well-developed coastal area. Of 
the total 5,912 recreation shoreline miles (including the Great Lakes 
portion of New York) there are 5,654 miles under private or restricted 
public ownership, meaning that 97 percent of the shore is inaccessible 
to the general public (fig. IV.2.14). In the Chesapeake and South 
Atlantic regions the state of shoreline development is low to moderate. 
Of the total 4,315 miles of recreation shoreline for the two regions, 
only 154 miles are public recreational areas, a mere 4 percent of the 
total. The level of development of the gulf coast is relatively low. Out 
of a total 3,642 miles of recreation shoreline only 81 are dedicated to 
public recreational areas, a total of only about 2 percent. The Pacific 
coast, which is composed of 75 percent bluff type shoreline, in areas 
suitable for recreation provides 10 percent of this length for recre- 
ation, or almost 300 out of 3,000 miles. 

That so much of the recreation shoreline is in private ownership 
indicates the high value placed on waterfront property and the desire 
to own it, either for passive enjoyment or for more active recreational 
pursuits. 



129 

Section 3. Use for Transportation 

The Nation's estuaries provide the physical, social, and economic 
conditions required for an effective system of : Water terminals serving 
international trade and coastal shipping; essential elements of the 
national defense system; areas used for airport development; and 
land transport. 

According to a 1966 inventory of ports and terminals by the Mari- 
time Aministration, there were 1,626 marine terminal facilities pro- 
viding deep water berths in 132 ports on the Atlantic, Gulf and Pa- 
cific Coasts. Table IV.2.5 shows the distribution of estuarine ports. 
The significance of these ports and terminal facilities is indicated by 
the 1965 statistics which show that they handled 78 percent of the 
U.S. foreign trade total, or 346,315,000 tons of foreign trade cargo. 
In addition, the port facilities handled 332.1 million tons in coastal 
cargo and 288.8 million tons in local shipping. 



FIGURE IV.2.14. 



EXTENSIVE SHORELINE DEVELOPMENT ALONG 
A BAYOU IN LOUISIANA 







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PHOTO BY: ROBERT N. DENNIE, COURTESY OF LOUISIANA WILD LIFE AND FISHERIES COMMISSION. 



130 

Table IV.2.5 also shows arrivals and departures for the major U.S. 
ports for 1964. The traffic indicated by these statisics demonstrates 
the competition for water surface and navigation channels. In New 
York, for example, there are between two and three arrivals or de- 
partures every hour. Portland, the 11th ranking port in the estuarine 
zone, has an arrival or departure every 2 hours. There is very little 
information giving a breakdown in vessel types. Statistics for the 
year 1964 for the port of New York show 18,682 dry cargo or passen- 
ger arrivals and departures and 5,098 tankers. 

TABLE IV.2.5.— ESTUARINE USE BY WATERBORNE COMMERCE, 1964 



Biophysical region 



Number Number 
of of 

ports terminals Major port 



Combined Estimated 

arrivals and numbers of 

departures watercraft 



North Atlantic 


10 
19 

5 

12 

1 

24 

19 

19 

15 
9 


100 


Middle Atlantic 


419 


Chesapeake Bay 


157 


South Atlantic 


105 


Caribbean 

Gulf of Mexico 


8 
353 


Pacific Southwest 


222 


Pacific Northwest. - 


200 


Alaska. 

Pacific islands 


29 
41 






Total 


133 


1,634 



Boston -. 4,168 2,084 

New York 24,580 12,290 

Philadelphia 13,791 6,895 

Hampton Roads 11,353 5,676 

Baltimore 10,734 5,367 

Charleston. 

Savannah 

Jacksonville 

Miami 

San Juan 

New Orleans 10,400 5,200 

Houston.... 8,372 4,186 

Los Angeles-Long Beach 9,467 4,733 

San Francisco 9,081 4,540 

Seattle 4,171 2,085 

Portland.... 4,081 2,040 

Anchorage. 

Honolulu 



Reference: The National Estuarine Inventory. 

Data Source: Maritime Administration and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

The estuarine ports also serve as essential elements of the national 
defense system. The deep water terminals exert a significant influence 
on the location of defense installations, as well as of the indusitrial com- 
plexes necessary for logistical support of the defense effort. A direct 
indication of the use of estuaries by the naval vesels is the total number 
of ships in commission. During the fiscal year 1967 this number was 931 
with a planned increase to 960 in the fiscal year 1969. 

In addition to those commissioned ships, in fiscal year 1967 there 
were 1,071 merchant ships in the National Defense Reserve Fleet. These 
ships are stored in the estuarine areas as shown in table IV.2.6. 

Waterborne transportation in the estuaries is not a completely free 

TABLE IV.2.6.— FISCAL YEAR 1967, NATIONAL DEFENSE RESERVE FLEET (MERCHANT SHIPS) 



Location 



Ships not 
maintained 



Ships main- 
tained in 
retention 
status 



Total 



Hudson River. 
James River. 

Mobile 

Beaumont 

Suisun Bay... 
Olympia 

Total.. 



69 


68 


137 


164 


122 


286 


65 


100 


165 


25 


100 


125 


99 


128 


227 


21 


110 


131 



443 



628 



1,071 



131 

g:ift. In all cases a large investment is required to support and sustain 
this activity. Adequate channels must be provided to carry the ship 
traffic. In almost all estuaries this involves maintenance dredging to 
provide sufficient water depth to float deep draft vessels (fig. IV.2.15). 
These channels must be marked with navigation aids to prevent the 
ships from inadvertently straying into shallow water. Terminal facili- 
ties are necessary for loading, unloading, and storing cargo. There 
must also be shipyards with all the equipment and facilities necessary 
to repair, maintain, and fuel the large ships (fig. IV.2.16) . 

Besides the physical facilities needed, there are certain environ- 
mental considerations. Already mentioned is sufficient water depth 
to keep the ships afloat. Since dock facilities and berthing space are 
expensive and cannot be monopolized for long periods of time by 
single ships, there must be safe anchorage areas where ships can await 
their turn at the piers. These anchorage areas also provide temporary 
safety during stormy weather and must, therefore, be sheltered from 
the direct force of the wind and waves. The whole concept of a harbor 
is a port of safety out of harm's way. 

The advent of nuclear powered ships has presented additional prob- 
lems. The harbor areas must be protected from every possibility of 
environmental contamination by radioactive substances, and these 
ships must have easy access to the sea. 

The use of the harbors for waterborne transportation is competi- 
tive in that it may cause other uses to be foregone. Heavy ship traffic 
interferes with pleasure boating and related activities (fig. IV.2.17). 
Maintenance of the ship channels may alter the ecology and the surface 
area occupied by the large vessels may well interfere with safe pleasure 
boating. 

Transportation in estuaries is not limited to waterborne traffic. 
Since a major percentage of large cities are located on estuarine sys- 
tems, there is considerable pressure to develop fill areas for airports 
which then utilize the long overwater approaches to keep the jet noise 
away from developed areas. San Francisco International Airport is 
a good example, and in Washington, D.C., National Airport uses fill 
areas and overwater approaches (fig. IV.2.18) . 

As the airplanes get bigger and the air traffic gets heavier, it ap- 
pears that more cities will try to develop isolated airport facilities. 
The planning of the Miami Jetport in the Big Cypress Swamp is a 
good example. In cities where estuarine areas are available a similar 
trend will probably develop. The last aspect of transportation to be 
considered is that of land transport. A dichotomy exists here. The 
water areas offer a barrier to land travel that must be overcome with 
causeways or bridge type structures which can interfere with naviga- 
tion or cause habitat damage. On the other hand, peripheral roads 
offer some of the more scenic routes available and are frequently the 
only undeveloped area on which roads can be built. Examples of 
these peripheral roads are Bayshore Drive in Tampa, Fla. ; Bayshore 
Freeway south of San Francisco; and Harbor Drive in San Diego 
(fig. IV.2.19). 

SECTioisr 4. Use as a Human Habitat 

These are the uses that occur wherever people live and work in civi- 
lized communities. They represent uses not unique to coastal areas, 
although the estuarine zone places restrictions on some uses and offers 
advantages in other activities. 



132 

MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY 

The water in the estuary can serve as a source of both domestic and 
industrial water supply, but its utilization for domestic supply is very 
limited at the present time. Normally the brackish water is unpotable 
and treatment costs to render it potable are extremely high ; however, 
where the upstream freshwater inflow is sufficient to repel salinity 
intrusion from portions of the tidal area, the water is used for a domes- 
tic and agricultural water supply source. The San Francisco Bay 
Delta area is an excellent example of this, although there are a few 
others. 

The brackish estuarine water is also a poor source for industrial 
process water. Here again a high degree of purity is normally required 
in the process water and the cost of removing the dissolved salts is 
prohibitive. 

Estuarine waters are used extensively, however, as a source of indus- 
trial cooling water. For this use the most important considerations are 
ambient temperature and quantity. Water temperatures are generally 
well below the maximum for economical cooling, and since the ocean 
is connected to one side of the estuary, the quantity is no problem. 
Cooling water is required by both the manufacturing industry and elec- 
tric power generation plants ; the greatest use is in the thermal electric 
plants. Table IV.2.7 shows cooling water withdrawals in the coastal 
counties. Not all of the amounts shown are taken from estuarine waters, 
but almost all of these quantities find their way back into estuarine 
waters. 

The distribution of cooling water uses parallels population and in- 
dustrial development in the coastal counties, even though electrical 
power can be transported economically over many miles. The greatest 
concentrations of cooling water use are in the Middle Atlantic and Pa- 
cific Southwest regions; these regions both have moderate water 
temperatures which make possible efficient use of the available cooling 
water. 

Table IV.2.7 also shows, however, that there are 47 nuclear power- 
plants built or scheduled for completion by 1976. All of these are in the 

TABLE IV.2.7.— ESTIMATED COOLING WATER USE IN THE COASTAL COUNTIES. 1963 
[Water use in million gallons per day] 

Existing or 

planned 

Power Manufactur- nuclear 

Total cooling generating ing industrial powerplants 

Biophysical region water use plant use use (number) 

North Atlantic 1,480 1,200 280 3 

Middle Atlantic .-. 11,030 9,000 2,030 20 

Chesapeake Bay 1,040 850 190 5 

South Atlantic 350 290 60 8 

Caribbean 330 270 60 3 

Gulf ot Mexico 1,020 830 190 1 

Pacific Southwest 3,850 3,150 700 5 

Pacific Northwest 900 730 170 2 

Alaska.. _ (0 (0 (') 0) 

Pacific Islands 100 80 20 (') 



Total, estuarine zone 20,100 16,400 3,700 

1 No data. 

Reference: National Estuarine Inventory. 

Data source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Manufactures 1963. 



133 

megawatt range, with a combined capacity of nearly 35,000 megawatts 
of electrical power. While the bulk of these will be in the cooler parts 
of the Nation, 12 will be in the South Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean 
regions. In these regions water temperatures are high, greater volumes 
must be used to achieve proper cooling, and the increase in water 
temperature through the powerplant may be sufficient to cause en- 
vironmental damage. 

In addition to water temperature, there are other environmental re- 
quirements and problems associated with the use of estuarine waters 
for cooling. The potential user must have access to the water, and the 
water ideally should have a low suspended load to reduce maintenance 
on the cooling system. A major problem is that use of the brackish 
waters can be accompanied by large growth of mollusks and other 
clogging organisms which can result in costly maintenance and repairs. 

WATER POWER GENERATION 

Many schemes have been promulgated to harness the energy of the 
tides for the generation of electric power. In the Passamaquoddy arm 
of the Bay of Fundy and in some parts of Cook Inlet, Alaska, the tide 
range is in excess of 25 feet. If the vast amount of energy involved in 
the water movement could be harnessed, a tremendous power source 
would become available. Unfortunately, tidal electric plants cannot 
compete economically with the fossil -fueled or nuclear thermoelectric 
plants. Even more important, power generation peaks would vary with 
tide fluctations, not consumer demands. It appears there is very little 
potential for economic development of tidal power. 

WASTE DISPOSAL 

The concentration of population and industrial development in the 
estuarine zone has led naturally to the use of estuarine waters for re- 
moval of the waste materials of man's oi\dlization from his immediate 
vicinity. It is unlikely that cities were built on the coastline with any 
conscious consideration of the use of the estuarine environment for 
waste disposal, yet it has happened that this use has become one of the 
major uses of estuarine waters and the associated land. Virtually all 
of the cities and industries in the coastal counties dispose of wastes 
either directly or indirectly into the estuarine zone. 

Liquid waste discharges to estuarine systems include domestic waste 
products, industrial waste materials of all degrees of chemical complex- 
ity and sophistication, used cooling water with its thermal load, and 
storm runoff. These wastes affect the estuarine environment in different 
ways and can eliminate other benefical uses (fig. IV.2.20). 

Liquid wastes are not the only concern. The use of the estuarine 
shoreline for refuse dumps and land fills results in considerable debris 
getting into the water (fig. IV.2.21). Water leaching through these 
dumps has a pollutional impact on the estuarine water. Spoil disposal 
from dredging activities is another form of solid waste material that 
contributes to estuarine degradation (fi^. IV.2.22). Solid materials 
entering the estuary in the form of debris from storm runoff can be 
significant in terms of damaging beneficial uses. 

The impact of waste disposal on the estuarine environment will be 



134 

discussed in part IV, chapter 5. In the context of estuarine uses it is 
important to recognize, however, that waste disposal is a highly sig- 
nificant and universal use of the estuarine resource and that it is likely 
to remain so. Along with the many other socioeconomic uses of the 
estuarine environment, it must be managed so that it does not damage 
the biophysical environment. 

EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES 

Minerals within the water, on the bottom, and under the bottom are 
a valuable part of the estuarine resource and are being exploited 
widely. Table IV.2.8 ^hows the extent of such exploitation in the 
estuarine zone. 

Subbottom mining operations are limited to the recovery of sulphur, 
petroleum, and natural gas, with the major operations occurring in 
Louisiana, Texas, California, and Alaska (fig. IV.2.23). These opera- 
tions exist both in the estuaries and out on the continental shelves with 
the governing criterion for location being the location of reserves ; the 
carrying out of such operations does not require an extensive amount 
of local installation or development after drilling is finished. 

Avery Island, La., for example, has over 100 oil wells in active pro- 

TABLE IV.2.8.— MAJOR EXPLOITATION OF COASTAL MINERAL RESOURCES, 1967 



Biophysical region < and commodity ^ 



Number of ■ 
operations 



Quantity produced ' 



Amount 



Units 



Value 



North Atlantic: 

Metals _ __ 45 

Sand and gravel ..- 116 

Clay _ 7 

Middle Atlantic: 

Metals...- 73 

Sand and gravel 232 

Clay 24 

Chesapeake Bay: 

Metals - 26 

Lime - 3 

Sand and gravel. 140 

Clay. - 16 

South Atlantic: Sand and gravel 6 

Gulf of Mexico: 

Petroleum. 311 

Natural gas _ 830 

Natural gas liquids 138 

Metals 14 

Lime 2 

Sand and gravel 29 

Clay 5 

Salt 1 

Sulfur 4 

Other nonmetals 42 

Nonmelals _ 14 

Pacific Southwest: 

Undistributed 23 

Other mineral fuels 334 

Petroleum 465 

Sand and gravel 216 

Other nonmetals 182 

Pacific Northwest: 

Other mineral fuels 1 

Sand and gravel 155 

Other nonmetals _ 127 



1,668,058 Tons $7,251,772 

10,068,000 Tons.... 10,611,000 

34 Tons.. 99 

8,085,909 Tons 15,878,611 

12,299,000 Tons.. 20,193,000 

419,549 Tons 1,149,331 

4,415,357 Tons 11,351,502 

6,034 Tons 114,580 

3,451,000 Tons.. 3,511,000 

103,500 Tons... 207,000 

137,000 89,000 

775,970 Barrels 92,138,579 

12,977,008 Cu. ft. -- 22,540,516 

3,321,951 MG- 64,513,281 

37,946 Tons. 21,081 

3,057,318 Tons 23,413,877 

3,848,950 Tons. 6,991,125 

6,724,608 Tons 36,036,697 

2,743,450 Tons 21,337,860 

16,569 Tons 528,590 

16,261,084 Tons... 32,316,421 

4,315,639 Tons 12,516,395 

1,009,793 Tons... 55,997,873 

3,127,128 MG 40,160,352 

214,807 Barrels- 582,000 

64,696,906 Tons 73,307,506 

11,474,022 Tons 43,205,436 

107,736 MG 898,430 

26,750,606 Tons.... 34,447,779 

7,856,956 Tons 13,721,602 



1 Data are not available for the Caribbean, Alaska, and Pacific islands regions. 

2 Commodity classifications from U.S. Bureau of Mines, "Minerals Yearbook." 

3 Quantities and values of some commodities are withheld to avoid disclosure of individual operations. 



Data source: U.S. Bureau of Mines. 



135 

duction as well as some new drilling. Yet, the company exploiting the 
oil reserves has restored all abandoned well sites and taken special 
efforts to make their facilities blend into the natural environment 
(fig. IV.2.24). This example is an exception to general practice, but 
nevertheless points out the resource exploitation is not necessarily 
synonomous with environmental destruction. 

Recovery of minerals from submerged estuarine zone bottoms by 
surface mining, that is, dredging, is primarily directed toward sand, 
gravel, and oyster shell production. Sand and gravel operations are 
prevalent throughout coastal areas wherever suitable deposits and a 
market exist. Most sand and gravel dredging operations supply nearby 
users; therefore, they tend to be distributed in relationship to con- 
struction and to population. 

The concentration of population and industrial development in the 
estuarine zone, the accessibility of estuarine areas for sand and gravel 
dredging, and the efficiency of barge transport to coastal construction 
areas all tend to increase the pressure on submerged estuarine sand 
and gravel deposits, particularly as coastal shore deposits are ex- 
hausted. While no data are available on the present relative impor- 
tance of shore and submerged deposits in the various biophysical 
regions, it is certain that all available sources of sand and gravel 
deposits will be exploited intensively. 

Oyster shell production is an extremely useful construction material 
in the Gulf of Mexico ,:)iophysical region. Twenty of the 22 million tons 
of annual U.S. production are in the Gulf States with Texas and 
Louisiana producing \he vast majority of it. The major oyster shell 
deposits are in shallow embayments such as Galveston Bay, Tex., and 
Mobile Bay, Ala. 

Phosphate rock is an important estuarine mineral resource; about 
75 percent of the total U.S. production is in the estuarine zone of 
Florida and North Carolina, particularly around Tampa Bay and 
Pamlico Sound. Considerable deposits of phosphate rock underlie 
much of the South Atlantic biophysical region, and these may be sub- 
ject to future exploitation. 

Ocean water is a great reservoir of dissolved minerals, some of which 
are extracted commercially. Installations in the estuarine zone in Cali- 
fornia, New Jersey, Texas, and Florida extract magnesium compounds 
from coastal ocean water and supply the bulk of U.S. production. Large 
ponds are used in California for the evaporation of saline water to 
produce commercial salt ; many of these have been built in marshes or 
shallow estuarine waters. 

SHORELINE DEVELOPMENT 

The use or development of estuarine water either depends upon, or 
governs, land or shoreline use. Examination of some of the purposes 
of shoreline development illustrates this relationship. 

Recreational shoreline development is based on potential water 
use. Recreational facilities included : Marinas which support boating 
activities ; beaches which are necessary for the swimmers ; parks that 
cater to those seeking aesthetic enjoyment of the water; fishing piers 
and vacation cottages, motels, and hotels (fig. IV.2.13). Although 



42-847 O — 70 10 



136 

the motels and hotels are a commercial venture, their prime purpose is 
to support the recreationalist. Finally, recreation sites provide the 
access needed to enjoy the water. 

Residential developments breed water use because of the proximity 
of the water. In many communities the development of waterfront 
property subjects the shoreline to intensive housing development. This, 
in turn, is accompanied by a buildup of boat docks, fishing and swim- 
ming piers, and private beaches which are represenative of the owner's 
affluence (fig. IV.2.14). Whether or not the water use is the primary 
motivation for the owner is not significant. 

Commercial development of the shoreline includes docks and ship- 
yards, loading terminals, the smaller municipal and local piers, 
industrial plants, and airports. These are all built to furnish a service 
and a profit return for the investors (fig. IV.2.16) . 

Transportation, both commercial and personal, is common to all 
other activities. In addition it requires highways, commercial port 
facilities, and airports (fig. IV.2.18). The land- water relationship of 
airports has been discussed previously. Highways are not directly 
related to water use but are an integrated part of land- water schemes. 
Highways along the shoreline usually involve the development of 
bridges and fills which provide a ready access to the water for aesthetic 
appreciation and for fisherman. In addition, their protective facili- 
ties preserve the shoreline and make it available for use. This aspect 
is impotrant because if the shoreline is not protected adequately, 
development uses must be foregone and the water becomes inaccessible. 

Other structures built to protect the shoreline include bulkheads to 
hold the shore in place ; dikes to prevent flooding and extend reclaimed 
land, jetties to provide a protective barrier between the sea and ship 
channels ; and groins along beach areas to control sand movement (fig. 
IV.2.25). 

Section 5. Deliberate Modification of the Estuarine Zone 

Deliberate modification programs are developed to intensify and 
support major uses. In the past many of these programs resulted in 
use damages far beyond the intended benefits, but the trends in present 
practice include attempts to predict unsought consequences. The over- 
all impact of any modification scheme depends on the type and extent 
of the project. 

The most common forms of modification are channel dredging for 
maintenance of navigation : construction of barriers to reduce damage 
from storm waves and tsunamis; the construction of dikes, jetties, and 
groins for navigation, storm protection, erosion control, and land rec- 
lamation purposes; wetland filling through dredging spoil disposal, 
land fill operations, and solid waste disposal; regulation of fresh 
water inflow for upstream water use or flood protection ; and the con- 
struction of highway fills, causeways, bridges for land transportation. 
These modification activities may occur singly or in combination, but 
in general the result is the same. The estuarine zone form, structure, 
shape, salinity, and water movement patterns are affected to some 
degree. 

The greatest percentage of deliberate modification of the estuarine 



137 

zone is for the protection and maintenance of navigation. Almost 
every harbor area in the United States requires some form of dredging 
maintenance to maintain access and berthing space. This may take 
the form of a channel six feet deep or one forty deep, depending upon 
the ship traffic. Table IV.2.9 shows the amount of dredging required 
by the Corps of Engineers to maintain the harbors of U.S. Ports. 

Jetties are a less common item on the coastal scene. These structures 
are generally placed where it is necessary to protect a channel and are 
usually built only where narrow harbor entrances are subjected to 
shoaling and wave action. On the west coast of the United States jet- 
ties are often used to form harbor enclosures as in Los Angeles Harbor 
and Half moon Bay (figure IV.2.25) . 

Groins are not too frequently used in the estuarine environment. 
Normally they are built along sandy coastal beaches to help control 
beach erosion. The groins effectively interfere with the littoral trans- 
port phenomena by trapping materials that would be carried away ; 
they are used extensively along the east coast and in southern Cali- 
fornia. 

TABLE IV.2.9.— ANNUAL HARBOR AND CHANNEL DREDGING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS 

Volume Number of 

dredged Cost, years of 

Biophysical region (cubic yards) dollars record 

North Atlantic _ 751,000 

Middle Atlantic 5,241,000 

Chesapeake Bay.. __ 6,123,000 

South Atlantic ,. 5,668,000 

Caribbean 123,000 

Gulf of Mexico 30,880,000 

Pacific Southwest 166,200 

Pacific Northwest 992,000 

Alaska... 6,900 

Pacific Islands 74,200 

Reference: The National Estuarine Inventory. 
Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

Utilizing barriers to protect the land from the fury of storms at sea 
is a procedure that has been frequently proposed but little used. There 
are two examples of hurricane barriers along the east coast, in New 
Bedford, Mass., and Providence, R.I. Schemes have been developed 
for other hurricane barriers in Narragansett Bay and Tampa Bay but 
have not materialized. Feasibility investigations of a tsunami barrier 
for Hilo Bay in Hawaii were conducted by the Corps of Engineers but 
no construction has taken place. 

Major modifications of estuarine areas by land fill or marsh and wet- 
land reclamation have occurred throughout the Nation. The area re- 
claimed is generally the highly productive tidal marsh which is so 
important to estuarine ecology. As an example, 80 percent of the 
300 square miles of wetlands that originally surrounded San Fran- 
cisco Bay have been filled. San Francisco Bay is not unique. Table 
IV.2.10 lists areas of basic marsh and wetland habitat filled in the 
past 20 years (figure IV.2.26) . Expanding residential and commercial 
needs for more shoreline land and navigation spoil disposal require- 
ments are the major causes of dredging and filling operations. 

Two-thirds of the total marsh and wetland areas are important fish 
and wildlife habitat. Since the late 1940's, 7 percent of the im- 



1,959,000 


17 


5, 542, 000 


18 


3, 140, 000 


18 


1,488,000 


18 


41,000 


18 


4, 840, 000 


18 


156,000 


18 


507, 500 


17 


5,400 


19 


157,400 


18 



138 

portant habitat has been lost; the largest single block of this has 
been in the San Francisco Bay system, where much of the tidal marsh 
and shallow waters no longer exist. 

The patterns of filling estuarine marsh and shallow water areas 
closely parallel population and industrial development within the 
estuarine zone. In North Atlantic and Middle Atlantic regions com- 
mercial development has been the major cause of the filling of estua- 
rine areas; in Florida (which has parts in three biophysical regions) 
residential development has been the major reason for filling; in both 
Louisiana and Texas dredging and filling associated with oil and 
gas exploration has been the major cause for estuarine physical 
modification. 

TABLE I V.2.10.— ESTUARINE HABITAT REMOVED BY DREDGING AND FILLING OPERATIONS 



Biophysical region 



Available habitat in 1955 (acres) 



Area of 
total marsh 
and wetland 



Area of 
important wild- 
life habitat 



Habitat lost, 1947-67 



Area dredged 
and/or filled 



Percent of 
habitat lost 



North Atlantic ..._ 168,000 

Middle Atlantic 424,000 

Chesapeake Bay 441,000 

South Atlantic. 1,551,000 

Caribbean (Florida only)... 469,000 

Gulf of Mexico.... 6,000,000 

Pacific Southwest 165,000 

Pacific Northwest 174,000 

Alaska (') 

Pacific Islands 10 

Total 9,392,000 



167, 000 


4,000 


424, 000 


89, 000 


428, 000 


3,000 


797, 000 


25, 000 


99, 000 


15,000 


3,426,000 


167, 000 


162, 000 


256, 000 


98, 000 


5,000 


0) 


1,100 



6, 175, 000 



565, 100 



7.0 
8.6 

.5 
2.3 
7.5 
4.8 
67.0 
4.0 

.2 



7.0 



> Insufficient data. 

References: USDI, Fish and Wildlife circular 39, "Wetalnds of the United States," 1956. USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service 
data presented in congressional hearings, "Estuarine areas," House serial No. 90-3. 

Estuarine modifications due to control and regulation of tributary 
freshwater streams may be unsought consequences rather than delib- 
erate developmental schemes. Many of the Nation's major river basins 
have been subjected to some type of major waste resource development, 
as shown in table IV.2.11. These include flood control, public water 
supply, power generation, or navigation projects. Generally, the more 
densely populated and the more arid States have accomplished, out of 
necessity, greater control of the surface water resources. 

California is investing over $2 billion to conserve the surplus water 
in the northern half of the State and transport it to the southern half. 
This great effort requires interbasin diversions from coastal basins and 
results in much different fresh water inflow patterns in the estuarine 
areas. Texas is also developing its water resources according to a care- 
fully developed plan. Florida has built numerous flood control works 
which have affected the drainage from Lake Okeechobee into the Ever- 
glades and have altered the estuarine environment. The Savannah 
Kiver in Georgia is fairly well-regulated by two upstream reservoirs. 
The Eoanoke River in Virginia and North Carolina is regulated, as is 
the Susquehanna in Maryland and Pennsylvania. There are numerous 
control structures on small coastal streams in New Hampshire and 
Oregon. 



139 



TABLE IV.2.11.-MAJ0R FLOW REGULATION STRUCTURES ON ESTUARINE-TERMINATING STREAMS 



State and River name 



Purpose 



Active 
storage 
volume 



NORTH ATLANTIC 
Maine: 

St. Croix.. __ Log driving, power. 

Grand Lake Stream Power.. 

Sebec do... 

West Branch Penobscot Log driving, power. 

East branch Penobscot ...do... 

Webster Brook _. ..do 

Kennebec Power 

Do Logdriving, power. 

Ossipec Power, recreation.. 

Massachusetts: 

Nashua Municipal, power... 

Cohas.. do. 

Merrimac Flood control 

Winnepesakee Power, recreation.. 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

Connecticut: 

Natchang. Flood control, recreation 

East branch Farmington Municipal 

West branch Farmington do 

Swift-Westfield.. Municipal, power 

Little... do 

Naugatuck Flood control, recreation 

Saugatuck Municipal 

New Jersey: Esopus Municipal, recreation 

New Jersey, Delaware: East branch Dela- Municipal, power, recreation, 
ware, Pennsylvania. 

CHESAPEAKE BAY 
Maryland: 

Susquehanna Municipal, power 

Patuxent Municipal, recreation 

North Branch, Patapsco Municipal 

Gunpowder ...do. 



SOUTH ATLANTIC 

North Carolina: Roanoke Flood control, industry, power, recreation, low flow aug- 
mentation. 
South Carolina: 

Santee Navigation, power , . . 

Cooper _ _..do.. , 

Georgia: Savannah Flood control, navigation, power " 



GULF 

Florida: Apalachicola... Navigation, power, recreation.. 

Alabama: 

Tallapoosa Power 

Tombigbee. Navigation 

Texas: 

Nueces Irrigation, municipal, recreation, industrial 

Medma Irrigation 

Colorado Flood control, irrigation, municipal, power, recreation, 

industrial. 

Rio Grande Irrigation, flood control 

Louisiana: Buffalo Bayou Flood control 



PACIFIC SOUTHWEST 
California: 

Calaveras Municipal 

Sacramento Flood control, power, irrigation. 

Cache Irrigation, recreation 

San Jacinto Irrigation 

Santa Ana Flood control 

Tujunge .. do 

San Gabriel do 

Los Angeles . . do 

Cottonwood Municipal 

Sweetwater Creek Irrigation, municipal 



187, 100 
161,000 

57,400 
344, 000 

41, 000 
116,000 

60,000 
544,900 

23,000 

171,800 
16,600 

153, 700 
38,000 



52, 000 

68,710 

20,000 

1,236,000 

70,000 

42, 000 

15,600 

392,378 

453,880 



70, 000 
18, 100 
129, 115 
72,520 



2, 110, 500 



1,099,900 

761, 500 

1,730,000 



425,900 

1,375,000 
117, 000 

185, 800 

254, 000 

1, 922, 000 

4,081,000 
127, 900 



968, 000 
4, 377, 000 

319, 000 
12, 000 

217, 000 
32, 000 
33,400 
17,300 
44,040 
27,690 



140 

TABLE IV.2.11.— MAJOR FLOW REGULATION STRUCTURES ON ESTUARINE-TERMINATING STREAMS— Continued 

Active 

storage 

State and River name Purpose volume 

PACIFIC NORTHWEST 

Oregon: 

Columbia-Dam and locks Navigation, power 87,000 

Willamette, locks. _ _ Navigation (i) 

Washington: 

White. Flood control 106,000 

Baker. Power 142,370 

Washington, Canada: Whatcom Municipal 26,400 

ALASKA 
Alaska: 

Sour Mill Creek Desilting, industrial 150,000 

Purple Lake.. Power 25,000 

Annex Creek do 23,360 

Cooper Creek do 108,000 

Ekiutna Power, recreation 163,300 

PACIFIC ISLANDS 

Hawaii: Fresh water holding ditches... Water supply retention (i) 

1 No information available on volume. 

Reference: The National Estuarine Inventory. 

Data source: U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

The Columbia River in Washington and Oregon is one of the most 
fully developed large rivers in the country. This flow regulation 
has had an impact on estuarine ecology, especially the anadromous 
fish runs. There has been considerable modification in the estuarine 
systems from freshwater flow regulation. Modification of the estuary 
was not the primary objective of the regulatory projects but occurred 
as an unsought consequence. Future water resource development 
schemes will have to consider the estuarine impact to insure that 
detrimental effects are kept at a minimum. 

Section 6. Summary 

The single great unique feature of the estuarine zone, which makes 
it of primary importance to man and his civilization, is its role in 
the life cycle of many animals which aid in converting solar energy 
into more usable forms. Wliile no life form can be singled out as 
irreplaceable, the kinds of life which need the estuarine zone to survive 
represent essential links in the energy conversion chain upon whicfh 
man depends for survival. 

Many of the uses cataloged in this chapter occur only because the 
historical growth of the country makes the estuarine zone the place 
where people and industry are. Only commercial navigation, naval 
use, and commercial fishing are uses which are primarily associated 
with the estuarine zone, rather than other parts of man's environment. 
Uses such as water supply, waste disposal, and recreation are associ- 
ated with civilization wherever it exists; in the estuarine zone they 
may have different values, different emphasis, or different impact on 
the biophysical environment. 

This chapter points out the intrinsic importance of the estuarine 
zone as a feature of the human environment. The mere cataloging 
of uses gives no measure of the total value of the estuarine environment 
to man and his civilization, because each identifiable use is merely 



141 

a single example of how man has found a way to exploit an estuarine 
resource for his benefit. 

Very rarely does an individual or an organization use an estuarine 
area for only one purpose. Tourists may come for recreation, but 
they also dispose of their wastes in the estuarine zone. An industry 
may use an estuary for shipping and for waste disposal, but many of 
its employees will be sport fishermen or boating enthusiasts who use 
the estuary for recreation. The fishermen and oystermen who harvest 
the living resources still need navigation channels and docks for their 
boats. 

The value and the importance of the estuarine zone lie in the great 
number of ways in which it can serve human society. Multiple use of 
the estuarine resource is an intrinsic feature of the socioeconomic 
environment of the estuarine zone, and those estuarine systems which 
can be used intensively for many purposes are the most valuable com- 
ponents of the national estuarine system. 

BEFERENCES 

IV-2-1 Battelle Memorial Institute, The Economic and Social Importance of 
Estuaries (a report prepared under contract No. 14^-12-115 with FWPGA, as 
part of the National Estuarine Pollution Study), Columbus, Ohio, Battelle 
Memorial Institute, 1968. 



CHAPTER 3.— THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VALUES OF 

ESTUARINE USE 

Chapter 2 described the most important uses of the estuarine zone. 
There are a variety of uses associated with demographic and indus- 
trial development in the coastal counties; each biophysical region 
has very similar kinds of uses to the others, but there are differences 
in intensity of certain kinds of use in different biophysical regions, 
and also in individual areas within regions. 

Such differences tend to be related to the availability for exploita- 
tion of a particular kind of resource; such as sunshine and beaches 
in Florida, oil in Texas and Louisiana, deep safe harbors at New 
York and San Francisco, salmon runs in Washington and Alaska. 
Each of these stimulates emphasis in estuarine exploitation for a 
particular kind of use, sometimes to the extent of excluding all other 
uses either by expropriating all available space or damaging the en- 
vironment for other uses. 

Estuarine use is a complex assortment of interlocking and over- 
lapping types of estuarine resource exploitation. 

All of such uses have value, both individually and as part of the 
development and use of the entire estuarine resource for the benefit 
of the present and future national community. The mission of this 
chapter is to show that the importance and total value of any estuarine 
system lie not in the measure of economic value for any particular 
use, but in multiplicity of use related to the needs of people who live 
there or otherwise depend on the estuarine resource. 

The approach used is twofold. First, the overall economic develop- 
ment of the estuarine zone and the economic values of several individ- 
ual uses show the relationship of one use to other uses. Then the balance 
of uses in several estuarine systems shows the relationship of com- 
munity needs to estuarine uses. 

The common denominator in this discussion is people; their eco- 
nomic needs combined with their social desires and values are what 
determines the socioeconomic demands on the biophysical estuarine 
environment. 

Section 1. Economic Development of the Estuarine Zone 

Estuarine areas have been a key factor in the development of our 
Nation. Long before the settlement of Plymouth, British, French, 
and Spanish fishermen were exploring the North Atlantic fishery 
resources including those in the Gulf of Maine and along Georges 
Bank. The need for shore bases to support the cod fishery of the New 
England coast was a significant factor in stimulating exploration and 
settlement. 

(142) 



143 

After colonization of New England, the fisheries were the sustain- 
ing industry that provided the economic foundation for growth and 
development. The role of the estuarine zone in supporting the fishery 
operations was extensive : By necessity most of the inhabitants settled 
near the natural harbors ; fish was the main food staple and the main 
export; the harbors were the focal point for incoming ships and served 
as the only commercial centers. The resources of the sea and water- 
borne commerce were the economic mainstay of the developing Na- 
tion ; much of the development of California was dependent on ships 
sailing around the tip of Cape Horn, South America, and this develop- 
ment of trade centered on the west coast opened up new vistas for com- 
mercial activity. 

The estuaries were also the entry portal for the immigrants that 
came to this Nation looking for the land of opportunity. It is little 
wonder that most of the major cities of the United States are posi- 
tioned on a natural estuarine harbor. 

As the population grew, the relative importance of the fishery pro- 
gressively declined as economic growth in other industries outstripped 
the demand for seafood as a staple diet item. The growth of industrial 
and population centers in the estuarine zone closely paralleled the 
growth of the rest of the Nation, with the estuarine zone becoming 
relatively more important in international commerce and less impor- 
tant in agricultural food production than the interior of the country. 

URBAN AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT 

Table IV.3.1 shows present population and agricultural develop- 
ment in the estuarine zone.^ This table illustrates very clearly the 
existence of several distinct environments in the estuarine zone. Popu- 
lation and agricultural data exist in political subdivision groupings, 
while the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMS A) cross 
State and county boundaries to present unified economic groupings. It 
happens that the classification by biophysical regions cuts across the 
boundaries of some political subdivisions, but is compatible with the 
SMSA economic units. 

The differences in boundaries of these environments is one of the 
key problems with which estuarine zone management must deal ; in 
the present discussion the primary concern is with the biophysical en- 
vironment of the esturaine zone, and the regions describing this en- 
vironment are the basic unit for analysis. Wliere necessary political 
subdivisions have been broken at county boundaries as required to 
present a consistent analysis. 

The coastal counties contain only 15 percent of the land area of 
the United States, but within this area is concentrated 33 percent of 
the Nation's population, with about four-fifths of it living in pri- 
marily urban areas which form about ten percent of the total estuarine 
zone area. Another 13 percent of the estuarine land area is farmland, 
but this accounts for only four percent of the total agricultural land 



1 In this, as in many other tables requiring nationwide socioeconomic statistics, 1960 
is the last year for which consistent data are available to support regional comparisons. 



144 



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146 

of the Nation. The estuarine zone, then, is nearly twice as densely 
populated as the rest of the country, and supports only one-fourth 
as much agriculture per unit area. 

The magnitude of population and agricultural development in the 
estuarine zone is shown in table IV.3.1 by densities in terms of tidal 
shoreline. The few estuarine areas in the Pacific Southwest show the 
greatest shoreline development for both living and farming as shown 
by population density of 3,980 persons per mile of tidal shoreline and 
a farmland density of 4.9 acres per mile. The Middle Atlantic region, 
in contrast, has a very high population density and a low farmland 
density, showing how in this region the estuarine zone developed as 
a center of population while agriculture developed elsewhere. 

The difference in estuarine land use development between these 
two regions probably results from the difference in rainfall. The low 
rainfall in the Pacific Southwest required the intensive use for farm- 
ing of all land amenable to irrigation, of which a major part was 
that near the mouths of the major rivers. The plentiful rainfall in 
the Middle Atlantic region, however, permitted the use of much land 
away from the estuarine zone for farming, so that the intensive 
estuarine land use pattern of the Pacific Southwest did not develop. 

In those regions lying between Cape Hatteras and Canada, as well 
as in the Pacific Southwest, over 90 percent of the population lives in 
urban areas; over much of the Atlantic estuarine zone stretches the 
great Northeastern megalopolis with population densities averaging 
over 1,000 persons per square mile. The remainder of the estuarine zone 
of the United States exhibits a pattern of major centers of population 
clustered around natural harbors and separated by stretches of coast- 
line which are either empty and inaccessible or beginning to be sprin- 
kled with private residences and resort communities in the vicinities 
of population centers. 

Agriculture in the estuarine zone itself tends to follow the crop pat- 
terns typical of neighboring inland areas, although there are some 
important crops which require special conditions of humidity or soil 
dampness most easily found in the estuarine zone, if not directly 
associated with estuarine waters themselves. Cranberries in New 
Jersey and Massachusetts, rice in Texas and Louisiana, and sugarcane 
in Hawaii, Louisiana, Florida, and Puerto Rico are examples. 

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT 

Table IV.3.2 gives a general picture of the extent of industrial de- 
velopment in the estuarine zone. The coastal counties have within their 
borders 40 percent of all manufacturing plants in the United States, 
thus closely paralleling population concentration into the estuarine 
zone. The mixture of manufacturing types in the estuarine zone is 
the same as the national composition with only minor exceptions, such 
as the concentration of the apparel manufacturing industry in the 



147 

Middle Atlantic region, particularly in the New York area. Distribu- 
tion of manufacturing types amon^ the biophysical regions shows 
regional differences related to historical development as well as raw 
material and market availability. 

Over half of all plants in the coastal counties and one-fifth of all 
manufacturing plants in the United States are located in the Middle 
Atlantic biophysical region, which was the historical center of the 
Nation's industrial growth and is still one of the major market areas. 
The Pacific Southwest is the major industrial center of the Pacific 
coast, and its tidal shoreline now has the same intensity of develop- 
ment as that of the Middle Atlantic region. Some industrial develop- 
ment in other regions tends to follow historical or present raw material 
availability. Leather product plants are clustered in the North Atlantic 
region, and lumber manufacturing plants are most plentiful in the 
Pacific Northwest. Food processing plants, however, follow closely the 
distribution of population. 

Wliile much of the industrial development located in coastal counties 
affects the estuarine zone indirectly through use of adjacent land, some 
of the water-using industries have an impact on the estuarine zone far 
beyond their numbers. The paper, chemical, petroleum, and primary 
metals industries are the major water users among manufacturing 
establishments; these are listed separately in table IV.3.2 to show how 
universally these industries are distributed throughout the estuarine 
zone. The brackish estuarine waters msij become an increasingly im- 
portant source of water supply for industries, and for municipalities 
as desalting technology improves. 

LAND OWNERSHIP 

Out of the millions of acres of land contiguous to the estuarine zone, 
only a relatively small amount is relegated to urban development and 
farmland. A considerable portion is in the form of unused or undevel- 
oped land, the ownership of which has an important bearing on future 
use of the estuarine environment. Privately owned land is subject to 
possible industrial or real estate development which could add sig- 
nificantly to water quality problems. Publicly owned land, on the 
other hand, represents the potential for development of a broad-based 
public use with proper controls. It also indicates the potential for pub- 
lic access to the water. Table IV.3.3 summarizes land ownership in the 
coastal counties within each biophysical estuarine region. Except for 
Alaska, the great preponderance of estuarine zone land is in private 
ownership. The North Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, and Chesapeake Bay 
regions in particular have little land in these counties still remaining 
under public ownership. Detailed information on actual or potential 
use of these privately owned lands is not available ; it is certain, how- 
ever, that some commercial or residential use exists or is intended in 
most cases. 



148 






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TABLE IV.3.3.— LAND USE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 



Biophysical region 



Area (square miles) incorporated in- 







Parks, 




Remainder 






recreation 


National 


of area in 


Metropolitan 




areas, refuges. 


defense 


coastal 


areas 


Farms 


forests, etc. 


installations i 


counties 


1,744 


1,965 


347 


16 


7,121 


10, 374 


5,403 


1,172 


51 


2,288 


5, 401 


5,272 


662 


52 


2,524 


7,569 


7,840 


2,919 


26 


6,511 


2,042 


778 


2,370 


3 


3,931 


11,929 


23,620 


6,275 


21 


6,327 


16, 192 


15,210 


7,324 


59 


(2) 


14,117 


6,440 


18, 734 


18 


3,477 


100 


3,060 


20, 626 


5 


323, 787 


598 


3,677 


38, 170 


14 


3,240 



North Atlantic 

Middle Atlantic 

Chesapeake Bay 

South Atlantic 

Caribbean (Florida only) 

Gulf of Mexico 

Pacific Southwest 

Pacific Northwest 

Alaska (total State) 

Pacific Islands.- 



1 Number of installations only. Areas classified. 

2 Much farmland is within SMSA boundaries, distorting totals. 

Reference: National Estuarine Inventory. 

Sources: U.S. Departments of Housing and Urban Development, Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, and Interior. 

Section 2. The Values of Individtjal Uses 



FISH AND wildlife HABITAT 

The value of the estuarine zone as fish and wildlife habitat both de- 
pends on and augments its values for other uses, particularly recrea- 
tion and commercial fishing. 

There is, in addition to these, the basic incalculable value of the es- 
tuarine habitat as a link in the essential energy-conversion chain which 
permits man to survive at all. 

The trapping of fur bearers in the marshes of the Gulf and Atlantic 
represents one of the few economic values directly attributable to es- 
tuarine habitat. Louisiana is the major producer; in the 1965-66 sea- 
son total sales were $4.6 million out of the Nation's $6 million total. 
These included the pelts and some meat from nutria, muskrat, rac- 
coons, mink, and otter, with much of the harvest coming from marshes 
managed specifically for that purpose. 

The management of marshes for fur bearers requires periodic burn- 
ing over, means of controlling predators, and the control of saline 
water intrusion. This makes the marshes so managed unsuitable for 
some other forms of estuarine-dependent life such as shrimp ; so against 
the economic value of marsh management for commercial trapping 
must be set the unknown cost of the loss of habitat for other forms of 
life. 

The harvesting of pelts in the estuarine zone is of small economic 
value even when the $4 million per year fur seal harvest of the Prib- 
iloff Islands is included. As a measure of the full value of estuarine 
habitat this annual value is an excellent indicator of how the measur- 
able economic worth of an estuarine use my reflect very little of its 
actual importance. 

commercial fishing 

The economic value of the estuarine zone to even such an obviously 
estuarine-dependent industry as commercial fishing can be established 



151 

only witli numerous assumptions and approximations. Not only is 
the existence of much of the harvestable crop dependent on the astu- 
arine habitat, but the estuarine zone also provides the safe harbors 
without which the ocean fisheries could not exist. In addition, the sea- 
food processing plants which supply the entire Nation are nearly 
all located in the estuarine zone and derive economic benefit from 
the existence of the commercial fishing industry. 

In 1967 U.S. fishermen received $438 million for approximately 
4.06 billion pounds of commercial fish and shellfish. It has been 
estimated that two-thirds of the total value, or approximately $300 
million, can be considered for estuarine-dependent species. This is a 
conservative estimate of the direct value derived from the estuarine 
fishery for it does not include the value of fish harvested by foreign 
vessels off the U.S. coast. Five of the six leading species by weight, 
representing over one-half of the U.S. commercial fish tonnage in 
1967 are estuarine dependent (table IV.3.4) . 

Table IV.3.5 shows the weight and values of the major estuarine- 
dependent commercial fish landings by biophysical region. The Gulf 
of Mexico region fishery has by far the greatest volume and value, 
primarily due to landings of shrimp and menhadden, which use the 
estuarine zone as a nursery area. The anadromous salmon fisheries of 
Alaska and the Pacific Northwest rank second, and the fisheries of 
estuarine-resident oysters in the Chesapeake are third in the Nation 
among the estuarine-dependent species. 

TABLE I V.3.4.— RANKING OF THE 10 MOST IMPORTANT COMMERCIAL FISHERIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1965 



By weight (thousand pounds) 


By value (thousand dollars) 


Rank Kind 


Weight 


Rank 


Kind 


Value 


1 Menhaden ._ 

2 Crabs 

3 Salmon 

4 Tuna 

5 Shrimp 

6 Flounders 

7 Haddock 

8 Sea Herring 


1,726,104 
334, 599 
326, 806 
318,895 
234,644 
180, 121 
133, 892 
110,293 
83,608 
82, 574 

3, 540, 536 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Shrimp 

Salmon 

Tuna 

Crabs 

Oysters 

Menhaden 

Lobsters 

Flounders .._ 

Clams 

Haddock.. 

Total 


82,409 
65, 123 
41,734 
30,745 
27,867 
27, 073 
25,584 
17, 948 


9 Ocean Perch 


16, 000 


10 Whiting 

Total 


13, 630 
348, 113 



1967 



Menhaden 1,165,800 



Tuna. 

Crabs' 

Shrimp 

Salmon 

Flatfish 

Haddock 

Sea Herring.. 
Ocean Perch. 
Anchovies... 



329, 000 
316, 000 
312,200 
206, 400 
110, 900 
98, 500 
85, 100 
71,500 
69, 600 



Total 2,765,000 



1 Shrimp.... 103,100 

2 Salmon 48,600 

3 Tuna 44,514 

4 Oysters 31,600 

5 Crabs 27,100 

6 Lobsters 24,100 

7 Clams 19,000 

8 Menhaden 15,200 

9 Flatfish 13,600 

10 Haddock 10,500 

Total 337,314 



1 The crab landings include the king crab, which is not an estuarine-dependent species. 

Sources: Charles H. Lyies, "Fisheries of the United States * * * 1965," Stat. Dig, 59 (April 1966), p. 4. Charles H. Lyies, 
'Fisheries of the United States • * * 1967," C.F.S. No. 4700 (April 1968), p. 4. 



42-847 O— 7C 



152 

An entire complex of commerce and industry can rest upon one 
primary producing industry such as commercial fishing, and figure 
IV.3.1 illustrates in a very simple fashion some of the more direct 
impacts of commercial fishing on the economy. Each time the basic 
product changes hands it generates economic activity and gains in 
value until by the time it reaches the ultimate consumer, its price may 
be many times what the fisherman was paid for it. 

The effect of such value multiplier factors w^ill be such as to make 
the actual values of specific commercial fisheries several times the 
landed values such as those given in table IV.3.4 and table IV.3.5. 

Thus, the $438 million received by U.S. fishermen in 1967 probably 
represents a total input to estuarine zone economic activity of over 
$1 billion ; exactly how much it is impossible to say. Case studies dis- 
cussed later in this chapter assign multiplier values of about three and 
four to commercial fishery landing values, but the magnitudes of such 
multipliers depend on the structure of the local economy as well as 
on other factors and generalities are likely to be misleading. 

Consumption of both edible and industrial fish products continues 
to increase, but the part of the consumption supplied by domestic 
fishermen continues to decrease. Imports represented 82 percent of 
the industrial fish supply and 53 percent of the edible fish supply in 
1967. A primary cause of this loss of market is the inability to compete 
economically with foreign fishing fleets using the most advanced 
technology. Aquaculture is a potential means for correcting this condi- 
tion, and, as such, represents a potential estuarine use of large but 
indeterminate value. 

The relationship of the estuarine zone and commercial fishing cannot 
be expressed by any simple economic index. This brief discussion shows 
that the importance of commercial fishing in the estuarine zone is 
related economically not only to estuarine habitat, but also to transpor- 
tation, commerce, food processing, and aquaculture. 

RECREATION 

Recreation is the One major estuarine use that is directly and irre- 
trievably related to individual people. It is a pursuit carried out strictly 
on an individual choice basis and has as much variety as individuals 
themselves have. Every estuarine system w^here there are people is 
subject to recreational\use, whether it is of recreational quality or not. 

Wlien an estuarine system is of poor recreational quality, only those 
people who cannot afford to go elsewhere will use it. When a system 
is of acceptable quality, many local people will use it and it may even 
attract some tourists from less-favored areas. When an estuarine system 
is not only of acceptable quality but has other attractions such as beau- 
tiful scenery or pleasant weather, recreation and tourism become major 
commercial enterprises. 

Each kind of recreational use has its own economic impact. Recrea- 
tional boating supports a large boatbuilding, marina, and boat repair 
industry. Sport fishing supports not only a certain part of the boating 
industries, but also a very specialized industry manufacturing and 
selling fishing tackle. For example, the 1965 Survey of Fishing and 
Hunting shows that salt water anglers spent $800 million in that 
year. Sightseeing and swimming support motel and restaurant services 



153 



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155 

in the favored areas, as do other overnight recreational activities. 
Table IV.2.3 gives the advantages and disadvantages of several in- 
dices of recreational economic impact ; as this table shows, there is no 
single satisfactory index for showing the importance of the cstuarine 
zone in recreation, or vice versa. 

In many cases the economic value of recreation may depend upon 
the total economic structure of a particular estuarine system. For 
example, the Biscayne Bay area in Florida is oriented toward the 
recreational pursuits of the vacationing tourist; the useful indexes 
of recreational activity here would be motel, hotel, charter boat, and 
marina revenues. Tlie shoreline of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland, 
in contrast, is almost entirely oriented toward private residences or 
commercial marinas catering to the regional resident, who needs per- 
manent boat mooring facilities. 

The significant indexes of recreational activity here would be boat 
sales and repairs, marina revenues, and waterfront property values. 

Attempts at the quantification of overall recreational economic 
values are not yet well-developed. The user-day recreation benefits ap- 
proach has been used in some Federal waterway and reservoir projects, 
but has been used in the estuarine system only in an analysis of fish- 
eries and recreation in San Francisco Bay. Net benefits for general 
recreation activities, by this method, range from 50 cents to $1.50 
per day. Specific forms of recreation may have higher values. 

Applying such a figure to the population of the coastal counties 
suggests that the value of the recreational resource of the estuarine 
zone is about $300 million if each person has about 5 days of recrea- 
tional use. Such an estimate would include only local use and no 
multiplier values and might therefore be regarded as minimum value 
of the entire value of the entire estuarine recreation resource. 

The major problems in defining the economic values of recreation 
in the estuarine zone lie in the facts that recreation itself is not an 
easily defined commodity nor can it be isolated from other economic 
activities such as transportation, food and lodging services, and 
equipment manufacturing. 

COMMERCIAL NAVIGATION AND NATIONAL DEFENSE 

The economic value of commercial navigation is easier to establish 
than the value of any other activity. Even here, however, there is 
impact of this use on other estuarine uses, and the estimates of eco- 
nomic value are not complete. Estimates of the economic value of 
commercial navigation are based on the direct revenue to the port of 
handling a ton of cargo, generally $16 to $20. Such estimates lead to 
a total value of the estuarine resource of $4.7 billion annually for car^o 
revenues alone, without multiplier values. An additional economic 
value of $10 billion annually in salaries and wages has been estimated 
for the 11 major ports listed in table TV. 2.5. 

These estimates do not show the impact of commercial navigation 
on land transportation, shoreline development, or the manufacturing 
industries. Without the deep, safe harbors commercial navigation could 
not exist on a large scale, and without commercial navigation the great 
cities around these harbors would not have developed. 

Deep-water hatbors are essential elements of the national defense 
system. Furthermore, the location of these deep-water ports has in- 



156 

fluenced the location of other defense installations as well as the 
industrial complexes necessary for the logistical support of the defense 
effort. 

The cost of the national defense effort in the estuarine zone for 1967 
is estimated at about $900 million, exclusive of pay and allowances 
for shore-based Navy and Marine Corps personnel. The economic im- 
pact of national defense activity overlaps into all other estuarine zone 
uses because of the massive payrolls associated with it. This impact is 
centered in the areas with major defense installations, as will be shown 
in the case studies presented later in this chapter. 

WASTE DISPOSAL 

The waters of the estuarine zone have received wastes from the 
people and industries on their shores ever since the first cities were 
founded. The economic benefit in the use of estuarine waters for waste 
disposal has been fully utilized by nearly all industries and communi- 
ties in the estuarine zone, and only the tremendous capacity of estuarine 
waters to absorb and remove waste materials has kept the estuarine 
zone from suffering severe damage from such waste discharges. 

All other uses of the estuarine zone result in the need to dispose 
of some waste products, and the general practice has been merely to 
dump them into the water and forget them. Chapter 5 discusses the 
sources and nature of pollutional materials and activities, and how 
this use of estuarine zone waters can affect other uses. 

The economic benefit of this estuarine use is a real one and it must 
be considered along with other established uses of the estuarine zone. 
This benefit can be calculated in terms of the difference between the 
cost of an advanced degree of waste treatment needed when the waste 
assimilation capacity of the estuarine system is fully utilized. 

No overall estimate of the value of this vise of the estuarine resource 
is possible because the level of treatment necessary in any particular 
case depends on many local factors. 

While the use of estuarine waters for waste disposal may not be 
esthetically appealing, it is an existing estuarine use with which other 
uses must compete, and it should be considered along with them in 
the overall economic evaluation of estuarine uses. 

Section 3. Reviews or Case Studies of Uses of the 
Estuarine Environment 

The preceding section discussed separately some important estuarine 
uses and showed how the calculable economic estimates fell short of 
showing the actual value of each use. Tliis section describes several 
estuarine systems as socioeconomic environments to show how the use 
balance in each may differ from the others and how one use may 
dominate all others. 

Almost all estuarine systems have either a multiplicity of uses at 
the present time or such uses are available in the system. Estuaries 
presently support such varied uses as militarj^ berthing and associated 
activities, commercial port facilities, shipping channels, industrial 
uses, commercial fisheries, sport fishing, recreation, wildlife habitat, 
and purely aesthetic purposes. In most estuaries one or two of the 
uses predominate while the others take minor roles. 



157 

It is, however, important to understand that estuarine uses are not 
mutually exclusive and that with sufficient planning and caution, these 
uses can exist in harmony with one another. In fact, in order to receive 
the maximum return from a natural resource such as an estuary, all 
of the uses of the specialized environment should be developed to 
the maximum with the detrimental uses minimized. 

Minimizing detrimental uses does not, in most cases, mean that the 
major activity must be stopped. Eather, it means that for most uses 
only the harmful extent of such uses must be stopped or restricted. 
For example, sanitary wastes disciharged from ships may be a harmful 
side effect of shipping that must be curtained. There is no need to con- 
clude, however, that shipping must be stopped. Similarly, water skiing 
or boat racing may be harmful to sport fishing. However, a simple zon- 
ing of certain areas for use of sport fishermen and not for high speed 
boating or water skiing allows the use of an estuary for all these 
pursuits. 

At the present time, the major uses of estuaries, in terms of gross 
monetary return are : military use, shipping, and industrial activities. 
These uses are, of course, historical and do not necessarily reflect the 
uses that would be made of the estuary under today's conditions or 
future conditions, if each use were to compete for the water use at the 
same time. In other words, historical use has brought about the present 
use imbalance in many estuarine systems. However, given the oppor- 
tunity to develop, other uses might attain equal importance economi- 
cally while contributing important social benefits. 

Estuaries at the present time represent underdeveloped natural re- 
sources that are important to the social as well as the economic well- 
being of the Nation. Although lack of understanding of the dynamics 
of an estuary and the inability to foresee the coming of age of an 
industrial economy, with its resultant increase in leisure time, may have 
combined to allow undesirable exploitation of certain estuaries, such 
exploitation need not be allowed to continue. 

Based on present trends and demands, there is little doubt that there 
will be a tremendous need for estuarine uses other than for military, 
shipping, and industrial uses. That is, if the facilities are available 
for recreation, sports, or aesthetic enjoyment, they will be used and 
used to great advantage from an economic standpoint as Avell as a 
social standpoint. Also, some commercial fishery ventures may again 
become not only feasible but profitable if the detrimental uses of estu- 
aries are curtailed. 

NAKKAGANSETT BAY 

(IV-3-1) 

The Narragansett Bay system in Rhode Island and Massachusetts is 
an estuary of approximately lYO square miles with a total shoreline 
of approximately 240 miles. Except for normal shoaling towards shore, 
there are only very limited areas where the water depth is less than 6 
feet at mean low tide. Passages between the islands have sufficient 
depths for large ships — ^channels need only be dredged where they 
enter the Taunton and Providence Rivers. Because of the islands in 
the bay and the irregular coast, Narragansett Bay has a long shore- 
line with coves and embayments that are protected from the wave 
effects of major storms. The tidal range is a moderate 3 to 4 feet but a 
favorable cross section to length ratio of the basin helps to ensure 
reasonably good flushing. Figure IV.3.2 (on p. 159) is a map of the bay. 



158 

The population of Rhode Island is mainly clustered about the shores 
of Narragansett Bay. A special census in 1965 enumerated the total at 
892,709 of which some 69 percent resided in towns and cities touching 
the bay. The long term migration of the population appears in a grad- 
ual movement from the upper bay towns to the lower bay towns. In 
the total bay area, there are 69,160 areas of developed land and 115,039 
areas of land with development potential. Table IV.3.6 shows the dis- 
tribution of developed land. 

TABLE IV.3.6.— PERCENT OF USE BY CATEGORY OF DEVELOPED LAND, NARRAGANSETT BAY, R.I. 

Proportion in percent of 
developed land 



Use Urban Rural 

Residential - 41.2 42.4 

Industrial-commercial --- 12.3 9.8 

Governments, institutions, or public utilities... 15.4 20.8 

Recreational .-. 9.9 9.3 

Roads and highways 21.2 17.7 

From colonial times, when perhaps the more important economic ac- 
tivities were purely bay oriented (e.g., fishing and foreign trade), in- 
dustry and trade has clustered about the bay and its tributaries 
following the growth of population in these areas and the concurrent 
growth of a pool of skilled labor. Within the total socioeconomic 
environment of the area, seven estuarine-dependent product- producing 
areas are examined to show some of the methods involved in deriving 
a value for a given use. The categories include commercial fisheries, 
defense establishments, recreation, bay transportation, marine-oriented 
industry and commerce, research and education, and waste disposal. 

Table IV.3.7 shows the production, value and productivity of the 
Narragansett Bay fisheries for 1939 and 1965. In order to illustrate the 
former importance of a sj^ecies, the oyster is included although it is 
no longer commercially important. 

There has been a reversal in the relative importance of the finfish- 
eries and shellfisheries over the 25-year period due partially to the 
decline in tlie oyster fishery resulting from the disappearance of the 
wild oyster from Narragansett Bay for unknown reasons. Improve- 
ment in finfishing methods together with a lack of improvement in 
shellfishing methods have also contributed to this reversal. 

TABLE IV.3.7.— COMMERCIAL FISHERIES OF NARRAGANSETT BAY 

Shellfish i 



Finfish Oysters Clams Total 



1939 

Fishermen 101 _ _.__ .,924 

Catch (pounds) 4,022,90» 2,313,500 2,197,900 5,147,200 

Catch... $122,808 $399,100 $250,600 $774,134 

Catch per fisherman (pounds) 38,830 - 5,571 

Gross value per fisherman $1,216 »n il 

Average annual price (per pound) $0.035 - $0.15 

1965 

Fishermen 116 .. „ ,„1'5JA 

Catch (pounds) . 9,809,700 11,500 2,297,300 2,695,000 

Catch. $835,202 $14,100 $1,062,700 $1,372,653 

Catch per fisherman (pounds) 85,302 «}>*ock 

Gross value per fisherman $7,263 tnlraa 

Average annual price (per pound)... $.085 $0,509 



' Meat weight only, except for lobsters which are live weight. 



159 



FIGURE IV.3.2 NARRAGAIMSET BAY AND VICINITY 




160 

One of the most significant features shown in this table is that earn- 
ings per fisherman from shellfish changed only slightly from 1939 to 
1965, while earnings from finfish increased six times, all during a 
period when shellfish prices increased much more than finfish prices. 
This suggests that the shellfishery in Narragansett Bay is unable to 
compete economically with the finfishery and that it may be declining 
as a significant resource use, 

DEFENSE ESTABLISHMENTS 

One of the oldest uses of Narragansett Bay, and certainly the most 
important today from the point of expenditures, is the role of the bay 
in the National Military Establishments. The strategic location and ex- 
cellent harbor led to its early use as a base for naval operations, and, 
with accommodation to the changes and innovations of modern war- 
fare, so it remains today. Located at Newport, where important fleet 
units and academic activities are based, and at Quonset Point (North 
Kingstown), the U.S. Navy in Rhode Island is the largest single em- 
ployer in the State and produces the highest level of dollar output 
directly attributable to the bay. 

About 90 percent of the U.S. Navy expenditures in the Narragansett 
Bay area are paid as wages and salaries to civilian and military per- 
sonnel. Substantial sums are also expended annually on contract con- 
struction, maintenance and repair, utilities and purchases from local 
merchants. Finally, direct payments are made by the Federal Govern- 
ment (in lieu of taxes) to school districts enrolling children of mili- 
tary personnel. 

Table IV.3.8 shows the contribution of the Naval Establishment to 
the bay economy and the growth of this contribution between 1963 
and 1967. 

In spite of the size of the Navy operation, there are only two areas 
of conflict between the military and other bay uses. These are problems 
created by sewage disposal and problems from oil pollution. The shore 
installations of the Navy in Narra^^ansett Bay are either served by 
sewage disposal facilities on a par with those in the surrounding com- 
munities or share, on a user-charge basis, with surrounding commu- 
nities in disposal facilities which meet the approval of the Rhode Is- 
land State Board of Health. The sewage pollution problems that do 
exist are associated with the discharge of untreated wastes from ocean- 
going vessels. The bay is home port for about 70 oceangoing vessels 
and numerous other smaller craft. Few vessels have sewage treatment 
facilities abroad. 

TABLE IV.3.8.— SPENDING BY THE U.S. NAVY IN THE NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND AREA, 1963-67 

Years 
Item 1963 1967 

Wages and salaries to civilian and military personnel* -. '^'n'c?e'EK7 

Local purchases of goods and services 2 - c ic» cn9 

Contractual construction .-. _. --- -- 5,163,502 

Maintenance and repair and utilities 3.. - - o"oco -ion 

Federal aid to impacted school districts in Rhode Island*.. -. 2,853,720 

Total - - $124,240,000 215,808,384 

1 May be somewhat inflated because 1967 report does not separate fleet military personnel who may have been paid 
elsewhere. Sum also includes allowance to dependents. 

2 Includes only those sums specifically mentioned as being spent locally. 

3 Based on contracts awarded during the year, estimating most or all small maintenance and report contracts. All assumed 
to be with local contractors. 

< School year 1967-68. 



161 



RECREATION 



Six categories of activity are considered : swimming, boating, sport- 
fishing, waterfowl hunting, scuba and skin diving, and summer 
residences. 

SwiTmning 

There are State, municipal, and private beaches on the 31 miles of 
sandy beach in Narragansett Bay, Table IV.3.9 shows the estimated 
maintenance costs and intensity of use for each kind of beach, 

TABLE IV.3.9.-SWIIVIMING BEACH USE IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, 1967 

State Municipal Private i Total 

Length of beach (feet). 3,829 16,150 19,979 

Annual expenditure by owner. $100,741 $164,979 $119,574 $385,294 

User-days 624,000 642,000 465,000 1,731,000 

Expenditure per user-day $0.16 $0.26 $0.22 

User-days per foot of beach 163 40 87 

1 Value estimated from municipal. 

The estimated annual maintenance cost of $385,000 is the only 
economic indicator available to show the value of this type of recrea- 
tional use. 

Public beach use in Narragansett Bay appears to be heavily concen- 
trated in a few State beaches, and other beaches seem to have adequate 
space to support the swimming demand. 

Boating 

Estuaries favor recreational boating because of the relatively pro- 
tected waters and variety of activities possible. Narragansett Bay, 
with its deep embayment and many protected waterways has been 
a historically prominent recreational boating area. Not all boats are 
registered, so that the total numbers of boats actually using the estu- 
arine system cannot be obtained directly. In 1965, however, 10,175 
recreational boats were registered in the State of Rhode Island. In 
addition many out-of-State boats use the Bay. 

Surveys of boat owners as well as boatyard and marina operators 
give an estimate of annual expenditures for boating of $5.2 million 
based on boat operating and maintenance costs. Table IV.3.10 shows 
the estimated participation in boating in Narragansett Bay. This num- 
ber of user-days appears excessive since it would require 25 trips of 
each 15,000 boats with at least five persons on each trip ; it is included 
to show the difficulties of assembling data to establish economic values 
for recreational pursuits. 

TABLE IV.3.10.— ESTIMATED PARTICIPATION IN BOATING, NARRAGANSETT BAY, 1965 





Percent 


Persons 


Days per 
person 


User-days 


Boating 

Sailing 


28 

5 


168, 000 
30, 000 


9.5 
11.5 


1, 596, 000 
345, 000 


Total 


33 


198,000 ... 




1, 941, 000 











Based on estimates of a 600,000 population over 12 years of age in Rhode Island. 

Source: "The 1965 Survey of Outdoor Recreation," Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, U.S. Department of the Interior, 
October 1967, pp. 45-52. 



162 

Sport -fishing 

Saltwater sport fishing is an extremely popular use of Narragansett 
Bay and adjacent waters. About 38 percent of boating time on Nar- 
ragansett Bay and adjacent waters is allocated to sport fishing, and 
there is considerable fishing from shore. This takes place primarily 
in four types of areas : From bridges that cross streams feeding into 
the Bay or connecting the Bay with other smaller estuaries ; from the 
breakwaters on piers that jut out into Bay; along the rocky shoreline 
in the southern part of the Bay; and the sandy beaches at the end 
of the swimming season which coincides with the fall runs of bluefish 
and striped bass. 

It is not possible to estimate the total expenditures for sport fisher- 
men in Rhode Island, for no reliable data are available from which 
to estimate their number. What is significant, however, is that a great 
many people engage in it, and that it is a relatively low-cost outdoors 
activity within the means of many. 

Waterfowl hunting 

In addition to commercial fisheries, Narragansett Bay is an impor- 
tant feeding and resting area for migratory waterfowl. The Bay is 
considered to be a relatively large unit of high quality migration and 
wintering habitat. The major species using the area include many 
highly desirable game birds. 

No formal data are available on the number of hunting trips that 
were made annually by each purchaser of waterfowl stamps. Based 
on data from other Northeastern States and considering the waterfowl 
counts and hunting regulations, it is estimated that each hunter made 
about 3.5 trips per year on the average. Bag checks by Rhode Island 
conservation officers indicate an average kill of 0.56 birds per trip. For 
1968 it is calculated that 2,507 hunters making 8,774 trips shot a total 
of 4,900 birds. 

Sldn and scuba diving 

The popularity of this activity in Narragensett Bay has been greatly 
enhanced by the natural advantages which are not present in the 
adjacent coastal areas. The Bay's ocean front shoreline has some access 
ways which permit diving and spearfishing directly from shore with- 
out a boat. Most sport diving is conducted in waters shallower than 
100 feet, and much of this area is within swimming distance of the 
shore. The Bay also attracts many sport divers from outside the State. 

Seasonal residences 

The last category of recreational use is that of seasonal residences. 
Seasonal residences are defined as those houses occupied generally for 
recreational purposes for a part of the year. In Rhode Island, most, 
if not all, seasonal residences are summer residences. Based on building 
permits for 1961-65, it is estimated that in property tax revenue alone, 
summer property approaches an annual value of $1 million. Although 
the presence of summer residents increases the municipal service loads, 
a significant absence here is provision for educational services, which 
generally comprise about 70 percent of municipal costs. Also the ex- 
penditures of the part-time residences stimulate employment and in- 
come of these towns. Accordingly, the total income resulting from the 



163 

inflow of persons in seasonal residences in the bay area during the 
summer months is much greater than the costs incurred by municipali- 
ties in providing services to such seasonal residences. If it is assumed 
that 5 percent of the investment in property is expended annually to 
cover repairs, maintenance, and insurance, and if it is further assumed 
that the total assessed value of the bay summer property represents 
70 percent of the actual investment, then the total assessment of 
$27,418,059 would represent an investment of $39,168,600 with annual 
expenses of $1,958,430. Adding the expenses to the tax revenues gives 
an estimated annual net addition to the area of $2,870,875. 

BAY TRANSPORTATION 

Narragansett Bay is both an obstacle to and an avenue of commerce. 
The transstate movement of people and goods is blocked by the same 
body of water that serves as a natural well-sheltered roadway for 
waterborne commerce. However, the income, employment, and expen- 
ditures generated in construction, operation, and maintenance of ocean 
port facilities, bridges, and ferry facilities justify the inclusion of 
transportation as an economic factor. 

The Port of Providence is Rhode Island's major port and ranks 
third in overall importance for the New England States. The eco- 
nomic impact of the port can be measured through all three categories 
of activities — primary, secondary, and marginal (see fig. IV.3.1). 
Table IV.3.11 shows estimates of economic impact of various com- 
modities passing through the port and multiplier factors from a 
nationwide study of the Maritime Administration. 

TABLE IV.3.11.-ESTIMATES OF ECONOMIC IMPACT OF VARIOUS COMMODITY TYPES PASSING THROUGH THE 

PORT OF PROVIDENCE, R.I., 1968 

Income pro- 
Volume 1 duction 2 
Type of cargo (short tons) per ton Totalimpact 

General 3509,353 $18.46 $9,402,656 

Tanker (crude or refined) 8,280,954 4.38 36,270,579 

Coal _-.. 416,391 3.02 1,257,501 

Total economicimpact 46,930,736 

1 Waterborne Commerce of the United States, calendar year 1966, Op. CIL, p. 26. 

2 From correspondence with Chief, Division of Ports and Systems, Office of Maritime Promotion, Maritime Administration, 
U.S. Department of Commerce, dated Sept. 27, 1968. 

3 Includes: 156,611 short tons of iron and steel scrap; 183,506 short tons of building cement 

Ta.ble IV.3.12 shows the construction of the port in terms of marine- 
related employment. This table emphasizes the importance of the 
marginal activities. 

The value of port improvement in facilities and navigational aids 
must also be considered. Where cargo facilities are concerned, past 
expenditures in the Port of Providence may be considered normal, 
given the size of the port and the complex of facilities for general or 
specialized cargo handling. Based on an estimated straight line depre- 
ciation over a 17-year period, the average addition to the value of the 
port is approximately $235,000 annually. 

The value of channel improvements is more diiRcult to assess. With 
expenditures totaling only 4 million over the lifetime of the various 



2 
1 


3 

7 


$5,252 
65, 184 


4 


Ml 


481,880 


36 


248 


1,183,772 



164 

rivers and harbors projects up to 1963, this amount may largely be 
written off. In essence, this assumes the income effects of these expen- 
ditures do not significantly add to the value of the port. On the other 
hand, the much greater amount of investment in 1967, a $14.3 million 
dredging project over a shorter period of time, will affect the economy 
of the port community. Since this dredging is to enable the port to 
handle the newer deeper draft vessels, it is necessary to prevent port 
obsolescence. Again, using a 50-year straight-line depreciation an 
average annual charge would amount to $268,000. 

TABLE IV.3.12.— NUMBER OF FIRMS, AVERAGE ANNUAL EMPLOYMENT, AND TOTAL WAGES AND SALARIES FOR 1965 
MARINE RELATED OCCUPATIONS IN RHODE ISLAND (COVERED EMPLOYMENT) 

Number of Average 

firms employment Total wages 

Deep sea, foreign transportation 

Deep sea, domestic transportation 

Local water transportation (ferries, lighterage, towing, and tugboat serv- 
ice, other not elsewhere classified) 

Services incidental to water transportation (piers and docks, stevedoring, 
water transportation services, not elsewhere classified) 

Total 43 299 1,736,088 

1 Includes Jamestown Ferry operation (approximately 30 employees $400,000 annual wages). 
Source: Records of the Rhode Island Department of Employment Security. 

In addition to the commercial shipping aspects of transportation, 
the impact of toll bridges must be considered. There are three toll 
bridges, the Jamestown Bridge from North Kingston to Connecticut 
Island, the Mount Hope Bridge from Bristol to Portsmouth, and the 
Newport-Jamestown Bridge, which will replace the ferryboats. The 
Jamestown Bridge will become toll free in 1969 when its bonds are 
redeemed. The Mount Hope was built in 1929 and its outstanding 
bonds were retired in 1964. Tolls will continue to be collected until 
the Newport-Jamestown Bridge is paid off. The Newport-Jamestown 
Bridge is scheduled to open in 1969. The bridge is being built at an 
estimated cost of $60 million. 

Table IV.3.13 shows a resume of the value of transportation to the 
Narragansett Bay area. 

Table IV. 3. 13 — Annual dollar impact of transportation, Narragansett Bay 

Item Impact 

Port of Providence $47, 200, 000 

Jamestown Ferry * 740, 000 

The Bridges: 

Jamestown-North Kingston 233, 000 

Mount Hope 190, 000 

Newport-Jamestown 2 1^ 2OO, 000 

Totalimpact 49, 563, 000 

> Discontinued after 1969. 

' Based on stralgtit line depreciation of 50-year amortization period. 

Marine-oriented industry and commerce 

A survey conducted in 1965-66 showed 75 marine-oriented firms lo- 
cated around Narragansett Bay in addition to marinas and boatyards. 
The firms are involved in such activities as ship and boat building, 
marine electronics, sail making, and fishnet construction. At the time 



165 

of the survey, these firms employed 4,251 people and had annual cash 
flows of $60,006,000. The revenue breakdown is shown in table IV.3.14. 

Table IV.3.14. — Cash flow for marine-oriented industry and commerce, Narragansett 

Bay, 1965-66 

Item Amount 

Purchases from local marine firms $1, 289, 229 

Purchases from local nonmarine firms 4, 742, 454 

Wages, salaries, interest, profit, and rent 39, 031, 502 

Local taxes 210, 921 

Federal taxes and purchases outside area 14, 731, 894 

Total 60, 006, 000 



Research and education 

The area around Narragansett Bay is the base for considerable 
research and education in the marine sciences. These are primarily 
State and Federal programs even though some education and research 
activity take place in marine-oriented commercial firms. The invest- 
ment in and expenditure for marine-oriented educational activities 
in the bay area is steadily expanding. On a dollar ranking basis, the 
Navy is first with various programs at the University of Rhode Island 
closely following. For research the same situation exists insofar as 
growth and dollar ranking. Table IV.3.15 gives a summary of 
estimated expenditures on research and education. 

Table IV.3.15. — Estimates for expenditures for research and education on or con- 
nected with Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, 1967-68 

Research and 
Activity education 

U.S. Navy: 

Naval Schools Command ] 

Naval Destroyer School [$17, 328, 879 

Naval War College J 

Naval Underwater Weapons Research and Engineering 

Station 13, 146, 662 

U.R.I. : 

Graduate School of Oceanography 2, 322, 000 

Department of Fisheries and Marine Technology 150, 000 

Other U.R.I.i 513, 000 

Department of Ocean Engineering 375, 000 

Miscellaneous : 

Narragansett Marine Gamefish Laboratory (USDI) 120, 600 

Northeast Marine Health Sciences Laboratory (USPHS) 560, 000 

National Marine Water Quality Laboratory (USDI) 786, 000 

R.I. State Atomic Reactor 222, 694 

R.I. Marine Fisheries Station 186, 000 

Total 35, 710, 835 

' I ncludes expenditures under the Sea-Grant Program and marine activities not elsewhere classified 



166 

Marine-oriented research and educational activities on the Nar- 
ragansett Bay area have little conflict with other uses of the bay. 
They exact no particular social costs in the form of unfavorable effects 
on the bay environment and are income producing. Areas of greatest 
economic impact are under supervision of the Military Establishment 
and are subject to the changing dictates of national military policies. 

Waste disposal 

It is estimated that approximately 150 million gallons per day 
(m.g.d.) of liquid wastes flow into Narragansett Bay through munic- 
ipal sewer systems or treatment plants. At the beginning of 1969, 20 
percent of these wastes received primary treatment, 70 percent received 
secondary, and 1 percent received tertiary treatment. The remaining 
undetermined amount of wastes are either discharged untreated into 
the bay or to individual treatment systems such as septic tanks where 
the effluent may eventually seep or leak into the bay. 

The tidal action in the bay and the bay itself are in fact part of the 
waste disposal process. With two exceptions — harvesting of shellfish 
and to a lesser degree contact recreation — this use of the bay for waste 
assimilation is compatible with other uses at the existing levels of 
waste treatment. 

The capability of the bay to assimilate waste products is a valuable 
economic asset. Its worth can be estimated either in terms of the in- 
creased value of the system for other uses or in terms of increased 
costs for waste treatment if the bay could not be used for this purpose. 

The only real economic damage to bay resources by waste disposal 
is the prohibition of shellfish harvesting in certain areas. This is a 
damage to the commercial shellfish industry rather than to the shellfish 
themselves since the closures are a matter of public health considera- 
tions and not habitat damage. If the areas presently barred to com- 
mercial shellfishing were opened, the value of the current commercial 
crop might increase by as much as $1 million, assuming that there is 
this much additional economic demand for the product. 

If the bay could not be used for disposal of partly treated wastes it 
would be necessary to dispose of them to the ocean or else provide 
advanced waste treatment. Based on the alternative costs of these two 
disposal methods, the waste assimilation capacity of Narragansett 
Bay has an annual economic value of $6 to $8 million. 

Total economic value of Narragansett Bay 

Table IV.3.16 summarizes annual economic activity caused by 
Narragansett Bay, R.L 

The accounting is incomplete in the sense that no attempt has been 
made to include imputed "values" or expenditures per user-days for 
various recreational activities, notably swimming, hunting, skindiving, 
and spearfishing. The expenditures incurred in these activities were not 
included, for in none of the four cases were not included, for in none 
of the four cases were both expenditures per participant and the num- 
bers of participants known. Also it was not possible to derive adequate 
estimates of the value the bay contributes to the people of Rhode Island 
through its effect on environmental quality. This includes air tempera- 
ture modification, open scenic space, and open space for low land air- 
craft approach and take off. These features, which have been omitted 
from the calculations, are unquestionably very valuable. 



167 

TABLE IV.3.16.— ESTIMATED ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND PERSONAL INCOME GENERATED BY PRIMARY EXPENDI- 
TURES ASSOCIATED WITH NARRAGANSETT BAY, RHODE ISLAND 1967-681 

Economic Activity Generated ' 



Primary Personal 

Activity expenditures 3 Multiplier Total Multiplier income 

U.S.Navy... _._. $215,808,384 2.73 $589,156,888 1.22 $263,286,228 

Marine industry -. 60,006,000 2.37 142,214,220 .95 57,005,700 

Transportation 49,563,000 1.00 249,563,000 .64 31,720,320 

Waste disposal 6,200,000 1.69 10,4/8,000 1.29 7,998,000 

Research and education 5,235,294 1.95 10,208,823 .62 3,245,882 

Boating (services).. 3,815,788 2.76 10,531,574 .94 3,586,840 

Summer housing 2,870,875 2.35 6,746,556 .78 2,239,282 

Commercial fishing 2,207,855 2.96 6,535,250 1.18 2,605,268 

Sw(imming___ -... 385,294 2.68 1,032,587 .96 369,882 

Total 346,092,490 826,466,898 372,057,402 

> For multipliers see: Rorholm, Lampe, Marshall, and Ferrell "Economic Impact of Marine Oriented Activities— A 
Study of the Southern New England Marine Region." Economics of Marine Resources No. 7, University of Rhode Island, 
Kingston (1967). 

2 The "primary" figure here is based on a multiplier value, hence no additional multiplier effect is present. 

' The "primary expenditure" here is actually an opportunity cost (see the appropriate section). The multiplier that 
has been used is that computed for "Households" since the saving occurrs in household expenditures. 

Spending generates income and further spending. Multipliers de- 
veloped in an earlier study have been used to estimate the extent to 
which the $346 million primary expenditure generates further eco- 
nomic activity and personal income in the area. It is estimated that 
primary expenditures generate a total transaction of $826,466,898 of 
which over $372 million is personal income in the form of wages, sal- 
aries, profit, interest, and rent. The latter figure may also be thought of 
as the local value added. The total transactions generated are about 
23 percent of the gross State product for Rhode Island which was 
estimated at about $3.5 billion in 1964. The $372 million personal in- 
come is about 13 percent of total personal income in the State in 1967 
which was estimated at $2.9 billion. 

Narragansett Bay gives an example of an estuarine-oriented economy 
which has grown up m an unorganized fashion as economic and social 
pressures dictated. The major contributing monetary factor is the ex- 
penditures of the U.S. Navy, which account for nearly two-thirds of 
the economic activity generated in the Narragansett Bay area. The 
least significant economic use is commercial fishing, accounting for less 
than 1 percent of the economic activity. 

An estuary such as Narragansett Bay, through its effect on the physi- 
cal environment of the surrounding area, bestows a certain value on 
this area. This is the only "output" of the bay which does not require 
combinations of labor and capital added to the bay itself. To be sure, 
it may be possible to increase this output or effect by certain man-made 
modifications, but since the evaluation of our environment is to a large 
extent subjective, one cannot always be sure that net results of man- 
made modifications are, in fact, positive. 

There are two kinds of specific environmental effects involved : 

(1) Climatic effects. Weather data indicate that the bay lowers 
the mean maximum summer temperature in Providence as much as 
4 degrees through the way the bay channels the afternoon sea 
breezes inland from the ocean. Similarly the water gives off its 
stored heat at a slower rate than does the land resulting in some 
modification of mean low winter temperatures. This can be ob- 

42-847 O — 70 12 



168 

served on numerous occasions when the coast will experience sleet 
or rain while it will be snowing and drifting some miles inland. 

(2) Open space. Open space serves a number of purposes in 
and around urban areas, all of which are difficult to quantify. 
There is no doubt, however, that the upper bay and Providence 
River north of Conimicut Point, as well as the Barrington and 
Warren Rivers, provide the surrounding communities with open 
space which they otherwise would have had to provide in the form 
of parks or other open areas in order to keep the kind of environ- 
mental quality now given free by these waters. The open space 
provided by the bay also serves as low-level flight space for ap- 
proach and takeoff at the Quonset Point Naval Air Station, saving 
the community a great deal of noise pollution and a resultant drop 
in property values. 
The general effect of open space on residence values has been ob- 
served frequently. It is commonly accepted that property values in- 
crease markedly as a park or other open area is approached. The same 
is the case as one approaches the shoreline, even if the water itself is 
not usable at that particular location. If higher prices are paid for 
property on a shore which is not suitable for either boating or swim- 
ming, then this value must be caused by the marine environment in 
general. 

The discussion of Narragansett Bay has been almost entirely from 
an economic viewpoint. Such discussions are necessarily limited to 
calculations based on individual values, and cannot consider the value 
of the general marine environment. This can be established only from 
the attitudes of an entire community to the estuarine resource. 

APALACHICOLA BAY (IV-3-2 ) 

Apalachicola Bay, located in Florida off the Gulf of Mexico, pro- 
vides a direct contrast with Narragansett Bay. This is important not 
only in illustrating the diversity of uses to which estuaries currently 
are put, but also inproviding a basis for evaluating an estuary's socio- 
economic situation on a different, and possibly more meaningful, basis. 

Apalachicola Bay, unlike Narragansett Bay, is not a berthing place 
for military vessels and, accordingly, does not have the type of economy 
which is a significant military complex engenders. Nor is the coastal 
estuary a commercial port of importance. Rather, studies have shown 
the present and potential importance of commercial fishing, recreation, 
and tourism to this estuary. 

Commercial fisheries 

The economic base of Franklin County, Fla., the land area upon 
which the bay is located, is unusually narrow. Dependence on commer- 
cial fishing and on the processing and export of seafood from the 
county is so great that serious pollution would be disastrous to its in- 
habitants. In November 1963, for example, about 62 percent of the 
employment in Franklin County was related directly or indirectly to 
the oyster industry. Direct employment is made up of jobs as ton^ers 
and workers in shore installations, while indirect employment consists 
of a variety of middleman functions related to the industry. This is 
only a partial view, however, of the importance of unpolluted water 



169 

to the economy of Franklin County. Employment, direct and indirect, 
associated with other types of seafood — to the extent that the catch 
is made in the bay or outside if the bay was the "nursery" — and much 
of the employment based on tourism is attributable to adequate pollu- 
tion control. 

As an initial step in determining the economic value of Apalachi- 
cola Bay, value and qantity statistics have been assembled for finfish 
and shellfish landings. 

Table IV.8.17 summarizes these figures for the 4 years, 1964 through 
1967, for which complete data are available. Separate statistics are pre- 
sented for oysters, shrimp, crabs, and finfish. Some shellfish are in- 
cluded with the finfish but in no year do they amount to more than 
1 percent of the total quantity or value figures for finfish. 

TABLE IV.3.17.— FISH AND SHELLFISH LANDINGS AND VALUES, APALACHICOLA BAY, 1964-67 





1964 1965 1966 1967 




Species 


Catch 
(pounds) 


Value Catch 
(dollars) (pounds) 


Value Catch 
(dollars) (pounds) 


Value Catch 
(dollars) (pounds) 


Value 
(dollars) 


Oysters! 


...1,415,600 


396, 368 1, 380, 500 
129, 861 202, 500 
38, 078 935, 700 
134,713 1,614,100 


463, 301 2, 191, 100 
52, 396 271, 800 
51, 082 610, 100 

129,372 937,600 


673,562 2,404,800 
75, 143 138, 000 
30, 501 675, 400 
82,571 432,600 


730, 578 


Snrimp2- ._ 

Crabs' 

Finfish 


... 704,100 
-_. 552,500 
...1,887,300 


35, 501 
36, 668 
58, 159 


All species (total). 


...4,559,500 


699,020 4,132,800 


696, 151 4, 010, 500 


861,777 3,650,800 


860,906 








1 Shucked weight. 

2 "Heads-off" weight. 

3 Live weight. 













Source: Apalachicola Office, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. 

The 4-year totals show a total catch of 16,353,600 pounds, valued at 
$3,117,854, for Apalachicola Bay. During the period, there was a sig- 
nificant increase in oyster landings and value accompanied, conversely, 
by a large decrease in shrimp catch over the period. 

It should be recognized that the landings (fisherman's) value repre- 
sented only a part of the total value of the fishing industry. For Frank- 
lin County (Apalachicola) oysters for example, the final value aver- 
aged four times the amount paid to the fisherman (and dependent upon 
the final form in which the oysters were sold, this multiple could ex- 
ceed seven times the fisherman's value) . 

In 1967, wholesale prices of oysters fluctuated between $4.50 and 

$6.50 (per gallon, shucked) for standard oysters and between $5.50 
and $7.50 for select oysters. The markup to truckers ranged from $1.75 
to $2.00 per gallon during the year averaging $1.50 per gallon to 
dealers. All of the available information lends support to the conclu- 
sion that the final value of the oyster industry is about four times the 
fishermen's value. For 1967, this total amount would be $5,098,860. 

The total value of shrimp landings in Franklin County in 1967 was 
$431,018. However, all the landings were not directly related to the 
Apalachicola River and Bay. Significantly, the shrimp caught in the 
gulf areas nearest the Apalachicola River and Bay are more closely 
related to the estuary and it has been estimated by oceanographers that 
approximately 90 percent of all of the shrimp caught in areas close to 
the bay were originally inhabitants of the estuary which served as a 
"nursery" for these shrimp, a reflection of the economic value of 
estuaries which is not always recognized. 



170 

To illustrate the commercial fishery value of the estuaries further, 
shrimp prices (with head ojff) averaged $0.92 per pound in 1967. Of 
the final retail average of $1.30 per pound, 5 cents per pound repre- 
sented the wholesaler's markup with the remaining 33 cents being 
received b^ the retailer. With the conversion factors provided by the 
price data it can be estimated that the total retail value of the shrimp 
landings attributable to the Apalachicola estuary is approximately 

Table IV.3.18 contains the projects of the annual fishery landings 
values attributable to the estuary. Projects are made for the years 
1975, 1980, and 2000. Because oysters and shrimp are highly income 
elastic products, the value of their production should increase at a rate 
at least equal to that of the national income. This of course assumes 
no unusually extreme shifts in supply. A rate of 4 percent has been 
compounded to the base years to approximate the future values of 
oyster and shrimp landings. 

Finfish and, to a lesser extent, crabs have a much lower income 
elasticity. Thus, a growth rate of only 2 percent has been used in ex- 
tending their values forward to the years cited in the table. Again 
supply variation and/or changes in processing methods can affect esti- 
mates. For example, an increased use of fishery products as a source 
of protein for underdeveloped countries would have an impact on the 
demand side. 

This material reinforces the contention that simple values of fishery 
landings are a totally inadequate measure of the "true value" of the 
fishery resources involved. Only by studying both the values added in 
production and the income generated by the income multiplier can a 
realistic estimate be made. 

TABLE IV.3.18.— PROJECTIONS OF THE ANNUAL VALUE OF APALACHICOLA ESTUARINE RELATED LANDINGS J 

Species 1967 1975 1980 2000 

Oysters $5,098,860 $6,975,240 $8,489,602 $18,600,641 

Shrimp 471,260 644,633 784,648 1,719,156 

Crabs. 285,452 334,264 369,089 548,639 

FinHsh. 576,981 675,645 746,036 1,108,957 

All species 6,432,553 8,629,832 10,389,375 21,977,393 

1 Values are in terms of final retail values. 

Value of tourism and recreation 

A great deal of the economic value of clean water in Apalachicola 
Bay derives from its attraction to tourists. Salt and fresh water fish- 
ing, swimming, water skiing, surf boarding, boating, sunbathing, and 
gathering oysters along the shore are among the water-related tourist 
activities. Tourists from Alabama, Georgia, and north Florida are 
usually interested in water-related activities while residents of the 
South and other regions are more likely only to be passing through 
Franklin County. In order to estimate the proportion of water-related 
tourist stops on the mainland side of Apalachicola Bay, the economics 
department of Florida State University asked owners of the three 
largest motels in Apalachicola and Eastpoint to have all guests during 
July 1968 fill out a questionnaire. A total of 173 "families" comprising 



Water-related 
interest 


Passing 
through 


Other 


9 


8 
15 

6 
21 
25 


9 


7 
27 
9 
3 


11 
8 

10 
5 



171 

480 persons filled out the questionnaire. A summary of results is shown 
in table IV.3.19. 

TABLE IV.3.19.— REASONS GIVEN FOR TOURIST INTEREST IN FRANKLIN COUNTY, JULY 1968 

Families 

Water-related 
Home 

North Florida. __ 

Other Florida 

Alabama-Georgia 

Other South 

Non-South 

Total. _ 55 75 43 

Table IV.3.19 pertains only to travelers stopping on the mainland. 
It is reasonable to assume that virtually all of the visitors to the off- 
shore islands are there for "water- related" purposes and that the same 
is true for residents of cottages built alongside the gulf (such as the 
150 rooms in the Wilson's Beach cottages) . According to the Florida 
Hotel and Restaurant Commission there were 248 rooms in 18 motels 
and 249 rooms in the rental cottages within the county. Using the re- 
sults of table IV.3.19 for the motels, and assuming that all of the 
guests at the cottages are "water-related" it appears for Franklin 
County as a whole that about two-thirds of the tourist business is 
related to the estuary. 

The 1967 Florida Tourist Study published by the Florida Develop- 
ment Commission shows 5,046 automobile tourists from out of state 
with Franklin County as their destination. If arrivals by private 
planes, boats, and buses are added the figure might be in the neigh- 
borhood of 5,200. Adding the estimated number that came from 
Florida brings the 1967 total to 7,800 of which an estimated 5,200 are 
"water related." The Florida Development Commission shows the 
average tourist stay to be 14.8 days and the average expenditure per 
person per day to be $17.20. Because of the lower than average prices 
of accommodations in Franklin County, average expenditures of $14 
per day and an average stay of 15 days appear reasonable. For 1967 this 
would yield a total estimate of $1,092,000. This source of income may 
be expected to continue in the future at least commensurate with na- 
tional or regional population increases as well as other factors. It has 
been projected to increase to $3,571,600 in 1975 ; to $5,077,020 by 1980; 
and to $13,377,000 by the year 2000. 

Effect on local residents 

Table IV.3.20 summarizes projections discussed earlier of the actual 
and potential economic benefits which may be expected with proper 
pollution control efforts in the Apalachicola Estuary. The main source 
of income in 1967 was derived from the commercial fishing industry — 
$4,868,118 — compared with $2,799,629 accruing to total incomes of 
fish industry sources out of Franklin Countv and $1,463,280 for 
tourisni in Franklin County for a grand total of $9,131,027. With 
the maintenance of satisfactory conditions in the estuary's waters, 
by the year 2000 it is anticipated that income from tourism will in- 
crease by several magnitudes and that a grand total in excess of $44 
million will be generated. 



2,549,430 


3,487,620 
23,211 
111,422 
161,693 


4,244,801 
28,250 
123, 030 
178, 538 


9,300,321 


16,967 


61,896 


95, 151 


182,880 


138,081 


265, 391 







172 

TABLE I V.3.20.— ESTIMATED ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL INCOME GENERATED NATIONALLY BY CLEAN WATER IN 

APALACHICOLA ESTUARY 

Source of Income 1967 1975 1980 2000 

Local income generated: 

Seafood $4,868,118 $6,493,489 $7,781,773 $16,303,655 

Tourism - 1,463,280 4,785,944 6,803,207 17,925,180 

Total 6,331,398 11,279,433 14,584,980 34,228,835 

Value added out of county: 

Oysters 

Shrimp.. --. 

Crab -- 

Finfish 

Total - 2,799,629 3,783,946 4,574,619 9,810,488 

Total national contribution of Apalachicola estuary. 9,131,027 15,083,379 19,159,598 44,039,323 

Estimates of economic benefits to local residents indicated in table 
IV.3.20 are of particular importance to the area because its present 
relatively low economic status indicates the local population is unable 
to better itself economically from pursuits other than those related 
to the estuary. However, in addition to the economic improvement 
which may be anticipated locally, consideration also should be given 
to the recreational advantages afforded by the estuary to local citizens. 
It is reasonable to expect that a direct relationship exists between 
socioeconomic level and the distance which the members of the pop- 
ulation will travel to fill their recreational needs ; that is, the lower a 
person's income the shorter distance he is likely to travel for purposes 
of recreation. Therefore, even with the increasing mobility which 
Americans have experienced in the last several decades, there is no 
question but that availability of adequate water recreational facilities 
near the local population is of incalculable benefit to those local 
citizens. These benefits can be expected to increase with the shortened 
workweek predicted for the future as well as the increase in economic 
well-being projected for the population with ready access to the 
Apalachicola Estuary. 

SAN DIEGO BAY (IV-3-3 ) 

The San Diego area is an example of the multiple uses and develop- 
ment of an estuarine system. The basic development and growth of 
San Diego is attributable to the military uses of its deepwater estuary. 
However, later diversification of the economy into areas of manufac- 
turing, trade, tourism, and education has made the area less dependent 
upon a single use of the estuary. In fact the relative value of the 
estuary to the entire population is shifting toward recreation and 
aesthetic values. Indications of the value of these recreational pursuits 
and aesthetic pleasures to the general populace can be found in the 
estimated over $2 million they are willing to spend annually to prevent 
pollution of the bay by municipal sources. 

The San Diego study does not provide a complete economic account- 
ing analysis of the estuary's total value but it does give some esti- 
mates of the various components of the area's economy. Also, there 
are estimates of the costs of abating bay pollution from municipal 
sources and estimates of the monetary benefits resulting from such 
pollution abatement. 



173 

Description of the study area 
Statistical study areas 

For purposes of the technical analysis, bay-related land has been 
divided into three geographic areas. Study area I consists of virtually 
all land immediately adjacent to and surrounding the bay extending 
approximately 4 to 8 miles inland from the Pacific Ocean. Study 
area II lies immediately adjacent to area I and extends approximately 
15 additional miles inland. Study area III includes the balance of 
the county. 

General description — San Diego County 

San Diego Bay lies in the southwestern corner of the United States. 
It is the prime economic factor in the development of San Diego Coun- 
ty which surrounds it. The county, which corresponds to the San 
Diego Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, is bordered on the 
south by Mexico, on the east by Imperial County, on the north by 
Riverside and Orange Counties, and on the west by 70 miles of Pacific 
Ocean shoreline. It is approximately 80 miles wide and encompasses 
4,258 square miles (fig. IV.3.3 on p. 174) . 

The entire San Diego area has many valuable natural features, but 
the one of greatest influence and value is San Diego Bay. The bay is 
crescent shaped, approximately 15 miles in length, varies in width 
from one-quarter to 21/2 miles, and has a surface area of approxi- 
mately 18.5 square miles. It is protected on the west by the high 
ground of Point Loma and is separated from the Pacific Ocean by a 
narrow sand spit called the Silver Strand. North Island, once an 
actual island, forms the northern end of the Silver Strand. 

San Diego Bay is one of the great natural harbors of the world. 
Four cities and three naval military facilities line its shoreline: the 
city of San Diego in the north, east, and south; National City and 
Chula Vista on the eastern shore south of San Diego ; Coronado along 
the western edge of the bay ; North Island Naval Station occupying 
the western half of North Island ; the Marine Corps Depot across the 
bay to the north ; and San Diego Naval Station along the northeastern 
shore of the bay. The city of Imperial Beach lies just south of the bay 
on the Pacific coast, 3 miles north of San Diego Bay and on the coast 
is Mission Bay, 22 years ago. Mission Bay was a tidal mudflat. Exten- 
sive development, which is still continuing, has converted it into an 
attractive recreational waterland. 

Approximately 369,000 civilians are gainfully employed in San 
Diego County. The county's economy, which once depended primarily 
on the military and the aircraft- aerospace industries, has experienced 
considerable diversification. Today, other major contributors to the 
economy are shipbuilding, manufacturing, tourism, education, agri- 
culture, and construction. 

Government agencies comprise the largest civilian employment cate- 
gory in San Diego County. In 1967, 83,500 persons were in Govern- 
ment ser^dces. This is an increase of over 47.7 percent since 1960. 
There was a similar increase in the number of persons employed in 
service industries. Public employment other than in the defense sector 
is expected to increase in proportion to the increase in the population 
of the county. 



174 



FIGURE IV.3.3 SAN DIEGO BAY STUDY AREAS AND SUB-AREAS 



AR£A I 


AREA II 


1. CENTRAL SAN DIEGO 


7. 


COASTAL S.D. 


2. NORTH-WEST BAY 


8. 


KEARNY MESA 


3. S.D. BAY (MILITARY) 


9. 


MISSION GORGE 


4. NATIONAL CITY 


'--- 10. 


EAST SAN DIEGO 


5. CHULA VISTA ^^-^ 


rii. 


SOUTH BAY 


6. CORONADO f'^ 


[12. 


REAM (MILITARY) 


/ 


>13. 


SWEETWATER 


/ 


LA MESA-SPRING 


1 ,'^ 


r 


VALLEY 


1? ^^^ 


Wr AREA III 



BALANCE OF THE COUNTY 




AREA BOUNDARY 
SUB-AREA BOUNDARY 
CITY BOUNDARY 



175 

Today the U.S. Navy has modern facilities, equipment, training 
camps, research laboratories, and a total naval personnel of approxi- 
mately 170,000 persons. An estimated 215,000 dependents of these 
170,000 naval men live in San Diego County. The majority of the 
100,000 shore-based military personnel are based at San Diego installa- 
tions or Camp Pendleton. Additional naval personnel are based at the 
Ream and Miramar Naval Air Stations. 

Density 
Approximately 73 percent of the county's civilian population lives 
within 20 miles of San Diego Bay. Study area I, adjacent to the bay, 
and with less than 1 percent of the county's total land area, has ap- 
proximately 19 percent of the civilian population; Study area II, 
immediately adjacent to study area I with 6.9 percent of the county's 
nonmilitary land area, has 52 percent of the civilian population. In 
other words, the population is more concentrated towards the bay, and 
population density is inversely proportional to the distance from the 
bay. Figure IV.3.4 on page 176 shows the anticipated population 
growth of the three areas. 

Municipal wastes 

By the mid-1950's wastes discharges into San Diego Bay began to 
exceed the assimilative capacity of the waters. In late 1960 local voters 
passed a $42.5 million bond issue for the construction of new waste 
treatment facilities. As a result of the new facilities, no domestic 
wastes have been discharged to San Diego Bay since 1964. All sewage 
is now collected and pumped to the treatment plant from which it is 
discharged into the Pacific Ocean. 

Table IV.3.21 shows the estimated annual dollar costs and benefits 
involved in the bay cleanup. Annual costs of debt service, and opera- 
tion and maintenance of the facilities range from $2,3 million in fiscal 
year 1967-68 to a projected $3.3 million in the year 2000. These esti- 
mated costs have been adjusted to exclude costs not borne by the local 
residents or those costs not exclusively associated with bay cleanup. 
In other words, debt service costs associated with the Federal contri- 
bution for construction have been excluded along with those costs re- 
quired whether the wastes are disposed of in the bay or in the ocean. 

TABLE IV 3.21.— ANNUAL COSTS i OF AND DIRECT RECREATIONAL BENEFITS RESULTING FROM ABATEMENT OF 
MUNICIPAL POLLUTION SAN DIEGO BAY CLEAN-UP 

[Amounts in dollars] 

Fiscal year 

1967-68 1975 1980 2000 

Bay cleanup costs 2,312,000 2,613,000 2,848,000 3,296,000 

Recreational benefits: 

Beach activities/swimming... 2,294,000 

Water skiing 387,000 

Sailingand canoeing 155,000 

Power boating 2,165,000 

Fishing and wildlife sports 1,000,000 

Naval use (amphibious and other water contact training) (2) 

Total _ _ 6,001,000 7,438,000 8,464,000 12,567,000 

1 1 ncludes debt service, operation, and maintenance. Excludes construction costs required whether wastes are discharged 
into the bay or the ocean, also excluded debt service costs on Federal share of construction costs. 
2 None available. 



2, 837, 000 


3,225,000 


4,776,000 


484, 000 


553, 000 


830, 000 


194, 000 


222, 000 


333, 000 


2, 763, 000 


3, 190, 000 


4, 899, 000 


1, 160, 000 


1, 274, 000 


1, 729, 000 


(0 


(0 


(2) 



176 



FIGURE IV.3.4 SAN DIEGO COUNTY POPULATION GROWTH BY 
STATISTICAL AREA 



5,000 



4,000 



3,000 



2,000 



z 

^ 1,000 

o 

^ 800 



z 
o 

»— 

Q. 

o 



600 
500 

400 
300 

200 

























COUNTY 














(TOTA 


\ 


















\ 




« 
















^ 












L 

^ 


¥ 
X 


» 










^ 














X 
















^ 










. 




• 
















• 




AREA II _ 








• 










^ 






• 










J 




X 












^ ^ 


^•^ 


• 












'^ 


V^ 












» ^^ 


y 


r 








_^^ 


.^•^ 


A 


n 










y^ 




y. 


s 








^ 






y^ 


i 






>• 


^^ 




> 




AREA III 




^ 






^ 










y^ 




A 


r^ 








,/ 






y 










/^ 




/ 


r 






AREA 

/ 


1 




/ 


/ 




,..,**"' 


,,./-"" 


> 


„/""" 


•ffJ0fff 




— 


.,.■""" 











I960 



1970 



1980 1990 

YEAR 



2000 



PRIIIAllY SOURCE: REGIONAL GENERAL PLAN, SAN DIEGO COUNTY 1990. 



177 

Benefits shown in table IV.3.21 are those directly attributable to 
water related recreational activities. Estimated direct recreation bene- 
fits range from $6 million in 1967-68, to $12.0 million in the year 2000. 
These benefits are restricted to recreational aspects only and do not 
include the impact of money spent for recreation on the associated 
parts of the economic system. 

EcoThomy 

Military 
The U.S. Navy and Marine CJorps contributed $1.2 billion to the 
economy of San Diego County in 1967. This was an increase of 17 per- 
cent over 1966. Major factors in the increase were greater military 
construction, the Vietnam war buildup, and an increasing number of 
dependents and retired military men moving into the county. As de- 
scribed previously, an estimated 170,000 naval men and Marines are 
stationed at military facilities in San Diego County. An estimated 173 
Navy ships are based in San Diego. On an average, 90 Navy ships 
operate out of San Diego harbor every day. The Navy spends approx- 
imately $300 million to support these ships and the several other naval 
commands in the community. For utilities (gas, electricity, water, 
phone) alone, the Navy spends more than $7 million every year. The 
Navy also employs civilian, civil service employees, and blue collar 
workers who received compensation of $201.8 million in 1967. Military 
construction in San Diego County averages more than $20 million 
annually. 

CommerciaX/indus trial 

Maritime coniTnerce. — ^The continually expanding growth (figure 
IV.3.5, p. 178) of the maritime industry's use of San Diego as a harbor 
necessitates the construction of a new terminal every 10 years. 

For fiscal year 1967-68, Marine terminals reported a total revenue 
tonnage via port of San Diego of 1,107,060 tons. The total value of 
cargo was $269.3 million, including bunker fuels. Inbound cargo was 
valued at $203.3 million, and outbound at $65.6 million. The largest 
single import category was toys and novelties with a value of $38.3 
million ; second largest item imported was textile and clothing valued 
at $30.2 million. The largest export category was household goods 
with a value of $15.2 million ; the second largest category among ex- 
port goods was transportation equipment and machines valued at 
$13.1 million. In terms of tonnage, however, lumber had the greatest 
import tonnage, and potash the greatest export tonnage. 

Shipbuilding. — The shipbuilding industry provides employment for 
five times as many workers today as it did less than 20 years ago. The 
current labor force of almost 4,000 workers is expected to increase to 
6,750 hj the year 1990. This increase would, however, represent no 
change in the industry's percentage of the total San Diego County 
labor force, and is expected to remain constant at 1 percent. The eco- 
nomic value of shipbuilding has grown from $6.5 million in 1950 to 
$91.7 million in 1967. 

Some 20 shipbuilding and repair firms scattered throughout the 
bay conduct operations ranging from the construction and repair of 
large vessels to alterations on small fishing boats. Commercial ship- 
building and repair operations have increased as the result of the clos- 



178 



FIGURE IV.3.5 TONNAGE SERVICED BY THE SAN DIEGO PORT 



1,150,000 
1,100,000 
1,000,000 




1950 



1955 



1960 
YEAR 



1965 



1970 



SOURCE: SAN DIEGO BAY, CALIFCSINIA. A REVIEW, BENEFICIAL USES, WASTE 
DISPOSAL PRACTICES, WATER QUAUTY; IRVING TERZICH, 1965. 



179 

ing of the U.S. naval repair facility in 1964. The building and repair 
of naval vessels is now a major industry using the bay as a resource. 

Fishing.— SsiB. Diego Bay services the world's largest annual tuna 
catch. It is estimated to represent approximately 45 percent of the 
total world catch and to have a value of $21.7 million. The number of 
persons annually employed in fishing in the San Diego area has de- 
creased by almost half since 1950, from 2,050 to 1,100. This is expected 
to remain stable at approximately 1,300 for the projected years of 
1975, 1980, and 1990. The fishing industry now provides about 0.2 per- 
cent of the county's employment. 

Fish canneries in the San Diego Bay area are primarily engaged m 
the processing of tuna caught by a 100-boat fleet operating out of the 
bay. More than 4 million oases are processed annually by the five can- 
neries located in the area. Thawing and fluming of fish is done on the 
bay shore. 

San Diego Bay serves as a refuge, feeding, and nursery area for fish. 
As such, it effectively influences the fishery resources of the sur- 
rounding ocean. Approximately 100,000 persons, 80 percent from out of 
town, fish from commercial fishing boats which operate out of San 
Diego Bay. 

Fish and animal reduction. — In fish and animal reduction, solid 
and liquid wastes from fish canneries and solid wastes of animal origin 
are processed for oil and grease. The remaining solids are dried and 
converted to chicken feed. 

Animal entrails originally washed with bay water are now flushed 
with fresh water ; however, a cooker and drier fumes washer is oper- 
ated with water from San Diego Bay. 

Kelp. — There is an abundant supply of kelp in Pacific Ocean offshore 
waters. Its chief value is as a source of iodine. The San Diego Bay area 
is a natural location for the kelp-processing industry. 

Chemical industry. — The San Diego unified port district operated 
an oil separation unit at its 10th Avenue marine terminal for proc- 
essing ballast and bilge water of ships using district facilities. The 
unit has a capacity of 1 million gallons per day, but has been used 
intermittently and far below its capacity. 

Manufacturing. — Manufacturing is the largest civilian, nongovern- 
mental component of the economy of San Diego County. It is largely 
dependent on aircraft and ordnance production. In 1967, 32,200 of the 
county's 61,700 manufacturing employees (or slightly over 50 percent) 
were in aircraft and ordnance. The total manufacturing payroll for 
1967 was over $496 million. 

Trade {wholesale and retail). — In 1967, total annual wages in 
the trade-industrial category were approximately $339 million, or 24 
percent of the total San Diego County civilian payroll. From 1960 
to 1967, the wholesale-retail trade payroll increased 151 percent, with 
the greatest increase occurring between 1965 and 1967. Trade repre- 
sents the second largest civilian payroll category in San Diego County, 

Tourism. — The third largest industry in San Diego is tourism. Esti- 
mated total visitor expenditures have increased approximately 50 per- 
cent between 1960 and 1967, with the sharpest rise occurring during 
the 1965 to 1967 period. In addition to bay cleanup, opening of the 
San Diego Convention Center in 1965 undoubtedly influenced this 
increase. 



180 

In 1967, 446 conventions met in San Diego and contributed approxi- 
mately $42.5 million to the area's economy. It has been estimated that 
each delegate remained an average of 4.18 days and spent about $35.50 
per day. San Diego County's 196Y hotel-motel occupancy rate of 75 
percent ranks among the highest in the Nation. 

EdAJucation. — As previously mentioned, San Diego's public and pri- 
vate schools employed 33,900 or 8.9 percent of all civilian employed 
persons in 1967. During the last 5 years, 11,500 persons were added to 
the education payrolls, an increase of 49.1 percent. 

Federal civil service. — The nimiber of Federal civilian government 
employees in 1967 was 83,500. This was 47 percent higher than the 
56,550 employed in 1960. The total wages paid to Federal civilian em- 
ployees in 1967 was about $225.6 million. 

Recreation 

San Diego County is fortunate in having an abundant supply of 
mountains, beaches, and other places of recreational value. In 1965, 
according to the county planning department, a total of 17,157 acres 
of land was used for recreational purposes : 

Study area : Acres 

I 1,868 

II 9,427 

III 5,862 

Total (county) 17,157 

Beaches. — Existing ocean beaches in the county are a major recrea- 
tional attraction for both residents and tourists. Of the 70 miles of 
ocean shoreline, exclusive of bays and inlets, about 24 miles are suitable 
for swimming activity, and half of this is accessible to the public. The 
following future county beach area requirements have been projected 
based on standards developed by the California Public Outdoor Rec- 
reation Plan Committee Report, part II, 1960 : 

Year : Acres 

1968 225 

1975 259 

1980 291 

2000 366 

Current beach area capacity would therefore appear to be adequate, 
although it may be necessary to develop access roads to those beach 
areas which are now inaccessible to the general public. 

Boating. — The number of registered pleasure crafts using San Diego 
Bay was approximately 4,000 in 1955 ; 20,000 in 1965 ; and more than 
24,000 in June of 1968. San Diego Bay's permanent mooring facilities 
can currently accommodate 2,404 boats, and there are an additional 611 
dry storage spaces. Plans are underway to almost double the mooring 
facilities by provisions at Shelter and Harbor Islands. 

Approximately 50,000 trailered pleasure craft use the waters of 
San Diego Bay annually. Total investment in all pleasure craft using 
the bay has been estimated at $35 million. The full economic impact 
of boating would also include fuel, boat maintenance, visitor spending 
(food, hotels, entertainment, etc.), and rentals for boats and their 
berths. A private developer in the Imperial Beach area is planning 
a residential community of 3,500 units, each with its own boat slip, 
to be constructed over a 10-year period. 



181 

Swimtning and heach use 
According to the California Department of Parks and Recreation, 
Planning Monograph No. 4, the most popular summer outdoor rec- 
reational activity in the San Diego metropolitan district is swimming, 
with 84,000 participants; driving for pleasure is second, with 54,000 
participants; and walking for pleasure is third, with 49,000 partici- 
pants. For persons of 12 years and older, the age group of 12 to 17 
years has the greatest number of outdoor recreation participation days. 
Wliere available, beaches would therefore seem to be the most useful 
summer recreational resource for the population as a whole, and 
especially for the teenage population. The requirement for swimming 
facilities is expected to more than double by 1980 when a demand of 
184,000 participants is projected for the county. 

Recreation outlook 

According to outdoor recreation outlook to 1980 by the California 
State Department of Parks and Recreation, population in the San 
Diego area is expected to increase from 1,049,000 to 1,800,100 between 
1960 and 1980, or 71.6 percent. The number of recreation participation 
days is projected to increase from 107,300,000 to 212 million, an in- 
crease of 97.5 percent based on population and participation days data. 

The total recreational benefit in 1970 is projected to be over $135 
million. Of this, $40 million is related to water-oriented sports such 
as swimming, boating, et cetera. An unknown percentage of the ap- 
proximately $80 million relating to walking, driving, sightseeing, pic- 
nicking, et cetera is attributable to the presence of San Diego Bay. 
Total recreational economic benefits have been projected as almost $280 
million for 1980, a more than threefold increase in comparison with 
the estimated $91 million for 1960. 

MISSION BAY 
(IV-3-3) 

The preceding presentation primarily reflected the situation in 
San Diego County and reviewed that situation in light of the economic 
base supplied by the bay estuary. However, another very important 
part of the San Diego scene is Mission Bay. This particular bay is 
an excellent example of recreational possibilities available in an 
estuarine system. 

Mission Bay was formerly no more than a mudflat in a tidal area. 
However, its development is comparable to the possibilities of any 
large estuarine situation where a portion of the system can be devoted 
to special recreational pursuits. The particular value in such a situa- 
tion is that the use of special areas need not interfere with the major 
uses of the estuary, although the amount of pollution in the estuary 
must be limited so as not to preclude use of the recreational portion. 

The following summary of the Mission Bay experience points up 
the multitude of possibilities that are available for recreational and 
economic development in an estuary given some initial investment of 
time and money. 

Mission Bay Park is the Nation's largest municipally owned aquatic 
park and provides for public recreation in conjunction with land 



182 

reclamation, water conservation, and commercial enterprise. It was 
dredged out of the large tidal mudflat located about 2 miles north of 
the northwest section of San Diego Bay, and lies entirely within the 
city of San Diego. 

Development of the 4,600-acre aquatic playground was initiated in 
1946 when the voters of the city of San Diego authorized a $2 million 
bond issue to finance it. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Army Corps of 
Engineers established a floodway separating the San Diego River 
from Mission Bay. Subsequent dredging operation by both the Corps 
and the city of San Diego opened up the entire bay and created the 
many coves and islands which form its land masses. 

By the end of 1966, the city had invested a total of $14.5 million 
in the development of Mission Bay : $9 million from three bond issues, 
and $5.5 million in capital outlay funds. The State of California con- 
tributed 2,900 acres of tidelands, and $3.5 million for the realinement 
of public utilities and the construction of new bridges. By the time of 
its anticipated completion it has been estimated that a total of ap- 
proximately $56 million in public funds, and $50 million in private 
funds, will have been invested in Mission Bay. In short, many public 
agencies and private groups have been and will continue to be, instru- 
mental in the development of the $106 million water playground 
known as Mission Bay. 

The park is a multiple-use project covering 2,500 acres of water 
and 2,100 acres of land area. Most of the bay has a depth ranging 
from 6 to 12 feet at mean lower low water. The park includes six 
islands, 10 peninsulas, two small craft basins, 10 covers, the entrance 
channel from the Pacific Ocean, two large open water areas, and Vaca- 
tion Isle. Figure IV.3.6 shows the location of the park complex's vari- 
ous recreational facilities. 

There are approximately 27 miles of beaches at Mission Bay with 
supervised swimming in seven areas. During the 1965-66 fiscal year, 
the total recorded attendance was 484,702 persons exclusive of the 
low-attendance winter months. 

There is no charge for the use of the concrete launching ramps which 
the city provides in designated sections of the bay. An estimated aver- 
age of 200 boats are launched on weekdays, 600 over weekends. A spe- 
cial area is set aside for sailboating and controlled-speed boating 
activities. Four large marinas — with slips for 1,200 boats and dry 
storage accommodations for 250 boats — serve the larger powerboats 
and sailboats using the bay and the ocean beyond. Ultimately, it is 
planned to construct slips for a total of 12,000 boats. Powerboat racing 
on Mission Bay has attracted wide interest. Fiesta Bay can accommo- 
date all classes of racing inboards including unlimited hydros. 

Sport fishing is permitted anywhere in the bay except for official 
swimming areas and those designated for water ski landing and take- 
offs. Anglers from the Metropolitan San Diego area make extensive 
use of Mission Bay waters where the following may be caught : Bonito, 
barracuda, spotfin, and yellowfin croakers, riioberlip and shiner surf- 
perch, California halibut, jacksmelt, and topsmelt. It is anticipated 
that good fishing conditions will continue as long as the waters remain 
free from pollution. 

The University of California maintains a small wildlife preserve 
near Rose Creek Inlet which is used primarily for bird watching and 



183 



FIGURE IV.3.6 EXISTING WATER RECREATION AREA MISSION BAY 




SOURCE: CITY OF SAN DIEGO - RECREATION DEPARTMENT, AQUATIC DIVISION 



42-847 O — 70- 



-13 



184 

bird study of waterfowl, gull, and shorebirds. Because it is illegal to 
discharge firearms within the city of San Diego, there is no waterfowl 
hunting on the bay. 

The quality of Mission Bay waters depends primarily on the physi- 
cal characteristics of the bay. The temperature, clarity, and dissolved 
oxygen concentration in the entrance channel tends to approximate 
that of the adjacent ocean. Atlhough dissolved oxygen nitrates and 
phosphates are low, the presence of phytoplankton and suspension of 
bottom materials caused by water motion contribute to turbidity. As 
measured by coliform indicators, the bacterial quality of Mission Bay 
is excellent. 

There is virtually no direct discharge of waste to Mission Bay ex- 
cept for overflow from Sea World's display tanks, and infrequent 
overflows from the municipal sewerage system and boats. The use of 
marine heads in the bay is discouraged. There are drying beds for 
liquid digested sludge on Fiesta Island. Their use conforms to the 
requirements of the San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board, 
and their presence has created no known problems. 

Sea World Aquatic Park is a unique, privately owned marine ex- 
hibit located in Mission Bay Park. After filtering to improve clarity, 
bay waters are used in the exhibit and performance tanks. 

There is a heavy demand for the 1,000 rooms offered by resort hotels 
in or adjacent to Mission Bay Park. These are largely classified as 
luxury accommodations. In addition, there are trailer park accom- 
modations of 653 spaces. Facilities for tourist accommodations are 
expected to increase, and one hotel is planning to provide an additional 
127 rooms for visitors as well as additional convention rooms. 

SUMMARY OF CASE STUDY REVIEWS 

Narragansett Bay is an ideal example of an estuary that has devel- 
oped in an unbalanced fashion. That is, the economic value of the estu- 
ary at the present time is largely associated with the industrial, 
military, and transportation uses of its waters. Other uses are, of 
course, made of the estuary but their economic significance is dwarfed 
by the tremendous magnitude of the military and commercial uses. 
However, it must be remembered that this economic measure is merely 
an indicator of the value of the waters and is not in any way related to 
the right or necessity of polluting such waters in the process of achiev- 
ing this value. In fact, the only time that such an economic measure 
would be used would be for comparing one total use of the estuary to 
another total use. Of course, it is seldom that questions are so broad as 
to cover either/or propositions for the entire activity. Rather, the 
questions usually revolve around such things as the benefits to be 
derived from reducing pollution caused by users of the estuary com- 
pared with the costs of achieving the reduction in pollution. 

Franklin County, Fla., is dependent upon pollution-free waters in 
Apalachicola Bay for its economic existence. The unpolluted waters 
of the bay provide the seafood caught by local commercial fishermen 
and processed at shore-based installations. Additional income for the 
area results from tourism engendered by the bay's waters. 

Both tourism and commercial fishing are prime potential sources of 
income to any estuarine system. In the case of Apalachicola Bay, these 



185 

happen to be the major sources of income because of the nature of the 
estuary and its location which prevent its development as a commercial 
shippinf^ facility. 

The San Dieo^o economy, although heavily dependent upon the mili- 
tary and shipping activities in the bay, has diversified to the extent 
that it is no longer completely dependent upon such uses of the bay. 
At the same time there has been a growing demand for recreational 
uses of the bay. Evidence of the local residents' interest in the bay for 
recreation, tourism, and commercial uses can be found in their willing- 
ness to invest substantial sums of money in facilities to prevent pollu- 
tion of the bay by municipal wastes. 

Mission Bay, a separate estuary in the San Diego area, is an example 
of the recreational potential to be found in an estuarine system. How- 
ever, this special study points up the fact that the best use of an estuary 
may not come about naturally. Rather, it shows that a planned develop- 
ment program with adequate investments are necessary to achieve 
optimal use of an estuary. 

In summary, then, it can be seen that the major uses of estuaries vary 
from one estuary to another, depending upon historical development 
and suitability for specific uses. However, the primary points indicated 
by these various estuary reviews are: (1) estuaries are adaptable to 
several different uses; (2) current use of any given estuary is not the 
sole indicator of the estuary's value; and (3) with adequate effort the 
recreational and social aspects of an estuary can become vital parts 
of that estuarine system. 

Section 4. Measures of Value and Importance of the 
Estuarine Zone 

The discussions of values of individual uses and the case studies 
of specific estuarine systems present a confusing picture of the rela- 
tionship of estuarine uses to economic indicators. 

Estimates of the direct gross economic benefit of the estuarine zone 
to the residents of the coastal counties can be made. The estimates of 
economic activity generated by the presence of Narragansett Bay in 
Rhode Island give a conservative annual economic benefit of $920 
)3er capita, $420 of this in personal income. Average personal income 
for all of the coastal counties is, according to Bureau of the Census 
figures, $500 per capita greater than the average for the remainder of 
the country. The total economic activity generated by this additional 
personal income then amounts to about $1,100 per person, using the 
Narragansett Bay multiplier values. 

The total direct economic benefit of the estuarine zone to the resi- 
dents of the coastal counties is then about $60 billion in terms of addi- 
tional economic activity stimulated by the presence of estuarine sys- 
tems. This is not a measure of the total economic activity of the 
estuarine zone, but only of the "value added" to the total economic 
activity of the coastal counties by the presence of the estuarine zone. 

Such gross means can give only an order-of-magnitude estimate of 
even the direct economic value of the estuarine zone and cannot pos- 
sibly reflect either indirect benefits or the social importance of the 
estuarine zone, much less its ecological value. 



186 

Valid criteria for evaluating the importance of the estuarine en- 
vironment or the value of individual estuarine uses, to a community 
must, however, go beyond the reach of economic approximation and 
recognize the fundamental relationship between man and his environ- 
ment. Wherever there are people the environment will be exploited to 
satisfy the needs and desires of man and his civilization. 

Increasing environmental pressures from demographic and com- 
mercial development are paralleled in the same community by the 
increasing desire for greater recreational use. That these can be com- 
patible is clearly shown by the San Diego Bay example. Such com- 
munity reactions as in San Diego and in San Francisco demonstrate 
that, while people need commercial development and use, they want a 
safe and enjoyable environment at the same time. Effective manage- 
ment, therefore, should direct its efforts not toward excluding some 
uses, but toward accommodating all uses without environmental 
damage. 

With such an objective, economic criteria of use importance are of 
little value. Guidelines for estuarine management should recognize 
man's relationship to his environment and express his determination 
that it shall be preserved. 

REFERENCES 

IV-3-1 Rorholm, N., "A Socio-economic Study of Narragansett Bay," (Report 
prepared for National Estuarine Pollution Study under FWPCA 
Contract No. 14-12-93), Kingston, R.I., University of Rhode Island, 
mimeographed copy, 200 pp, (1969). (In press.) 

IV-3-2 Colberg, M. R., "The Social and Economic Values of Apalachicola Bay, 
Florida," (Report prepared for National Estuarine Pollution Study 
under FWPCA Contract No. 14-12-117) by Tallahassee, Florida, 
Florida State Uiversity, mimeographed copy, 58 pp (1968). (In 
press. ) 

IV-3-3 Ralph Stone & Co., "Estuarine-Oriented Community Planning for San 
Diago Bay," (Report prepared for National Estuarine Pollution 
Study under FWPCA Contract No. 14^12-189) by Ralph Stone & Co., 
Los Angeles, Calif., mimeographed copy, 178 pp (1969). (In press.) 



CHAPTER 4. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS 

This part of the report emphasizes the complex interaction among 
the biophysical and socioeconomic environments within the estuarine 
zone. The existing socioeconomic environment is the subject of the 
preceding chapter; this chapter deals with trends associated with the 
social and economic environment. 

The availability of certain resources in or near estuaries has strongly 
influenced patterns of population growth and economic activity. Once 
initiated, these changing; economic and .demographic patterns alter 
the nature of the estuaries themselves. For example, the presence of 
plentiful timber resources was a factor in the development of many 
coastal towns and cities. Long after the depletion of the timber resource, 
the deep deposits of sediments carried down from the scarred land to 
the estuary bottom altered the biophysical system. Similarly, new sets 
of economic activity such as transportation, manufacturing, and com- 
merce replaced the initial extractive lumbering activity and in turn 
affected the biophysical environment. 

Other trends, stemming from pressures wholly or partially external 
to the estuarine environment, may also have profound influence. 
For instance, the changing economic demands of a dynamic society 
affect the location and composition of economic activity and popu- 
lations in the estuarine zone. Thus, changes in labor markets, location 
of raw materials, and prices determined to a large degree the shift 
of textile manufacturing from the New England coast to the South. 

Barring catastrophes or other unforeseen developments, certain 
trends are expected to continue in the country at large. Rapid popula- 
tion growth and continued development of urban-suburban areas are 
notable among the demographic projections, while the economy is 
expected to show continued diversification, technological change, and 
expansion. 

To assess the impact of these trends on the estuarine zone, the rea- 
sons for the distribution of future population and economic growth 
must be understood ; and an understanding of past and present trends 
indicates in a general way what may be expected. 

The discussions in this chapter provide a basis for projecting the 
changes that may be brought about by man's continuing activities in 
the estuarine zone. 

This chapter was summarized from the report "Social and Eco- 
nomic Trends associated with the Nation's Estuarine Region," pre- 
pared by Harold F. Wise & Assoc, under contract with FWPCA as 
part of the National Estuarine Pollution Study. The report is now 
being prepared for publication. 

(187) 



188 
Section" 1. National, PoFDiiAiroN and Economic Trends 

NATIONAL population GROWTH 

America has experienced a continually high rate of population 
growth. Today there are six times as many Americans as there were 
100 years ago, and more than twice as many as there were 50 
years ago. This growth is expected to continue in the future, though 
likely at a slower rate. 

Figure IV.4.1 provides clear evidence of the "population explosion" 
which took place in the United States in the years following World 
War II. In the decade 1950-60, the total U.S. population increased by 
nearly 28 million persons, a growth rate of 15.6 percent for the decade, 
or an annual population growth rate of nearly 1.6 percent. That 
growth is expected to continue at a rate of approximately 1.3 percent 
annually with the total population of the United States increasing 
from a little over 205 million persons in 1970 to about 400 million in 
2020. 

Figure IV.4.2 shows recent population increases and decreases 
throughout the Nation. Population decreases have occurred almost 
uniformly in the period 1940 to 1960 in the predominantly agricultural 
counties of the Midwest, the South, the Southwest, and Appalachia. 
In contrast, those counties in which metropolitan development has 
occurred generally show steady increase during these years. Perhaps 
the most striking growth record in this period appears in what may 
generally be designated as the coastal zone, where only a handful of 
some 274 coastal counties experienced any population decline during 
either of the 10-year periods between 1940 and 1960, 

urban-rural, SHIFTS 

The growth of population in urban areas and relative decline in 
rural areas has been a steady trend in America since the first census 
was taken. As figure IV.4.3 shows, the 1920 census marked a symbolic 
turning point, with urban citizens outnumbering rural ones for the 
first time. Metropolitanism is fast becoming central to consideration 
of all aspects of American life. In 1965, 67 percent of the country's 
population lived in the 212 SMSA's identified by the Bureau of the 
Budget. 

AGE composition 

The age composition of the population will also change in ensuing 
years. Of particular significance is the expected rise in the main work- 
ing age population (ages 25-64) from 86.4 million in 1966 to about 
90.1 million in 1970 and 123.9 million in 1990. From 1975 on, the 
younger portion of this age group is expected to increase rapidly, while 
the number of elderly citizens shows only a slight increase. 

NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH 

The amount of personal income generated in the economy indicates 
the general capacity to purchase goods, services, and amenities. 



189 



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193 

Figure IV.4.4 shows a steadily rising trend and projection of U.S. 
personal income. Total personal income is expected to rise at a 5.1 per- 
cent annual rate of growth from 1970 to 2020. In terms of constant 
1958 dollars, this represents an increase from about $615 billion to 
nearly $5 trillion in 2020. Similarly, per- worker earnings will increase 
substantially, rising from $6,000 in 1920 to $23,000 by 2020 as figure 
IV.4.5 on page 194 shows. 

Within the economy, considerable variation in the rates of growth 
of various sectors is expected. "Goods-producing" industries such as 
agriculture, mining, and manufacturing will decrease in relative im- 
portance, while thoso which are "service-producing" (e.g., contract 
construction, trade and finance, and government) will increase. This 
changing pattern of employment is exhibited in figure IV.4.6 on page 
195. This figure gives a deta'iled accoimt of percentages of national 
employment by broad industrial category. 

The fact that employment in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries is 
expected to show a steady decline from 12.5 percent of total national 
employment in 1950 to 1.2 percent in 2020 is worthy of special atten- 
tion, for combining all three of these categories masks the changes 
that are actually taking place. A Bureau of Labor Statistics study 
which treats each of the three categories separately for the years 
1960-1975 anticipates : 

(1) 1,978,000 fewer agricultural workers in 1975 than in 1960 
(a percentage drop from 8.6 percent to 4.2 percent) ; 

(2) an increase in forestry employment from 48,000 to 70,000; 

(3) growth in fisheries employment from 45,000 to 60,000. 
Both forestry and fisheries maintain constant shares of national 

employment of .7 percent and .6 percent respectively. 

Employment in the service-producing sector should exhibit the 
greatest proportional increase in the foreseeable future. The services 
group will surpass both manufacturing and wholesale-retail trade in 
percent of national employment by 1980. 

IMPLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL PICTURE 

If normal circumstances prevail, the Nation's population and gen- 
eral high standard of living will continue to increase in the coming 
decades. A moderate estimate projects a doubling of the national 
population by the turn of the century, with a significant proportion of 
that growth occurring in urban areas. 

The population will be made up of a large proportion of youth and 
young persons of working ages, with only a moderate increase in the 
elderly through the end of the century. Personal income will rise 
dramatically. Estimates of leisure time vary considerably, but all 
authorities agree that the w^orkweek will shorten, from a conservative 
estimate of 35 hours a w^eek to as little as 20 hours per week. The 
National Planning Association has projected that in 1990, 10 percent, 
and in 2000, 20 percent of the men between the ages of 25 and 54 will 
be granted a 1-year leave every 7 years. Urban and particularly subur- 
ban growth will expand greatly both to accommodate the growing 
population and to provide amenities that it increasingly demands: 
single-family dwellings, recreational areas, transportation facilities, 
industrial developments, and so on. These demands will place rapidly 



194 



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ineteaang burdens on the Nation's resources and its environment. 
TbesB burdens, in turn, will tax the ability of decisionmakers and the 
Nation's population to cope with the complexity and insistence of the 
problems generated by a post-industrial, urbanized society. 

SeCTIOX 2, TkEXI>S IX the EsTCARIXE 2i0XE POPUL-VTIOX AND ECOXOMT 
FUTUKE POPtTLATIOX GROWTH LX THE ESTTAKIXE ZOXE 

The estuarine zone economic region includes the coastal counties 
plus a few noncoastal counties included as part of estuarine zone 
S^LSA's.^ The overall recent population growth rate in the estuarine 
zone ecc«iomic region has exc-eeded that of the Nation as a whole. From 
1930 through 10&), the population of the coastal counties and SMSA's 
increased 78 percent, compared to a national growth rate of 46 per- 
cent. Future population growth is projected to continue above the 
national average, but at a somewhat lower rate. Estuarine zone popu- 
lation is expected to more than double between 19^') and 2020 fnom 
60 million to 139 million persons. Approximately 3.5 percent of the 
Nation's total population will then be located on the land area encom- 
passed by the national estuarine economic region. 

TTiis report focuses on the characteristics of the major urban regions 
presented in figure IV.-1:.7. Three of the four major urban regions 
anticipated bv the year 2000 front on the coastal zone : the Atlantic 
seaboard region, the Florida Peninsula urban region, and the Cali- 
fornia 'Tnegalopolis." The Lower Great Lakes urban regicm does not 
border the marine coastal zone but is contiguous to the Great Lakes. 

Major characteristics of the three coastal-related major urban 
regions are set out below : 

(1) The Atlantic seaboard region extended from Augusta, 
Elaine to Prince William Cotmty, Va.. in 1960, covering :/)^oZ 
square miles with a total population of Z7.'> million. By the year 
2000 it will increase in size to f'AJ)fX) s^^juare miles and will contain 
78 million persons. It will then extend south to Hampton Roads, 
Va. and increase in density from 741 pers<His per square mile to 
1,050. 

(2) The Florida Peninsula urban region included 11,300 square 
miles in 1960 and contained 3.3 million persons. By the year 2000 
the region is expected to cover 20/JOO square miles and contain 
nearly 14 million people. 

(3) The California "megalopolis" will close the gap between 
the two major urban areas existing in California in 1960, the 
southern California urban region which extends from the Mexican 
border in the south to San Maria on the north and has a popula- 
tion of 8.9 million, and the bay area-central California region, 
extending from southern Monterey County to Sonoma County in 
the north and inland to Modesto vrith a population of 4.9 million. 
In 2000 it will be an agglomeration of urban and metropolitan 
zon^ 600 miles in length with a population of 44.i> million people. 

Graphic presentation of the growth of these major regions is pre- 
sented in figures IV.4.8, IV.4.9, and IT.4.10. 

- SMSA's are Standard MetzofKdltaii Statistical Areu. 



197 



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Figure IV.4.8 
Atlantic Seaboard 




Urban Region 


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Florida Peninsula Urban Region 




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CalifornJa 

"Megalopolis" 




201 

The three other urban regions which are expected to develop in the 
estuarine regions by the year 2000 are described below: 

(1) The central gulf coast is expected to have a population of 
2.1 million by 1980. By 2000 the region is projected to reach from 
Baton Rouge, La., to Pensacola, Fla. and contain 4.7 million 
people. 

(2) The Texas-Louisiana gulf coast roughly parallels the coast 
and has experienced substantial growth in recent decades. The 
region extends from Houston to Lake Charles, La., and is expected 
to grow in population from 1.8 million in 1960 to 5 million in 
2000. 

(3) The Puget Sound which will expand its area to include 
additional population to the Canadian border, will increase in 
population from 2.5 million persons in 1980 to 3.6 million in 2000. 

Urban growth has both a direct physical impact on estuarine re- 
sources in the usurpation of land for development purposes, and an 
indirect impact in increased runoff, changed water composition, and 
increased demand for water supplies. 

Other implications are also important. By and large, urban popula- 
tions are those which most strongly feel the effects — ^ood and bad — 
of increased per capita income, leisure time, and mobility. There are, 
speaking very generally, three segments of the urban population af- 
fected by these forces, and they react differently in terms of the estua- 
rine environment. The groups and the implications are : 

(1) High income: Urban residents with high income place 
pressure on the estuarine environment some distance from their 
place of residence. They are able to afford either second homes or 
extended stays at vacation resorts. Much of the total national 
demand expressed by that segment of the population in the upper 
middle and high income brackets falls on the nonurban portions 
of the coastal-estuarine zone. 

(2) Middle income: Those persons with middle range incomes 
either opt for new housing in the suburban ring surrounding the 
central city or choose to remain within the central city. In either 
case, their mobility is increased by their ability to afford leisure 
time activities removed from their place of residence. The pressure 
is likely to fall on public areas in the coastal-estuarine zone. 

(3) Low income : Residents of the central city with low incomes 
are not able to leave the confines of the central city. Their enjoy- 
ment of the coastal-estuarine zone resources is tied tightly to the 
quality of the coastal-estuarine interface within the central city 
itself. 

FUTURE DISTRIBUTION' OF POPULATION GROWTH IN THE 
BIOPHYSICAL. REGIONS 

Table IV.4.1 gives a comparative breakdown of population growth 
rates in the estuarine economic areas defined by the Office of Business 
Economics (OBE) compared to national growth. Individual areas 
showing a population growth rate lower than the Nation's during the 
1930-60 period are clustered in the north and middle Atlantic bio- 
physical regions and include the Maine coast, Massachusetts-Rhode 



202 

Island coast, New York and northeast New Jersey coast and the 
Philadelphia- New Jersey-Delaware areas. These areas, with the possi- 
ble exception of the Maine coast, are mature areas which experienced 
an early growth in population and reached a large population density 
relatively quickly. They are now growing comparatively slowly. High- 
est relative growth between 1930 and 1960 (more than 100 percent 
above the national average) took place in four areas: Florida, the 
Mississippi-Alabama-west Florida coast, Texas, and California. These 
areas are expected to experience extensive short- and long-term growth 
in the future. Significantly, these areas also reflect a change in life 
style toward a suburban, leisure-centered existence with its attendant 
demands for land- and water-related activities. 

TABLE IV.4.1.— POPULATION GROWTH RATES IN OBE ESTUARINE ECONOMIC AREAS COMPARED TO NATIONAL 

GROWTH, 1930-60 

Difference 

from 

national 

Growth rate growth 

Individual estuary economic areas (percent) (percent) 

1. Maine coast - 

2. Massachusetts-Rhode Island coast 

3. Connecticut coast. - - 

4. New York-northeast New Jersey 

5. Philadelphia-New Jersey-Delaware 

6. Maryland-Virginia coast.. 

7. North Carolina coast 

8. South Carolina coast 

9. Georgia-eastern Florida coast. 

10. Southern Florida gulf coast 

11. Central Florida gulf coast 

12. Mississippi-Alabama-west Florida coast 

13. Louisiana coast 

14. Texas north gulf coast 

15. Texas south gulf coast 

16. Southern California coast 

17. Central California coast 

18. Northern California coast _ 

19. Oregon coast _._ 

20. Washington coast.. 

Note: National population growth rate, 46 percent; total estuary economic region growth rate, 78 percent; difference, 
plus 32 percent. 

Actual trends and projections of numbers of persons by OBE estu- 
arine economic area are given in table IV.4.2. Table IV.4.3 demon- 
strates population pressure on the available coastline and associated 
estuaries. That pressure can be summarized as follows: 

(1) The New York-northeast New Jersey coast area, OBE area 
4 with a population density of nearly 4,000 persons per square 
mile in 1970 (more than twice as high as the next most densely 
populated area projected for 2000), will continue to be the most 
populous area in the United States and exert the most concentrated 
pressure on remaining coastal open space and water quality from 
municipal and other wastes ; 

(2) The southern North Atlantic and Middle Atlantic bi()- 
physical region, OBE areas 2 through 6, will continue to experi- 
ence the greatest concentration of population of economic 
activity; 

(3) The distribution of major population densities will change 
from a heavy preponderance located in the North Atlantic and 
Middle Atlantic region, to a more even distribution including 



26 


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203 

TABLE IV.4.2.— POPULATION DENSITY IN THE ESTUARINE ECONOMIC REGION AND INDIVIDUAL AREAS 1950-2000 

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 

Estuarine economic region population total '219.1 280.2 330.7 384.9 449.4 516.9 

Estuarine economic area (population total): 

1- - - 57.7 61.2 65.1 70.6 77.6 84 3 

2 _._ 827.7 911.1 987.1 1,088.8 1,214.5 1,341.4 

3— 463.0 568.7 642.9 720.7 817.5 907 7 

4 _ 3,054.7 3,506.4 3,904.8 4,295.4 4,732.8 5,173.6 

5 - 533.8 645.6 720.8 808.3 918.2 1,032.1 

6 242.7 311.4 369.6 435.3 519.4 606.1 

7 43.0 49.3 50.9 52.6 56.1 60.0 

8 54.6 67.9 73.3 78.5 86.8 96.5 

9 92.5 170.3 238.7 303.3 371.3 448.0 

10 69.3 133.9 173.1 210.3 244.2 291.1 

11 16.7 21.5 22.8 25.5 29.1 33.7 

12 _ _ 71.9 104.5 124.7 144.9 174.0 204.7 

13 93.3 121.6 143.7 156.4 171.8 189.3 

14 137.4 194.6 225.9 277.4 338.2 412.1 

15 _ 54.7 69.8 78.7 87.2 98.1 108.7 

16.. 309.7 486.7 640.7 804.1 1,003.7 1,206.1 

17 207.0 279.3 357.4 441.5 541.1 643.2 

18 17.0 26.7 32.9 41.0 50.1 59.6 

19 56.2 65.7 71.5 82.5 95.2 107.5 

20 72.4 89.0 104.9 122.9 144.1 166.9 

1 Densities are expressed in persons per square mile. 

Source: Computed from Office of Business Economics population projections and Department of Commerce county 
land area measurements. 



TABLE I V.4.3.— ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS OF POPULATION IN THE ESTUARINE ECONOMIC REGION AND 

INDIVIDUAL AREAS 

|ln thousands] 

1950 19601 1970 1980 1990 2000 

Estuarine economic region total 

population. 45,302.1 57,946.2 68,396.9 76,606.7 92,940.0 106,900.3 

Estuarine economic area population 
total: 

1. 471.7 499.7 531.5 576.7 633.6 688.2 

2 4,355.4 4.794.3 5,194.3 5,729.2 6,390.6 7,958.2 

3__ 761.2 934.9 1,057.0 1,184.8 1,343.9 1,492.2 

4 13,593.6 15,603.5 17,376.5 19,114.4 21,061.0 23,022.3 

5 4,399.3 5,320.8 5,939.9 6,661.5 7,567.1 8,505.8 

6 4,473.0 5,739.5 6,812.8 8,023.3 9,573.3 11,172.1 

7 447.1 511.7 529.0 546.1 582.7 623.0 

8 374.8 466.2 503.2 539.0 595.7 662.2 

9_ 1,432.5 2,637.8 3,698.7 4,699.3 5,752.5 6,941.1 

10 547.7 1,058.7 1,369.0 1,663.1 1,931.0 2,302.7 

11 98.0 126.5 134.2 150.2 171.0 198.1 

12 563.0 818.5 977.0 1,135.3 1,363.3 1,603.2 

13 1,177.8 1,535.3 1,814.7 1,974.4 2,168.6 2,930.0 

14 1,324.7 1,900.8 1,206.7 2,710.4 3,304.1 4,026.1 

15 441.5 563.8 635.6 704.1 792.3 878.2 

16 5,233.5 8,224.9 10,826.2 13,586.9 16,906.1 20,381.0 

17 2,944.2 3,972.6 5,084.6 6,280.3 7,696.9 9,150.2 

18 78.0 122.7 151.0 188.1 230.1 273.8 

19 1,091.4 1,276.8 1,389.3 1,602.7 1,849.6 2,087.7 

20 1,493.7 1,837.3 2,165.5 2,536.8 2,972.6 3,444.1 

1 For purposes of uniformity, 1960 data is taken from April enumeration. 
Source Office of Business Economics, Regional Economics Division. 



204 

Florida, Texas, and California in the South Atlantic, Gulf, and 
Pacific regions. Examples of this shift in population concentration 
are found in the central California coast, which is expected to 
grow from a population density of a little more than 350 persons 
per square mile in 1970 to nearly 600 in 2000, and in the Texas 
north gulf coast which will experience a population density 
growth from 225 persons per square mile in 1970 to over 400 per 
square mile in that same 30-year period; 

(4) Although some areas in the United States will remain rel- 
atively lightly populated, the pressures of increased population 
will be felt in even the most remote coastal areas, if not by local 
population growth, then by increasing demands of more urbanized 
populations for the amenities of the coastal zone ; often expressed 
in terms of seasonal influxes ; 

(5) The effects of increased population density will vary accord- 
ing to a number of considerations such as the employment struc- 
ture, distribution of the population within the area, the biophys- 
ical environment, institutional constraints, and so on ; 

(6) Finally, many of the conflicts generated by competing de- 
mands on the estuarine resource, which are most visible in today's 
metropolitan areas, will intensify in those areas in the future and 
extend to estuarine areas which are now relatively unmodified 
and free of intense competitive demands. 

FUTURE E(X)N0MIC ACTIVITY IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

The estuarine economic region in recent decades exhibits a rate of 
economic growth slightly greater than the national average. Personal 
income in constant dollars expanded 177 percent from 1929 to 1962, 
while national personal income rose 170 percent. Nearly all parts of 
the region are expected to either maintain positions of relative wealth 
in the future or to increase their relative wealth. 

Manufacturing is the principal export activity of the region, and 
the significance of the region as a focus for industry is sihown by the 
level of concentration of employment. In 1960, about one-half of the 
manufacturing industries had a level of concentration greater than the 
national level. Significant degrees of overall specialization in the 
region are indicated in transportation equipment excluding motor ve- 
hicles, petroluem refining, apparel, and in both printing and publish- 
ing land chemicals. 

Certain industries of minor importance to the overall estuarine zone 
economy assume great importance in smaller areas. The pulp and paper 
and lumber and furniture industries, for example, play central roles in 
such estuarine economic areas as the M-aine coast, the North Carolina 
coast, and the northern California coast. In the Central Florida gulf 
coast and the Texas south gulf coast forestry and fisheries predominate. 
Many of these economic activities locate in various estuarine areas to 
take advantage of the unique natural resources of the estuarine environ- 
ment found there. These activities are discussed in the next part of this 
chapter. 

The overall economic growth of the estuarine zone will continue at 
a high rate in future decades. Significant concentrations of industry 



205 

will continue in the relatively mature Middle Atlantic biophysical re- 
gion, while significant expansion will occur in the Gulf of Mexico and 
Pacific biophysical reg'ions. Marked differences will occur, however, 
in the smaller a.reas making up these biophysical regions, both in eco- 
nomic activity and population distribution. 

FUTURE DISTRIBUTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN THE BIOPHYSICAL 

REGIONS 

Economic activities vary greatljr throughout the estuarine zone. The 
principal determinants of economic activity have been the location of 
natural resources historic circumstances, availability of substantial 
markets, and changes in technology. 

The North Atlantic and Middle Atlantic hiophysical regions 

The New England marine States saw the country's first economic 
development. Basic resources defined the parameters of activity — for- 
ests, fish, fur, and farmlands. Shipbuilding and trade flourished around 
major centers of oceangoing transportation. The major metropolitan 
areas of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia developed around those 
endeavors. Their presence led to further expansion from Massachu- 
setts to New Jersey. Today four of the five OBE economic areas 
fronting on the North and Middle Atlantic biophysical regions (with 
the exception of the Maine coast) have become considerably less de- 
pendent on the forests and fisheries and have developed into diversified, 
mature economies, increasingly service providing rather than goods 
producing in character. 

Maine's continuing dependence on the natural resources of fisheries 
and forests, and on its location in the coastal zone, is indicated by high 
relative concentrations of transportation equipment manufacturing 
excluding motor vehicles (mainly shipbuilding), paper and allied 
products industries, and forestry and fisheries activities. These concen- 
trations are noticeably higher in the Maine coastal area than in the 
other four associated areas in the North and Middle Atlantic biophysi- 
cal regions. 

The other OBE estuarine economic areas in the North and Middle 
Atlantic biophysical regions exhibit economic activity that is more 
closely related to supplying the sophisticated and diverse demands of 
urban markets. All economic areas in these regions, however, are 
highly dependent on the estuaries for port facilities to move the goods 
produced within their boundaries. In the case of the Philadelphia-New 
Jersey-Delaware coast, the combination of large nearby markets and 
adequate port facilities has combined to stimulate a large petroleum 
refining and chemicals industry, even through the raw materials for 
those manufactures must be imported. 

The Chesapeake Bay biophysical region 

Tlie OBE economic area of the Maryland- Virginia coast corresponds 
to the Chesapeake Bay biophysical region. Although some of the earli- 
est settlements occurred adjacent to the bay and its related rivers, the 
area's economy has developed later than those located in the North and 
Middle Atlantic regions. However, the area has followed the pattern 
of beginning witli extractive industries built upon the coastal natural 
resources of agriculture, forests and fisheries, and then proceeding 



206 

to develop a diversified economy. In recent decades, this area has 
grown faster than the national average, with civilian and military 
government located primarily in the Washington Metropolitan Area 
and Hampton Roads, Newport News, respectively, providing the 
impetus for more of the growth. The Chesapeake Bay continues to 
provide an important fisheries input to the regional economy, but its 
importance relative to other, sometimes competmg, economic activities 
such as primary metals, transportation services, and shipbuilding has 
declined and is projected to continue to decline in the future. 

The existence of a large steel-producing plant at Sparrows Point 
in the Chesapeake Bay is a further example of the development of an 
industry highly dependent on the estuarine environment for transport 
by ship, but not for other natural resources. 

The South Atlcmtic hiophysical region 

This region includes the OBE estuarine economic areas of the North 
and South Carolina coast and the Georgia-eastern Florida coast. The 
economic areas in the region have traditionally been producers of raw 
materials in the form of agricultural products (particularly tobacco 
and cotton and more recently soybeans) , finfish and shellfish, and for- 
estry products. The North Carolina coast, and to a somewhat lesser 
degree, the South Carolina coast, continue to exhibit significant con- 
centrations of economic activity in these areas. National defense activi- 
ties dominate both of these areas, with Charleston being the focus for 
considerable naval activity. Eecreation and tourist activities dominate 
portions of the North and South Carolina coastal areas, notably the 
Cape Hatteras, N.C., and Myrtle Beach, S.C, resort areas. 

The Georgia-eastern Florida coast area is not as dependent on the 
natural resources of forests and fisheries as North or South Carolina, 
although Savannah, for instance, is a major center for the manufactur- 
ing of paper and allied products. The importance of the land-water 
interface, particularly in the Florida portion of this area, is centered 
on its value as a retirement and recreation area. The total economy of 
the area has thus moved increasingly to a service-producing economy 
with significant growth in professional services, contract construction, 
amusements, and similar activities. 

The Gulf of Mexico hiophysical region 

This region extends from the southern Florida gulf coast economic 
area to the southern Texas gulf coast. Economic activities withm this 
region are extremely diverse, ranging from a high dependence on agri- 
culture, forestry and fisheries in the central Florida gulf coast area to 
the highly industralized petrochemical and manufacturing economy 
located in the north Texas gulf coast and centered on the Houston- 
Galveston complex. 

The southern Florida gulf coast contains many service industries 
drawn to the Tampa-St. Petersburg retirement and recreation area. 
A high degree of specialization in contract construction in the area 
attests to the tremendous growth of the housing and building industry 
to accommodate the vast in-migration of recent years. Although for- 
estry and fisheries is declining in this area's economy, there is a con- 
tinuing relative concentration of these activities in the southern Florida 
gulf coast area. 



207 

Central gulf coast area economic activity presents a picture of rela- 
tively slow growth and one which has traditionally taken advantage 
of tlie natural resources of timber, agricultural land, and marine fish 
which occur in the area. Forestry and fisheries are very highly concen- 
trated into this area. 

The Mississippi-Alabama- west Florida coast area economy is highly 
dependent on the Federal military, especially in Pensacola, Fla. 

However, the area shows great internal diversity. Mobile Bay is the 
center of increasing manufacturing activity and shipping. Textiles 
play an increasing role in this economy as well as the more traditional 
shipbuilding activity and fisheries centered in the Mobile Bay area. 
Harrison County, Miss., is the focus of a growing petrochemical com- 
plex and other heavy industry dependent on availability of crude 
oil, increasing developing of the inland waterway, and artificial ship- 
channel construction. 

The Louisiana and Texas north and south gulf coast areas have all 
experienced greater-than-national -average growth in the recent past 
and are projected to continue this growth in the future. Much of this 
groT\'th is attributable to the discovery and extraction of the coastal 
shelf petroleum deposits through the use of new technologies. All three 
economic areas show significantly high concentrations in the extractive 
phase of petroleum recovery (mining), the processing phase (refin- 
ing) , and in the production of secondary products (chemical and allied 
products). In contrast, the traditional importance of agriculture, for- 
estry, and fisheries, particularly in the Louisiana and Texas south gulf 
coasts, has declined. 

It is interesting to note that the impact of the new petrochemical- 
based economy differs markedly among these areas. The Louisiana 
coast experiences ample rainfall and abundant inflows of fresh water 
provided mostly by the Mississippi River and its tributaries. In con- 
trast, the Texas coastal areas experience considerably less rainfall and 
fresh water inflow, particularly as one moves south along the coastline. 
The availability of fresh and brackish water for increasing upstream 
agricultural irrigation, domestic, and industrial uses will therefore be 
considerably different in the tvv' o coastal areas of Louisiana and Texas. 
This, in turn, will affect the desired quality and quantity of water, 
and increase the management problems faced by local. State, and 
Federal Governments. 

The PacifiG Southwest hiophysical region 

Two of the three California OBE coastal economic areas located in 
the Southwest biophysical region have sustained phenomenal growth, 
both in population and economic activity. The manufacturing activi- 
ties of both the southern California and central California coasts are 
well diversified and expanding. Most of these developments are depend- 
ent on estuarine natural resources, primarily for port facilities and 
for some oil extraction in the southern California coast. However, tre- 
mendous pressure on remaining coastal open space for housing and 
development already exists and will inevitably increase in the future. 

The southern California coast area is water scarce and dependent 
for its supply on sources outside the area. Central California's major 
estuary, San Francisco Bay, will be affected by these southern Cali- 
fornia water demands. The California water plan, which calls for sig- 



208 

nificant diversion of fresh water inflow, presents major problems of 
water quality management for this area. 

The Pacific Northwest hiophysical region 

This region includes the northern California coast, the Oregon 
coast and the Washington coast areas. These coastal areas are relatively 
undeveloped except for the Portland and Seattle metropolitan areas. 
All three areas remain specialized in economic activities related to 
the ample forest and fisheries resources of this region. This region is 
expected to show moderate growth rates in the future, with much of 
this growth occurring in the two metropolitan areas of major impor- 
tance. The concentration of both poj)ulation and economic growth in 
the Portland and Seattle areas will j^lace heavy demands on the Colum- 
bia Kiver and Puget Sound estuarine areas, particularly as demand 
grows for increased port facilities and associated industry, pulp and 
paper manufacturing, and the processing of food and kindred 
products. 

Table IV.4.4 summarizes in some detail the major economic indica- 
tors of individual OBE estuarine economic areas. The areas are 
grouped roughly by biophysical regions. 

The analysis of high-water-use industries conducted by the Bureau 
of the Census provides a framework for analysis of the impact of 
present and future economic activities on the Nation's estuarine zone. 
In 1964, the census of manufactures showed that the five major water- 
use industries in the United States, in order of magnitude of ^oss 
water intake, were the following : primary metal industries, chemicals 
and allied products, paper and allied products, petroleum and coal 
products, and food and kindred products. 

Ranked in order of brackish water use (which may include use of 
estuarine water) , chemicals and allied products were overwhelmingly 
the highest water user, nearly equaling the totals of the other four 
highest users, which were the following : petroleum and coal products, 
primary metal industries, paper and allied products, and food and 
kindred products. The two industries that exhibited significant in- 
creases in brackish water use between 1954 and 1964 were chemicals 
and allied products, and primary metals. 



209 



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212 

Section 3, Trends in Selected Activities Associated With the 

EsTUARiNE Zone 

The discussions in the preceding sections give some indication of 
the pressures placed on the estuarine resources in recent years and 
those that may be expected in the future. This section presents the dis- 
cernible trends of some specific activities associated with the estuaries. 
"Wliere possible, projections are made of the likely results of these 
trends. 

For convenience of presentation and examination, different activi- 
ties are discussed separately; however, it must be emphasized that 
these activities are closely interrelated and often place additive and 
conflicting demands on the estuarine environment. In short, because 
these activities all take place in the limited area of the landwater inter- 
face, and affect the land frontage, water, and biota of the zone, prob- 
lems of management are inescapable. 

The activities selected for detailed attention are those which have 
a particularly close relationship to the resources that occur in the es- 
tuaries, open coastline, and near-shore waters. Other activities that 
are found in the estuarine zone, but are not directly tied to the natural 
resources existing there, are given less attention. The concepts of pri- 
mary, secondary, and marginal activities (fig. IV.3.1) are used with 
these definitions: 

(1) Primary activities are those uses which by their nature are 
locationally tied to the estuarine zone ; 

(2) Secondary activities are those uses that are closely associ- 
ated with primary activities and as a consequence have a signifi- 
cant tendency to locate in the estuarine zone ; and 

(3) Marginal activities are those uses which are not directly 
tied to the estuary zone, but which tend to be found in areas of 
urban-surburban development. 

Harvesting finfish and shellfish for food and other uses is an ex- 
ample of primary activity associated with the estuary zone, while 
plants constructed to process the catch denote secondary activities. 
Marine waterborne commerce is directly tied to the estuary port sys- 
tem and is thus considered a primary activity. The naval arm of the 
national defense capability is likewise firmly linked to existing ports 
and harbors and is thus a primary activity. Specialized facilities and 
provision of logistical support for these primary commercial shipping 
and naval activities are secondary activities. Industries which require 
frontage on navigable waters to receive or distribute bulk raw ma- 
terials and/or processed goods by ship are primary activities. Ex- 
amples of this type of industry are petroleum transportation (often 
closely tied to secondary processing activities), export of bulk com- 
modities such as lumber and grain products, some primary metal re- 
fining, and shipbuilding. 

Many other activities compete for locations in the estuary zone, 
drawn by the inflow of raw materials, by extensive markets, or by the 
availability of transportation networks in '^ij^nificant portions of the 
zone. Examples of secondary activities which are located in the estu- 
arine zone are pulp and paper mills, fossil or nuclear power plants — 
where location must be balanced with the distance to consumers of 
energy — chemical and food processors, and primary metals refineries. 



213 

Despite the fact that the estuarine environment supplies relatively 
unique resources which attract many primary and secondary activities, 
the greater part of economic activity, particularly in the relatively 
mature economies of the Northeast, Middle Atlantic, and west coasts, 
is not directly dependent on the natural resources of the estuarine en- 
vironment. The service sectors of the economy dominate most of these 
marginal activities and range from garbage collection to construction 
of oilice buildings. Many other marginal activities are drawn to the 
land- water interface for esthetic reasons, such as -restaurants, hotels, 
and specialty shops. The resulting mix of many economic activities, 
with significant variations in proportional makeup of primary, sec- 
ondary, and marginal activity, characterize the dominant urban- 
suburban environment which exists and will increase in the estuarine 
zone and coastline of the Nation. 

Trends and projections for marine fisheries, transportation and na- 
tional defense, marine mining and processing, recreation, and waste 
discharge are presented here. "Wliere appropriate, the discussion of 
these subjects is related to the biophysical regions and OBE estuarine 
economic areas. 

MARINE FISHERIES 

The Nation's fishing industry has been widely characterized as rela- 
tively undeveloped in management and operation, inferior to the com- 
peting fishing fleets of other nations in technology, under-capitalized, 
and relatively weak in respect to both the national economy and to 
foreign competition. This consensus of opinion is supported by nu- 
merous comparative statistics. 

The industry has grown relatively slowly in productivity over the 
years. From 1925 through 1966, the quantity of catch increased by only 
60 percent. During the same period, the rise in the amount paid to 
fishermen for their catch was only slightly higher, increasing some- 
thing less than 100 percent. In fact, the average annual catch per 
fisherman has remained below the 1957-59 average since 1964, 

Tlie Industrial fishery 

Industrial uses of commercial fish, rather than human consumptive 
uses have accounted for most of the increase in tonnage in the recent 
past, as indicated in figure IV.4.11. This trend is particularly evident 
in the more recent period between 1961 and 1966. Industrial uses of 
marine fish are primarily for fish oils, fish solubles, and fish meal. 
These basic products are used mainly for industrial processing, pet 
food, agricultural feed (particularly for chickens), and fertilizers. 

The primary species caught for industrial use is the menhaden, an 
estuarine-dependent fish. Productive areas for this fish have been the 
Middle Atlantic, Chesapeake, South Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico bio- 
physical regions. Production in the Middle Atlantic region has de- 
creased markedly in recent years, and the catch in the Chesapeake Bay 
has fluctuated. Fishing pressure for menhaden in all regions has in- 
tensified, and may have reached the point of overharvest in some 
localized areas. This pressure has continued despite declines in the 
wholesale price for fishmeal partly brought on by foreign competition, 
particularly from anchovies from the Humboldt Current grounds off 
Peru. F'.rrnre IV.4.12 indicates the growing foreign share of the in- 
dustrial fish catch. 



214 






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216 

In 1958, imports of industrial fishery products accounted for 35 per- 
cent of the total U.S. supply ; in 1967, imports accounted for 82 percent 
of the total. This increasing share of imported industrial fish products 
contributes to the balance-of -payments problem in the national econ- 
omy as well as directly affecting the economic base of the domestic 
fishing industry. 

It must be noted, however, that increased harvesting of industrial 
fish is ultimately dependent on existing renewable supplies of the re- 
source. Although some sizable stocks of underutilized species exist, 
such as the thread herring in the Gulf of Mexico, other stocks may be 
overfished, now or in the future. Further degradation or destruction 
of the estuarine nursery grounds for menhaden could well reduce or 
eliminate this major domestic source of industrial fish. 

The edible commercial -fishery 

Despite the growth of the industrial fish sector, edible fish continue 
to dominate the overall fisheries market in terms of value, as table 
IV.3.4 indicates. 

Shrim,p 

Penaeidean shrimp, the most valuable commercial fish resource, are 
dependent upon the estuary for nursery grounds and are then harvested 
in coastal shelf waters. Almost all domestic harvesting of this shell- 
fish occurs in the southern South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico bio- 
physical regions. Particular estuarine economic areas that support 
this fishery and allied processing are the Georgia-eastern Florida 
coast, the Louisiana coast, the Mississippi-Alabama-west Florida 
coast and the Texas north and south gulf coasts. 

Recent and projected trends show a strong and increasing demand 
for shrimp although prices have increased rapidly. The ability to 
supply these increasing demands in the future is dependent, to a 
great extent, on the continuing supply of domestic shrimp. It is esti- 
mated that the shallow water shrimp fishery is already fully utilized 
and perhaps over-fished in the traditional south Atlantic and Gulf of 
Mexico grounds. "V-SHiile the deep water shrimp supplies are estimated 
to be large and are relatively untapped, there are considerable tech- 
nological problems in locating and harvesting these shrimp. 

The continued existence of domestic shrimp to meet rising market 
demands is uncertain. Recent declines in shrimp landings have been 
noted in estuarine areas of relativelv little industrial and population 
pressure and in areas of considerable economic and population con- 
centration. For example, in Florida's Apalachicola Bay, the shrimp 
fishery experienced a dramatic decrease in the short period between 
1964 and 1967. The 1967 catch was less than 17 percent of the 1964 
landings. Nearby St. George Sound experienced a similar decline dur- 
ing the same period. The decline in local supplies of shrimp forced 
Apalachicola fishermen to extend their operations to the Tortugas area 
of Florida, which not onlv increased their operating costs, but — more 
significantly — ^added to the heavy pressure already applied to the 
Tortugas shrimp fishery. 

Galveston Bay, a steadily growing population and industrial center, 
has been a prime nurserv ground for shrimp and a major area of shrimp 
harvesting and processing. These primary and secondary fishery ac- 
tivities are threatened by the degradation of the Galveston estuarine 



217 

environment by industrial and municipal pollution, by dredging and 
filling, and by decreases in the quantity and quality of freshwater 
inflo^ys. Although market demand and prices rose steadily from 1962 
through 1966, and fishing pressure increased, the total Galveston catch 
declined drastically from 4,192,900 pounds in 1962 to 1,941,000 in 1966. 
Although a direct causal relationship between estuary degradation 
and this decline in catch cannot be demonstrated at this time, it is 
reasonable to conclude that the cumulative effect of degradation acts 
to reduce available supplies of shrimp. 

Oysters 

The record of the oyster industry in the United States is a con- 
tinuing story of depletion in absolute quantity and decline in the use- 
fulness of remaining beds. Declines have taken place in nearly all 
estuary areas that naturally supported oyster populations. Depletion 
has occurred for many reasons, both natural and man-induced. 

Natural catastrophes have depleted the oyster beds over time. The 
hurricane of 1954 in Narragansett Bay, for example, is considered the 
prime factor in the destruction of beds and the decline of the secondary 
processing industry in that location. By 1956 the oyster harvest from 
Narragansett Bay had declined to 31,000 pounds, from 252,000 pounds 
in 1953. In 1957, the last remaining oyster dealer went out of business. 

Most of the reduction in domestic oyster production, however, can 
be attributed to man's activities in the estuaries. Examples of the 
diminution or extinction of this resource are many. New Jersey's 
Raritan Bay, an outstanding producer of oysters for the New York 
market in the 19th century, is now almost barren of this shellfish, 
mainly due to municipal and industrial waste discharge. A study in 
Shelton, Wash., indicated that sulphite waste discharge from paper 
pulp manufacturing almost surely brought about a serious decline 
in the oyster population. 

Many areas of oyster production for human consumption are closed 
because municipal wastes contaminate oysters with bacterial matter. 

Silting due to dredge operations has appreciably diminished the 
quality of many former oyster-producing areas. The silt may actually 
smother the beds, or may so seriously disturb the estuary floor as to 
cause deleterious effects from lowered amounts of dissolved oxygen. 
This process, which has been observed in parts of Galveston Bay, 
produces hydrogen sulfide and releases concentrated amounts of toxic 
chemicals in bottom sediments. 

The decrease in production and consumption of oysters due to nat- 
ural or man-induced causes is exacerbated by changes in consumer 
preference, lack of mechanized shucking and packaging procedures, 
and increasing labor costs. Perhaps the most difficult problem is pre- 
sented by the legal labyrinth surrounding ownership and use of oyster 
beds. Management and sound overall economic use of the oyster re- 
source is almost impossible under present institutional constraints 
which range from public ownership in Massachusetts to a tangle of 
leasing and private ownership in such areas as Georgia, the Chesa- 
peake Bay, and James River estuaries. 

The future of a viable oyster industry, and the continued availability 
of a delicate and nutritious food, is thus linked not only to the quality 
of the biophysical environment, but to the workings of the economic 
and institutional environment as well. 



218 

Anadromous fish 

Landings of anadromous fish, particularly those of economic im- 
portance such as the salmon and shad, have declined in numbers, while 
retail markets have generally shown a steady improvement. 

The diminution of the continental salmon fishery provides a classic 
example of the damage inflicted on fisheries by biophysical modifica- 
tion. As dam-building, lumberins:, and other kinds of man's activities 
increased, the once-abundant salmon catches declined. The Atlantic 
salmon has almost completely disappeared from the east coast. On the 
west coast, reduction in the quality and quantity of freshwater, sedi- 
mentation in spawning areas, pollution of the transitional zones in 
estuaries, and heavy fishing pressure by both sport and commercial 
fishermen have combined to reduce the once-flourishing salmon 
industry. 

Most of the domestic catch now comes from salmon dependent on 
the streams, rivers and estuaries of Alaska, since that State is for the 
most part free of the physical and biological modifications made by 
man in the other Pacific coast States. Growth of logging, oil, natural 
^as, and hydroelectric activities may alter this situation drastically 
m coming decades. Even without these modifications, which have little- 
known effects on the possible sustained yield of Alaskan salmon, this 
fishery faces serious economic and institutional problems. Fishing 
pressure is rising significantly because of increased numbers of fisher- 
men and improved harvesting teclmology, while catch per fisherman 
has declined greatly. Increases in market price sustained this odd 
circumstance, as figure IV.4.13 shows. 

Future prospects 

Examples of the historical decline and projected pressures on the 
domestic commercial fishery could be multiplied many times. The 
market demand for fishery products is growing and is projected to 
rise sharply in the near future, but the amount of that market which 
will be supplied by imports is not yet clear. 

It is the conclusion of many experts in the field that a harsh choice 
must be made in the near future : either the management of the Na- 
tion's estuarine resources will be substantially strengthened, institu- 
tional constraints relieved, and the trend toward degradation of the 
estuarine environment stemmed, or the supply of commercially val- 
uable finfish and shellfish to meet rising demands will diminish. 

Mariculture, the manipulation of the estuarine or marine environ- 
ment to increase production of commercial species, is often cited as a 
method to overcome the depletion of natural stocks and fill increasing 
market demands for fish products. The ability of artificial culture to 
significantly increase yields has been proven in countries such as Japan 
where shrimp, oyster, and certain finfish are raised on a profitable 
basis. However, the economic use of mariculture is in its infancy in 
the United States. Although the ultimate impact of aquaculture prac- 
tices would appear great, increasing yields from five to as much as 
20 times, the present economic and social climate would seem to indi- 
cate that the impact of mariculture will be relatively slight in im- 
mediate future decades. When other ancillary values are added, it 
would appear that proper management of the natural estuarine en- 



219 



FIGURE IV.4.13 TOTAL ALASKA SALMON CATCH 
(POUNDS & VALUE), 1927-67 



60r- 



40 



20 



Value 

(million dollars) ....,••■ 




1927 1930 



1940 



1967, preliminary figures 



-9002 



1950 
Year 
Source: Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 



I960 1967 



220 

vironment is a preferable course of action both to preserve and per- 
haps enhance the production of fish and maintain the quality of this 
unique environmental resource. 

COMMERCIAL AND NATIONAL DEFENSE TRANSPORTATION 

CommerGidi 

An environment favorable to transportation has been one of the 
most significant historical factors in coastal and estuarine develop- 
ment. Settlements originated at the sites of coastal harbors and at 
the mouths of rivers because of the accessibility of these areas to trad- 
ing vessels. The commerce which passed through these centers en- 
couraged further growth and development. The coastal and estuarine 
areas also saw rapid development of air, rail, and highway systems 
because the main demand was located there and the terrain presented 
few obstacles. Connecting links were needed between the coastal trade 
centers and the hinterlands, and the level land available along the 
coasts, bays and rivers was the natural location for railroads and high- 
ways for both engineering and economic reasons. Airports also re- 
quire large tracts of level land, and a waterside location affords the 
beneifits of unobstructed and unpopulated approach zones. This con- 
centration in coastal and estuarine centers has continued as these areas 
have maintained their growth and thereby further simulated the max- 
imum utilization and expansion of transport facilities. 

Airborne commerce has experienced considerable growth. Some sta- 
tistics are available to relate it to estuarine locations. Figure IV.4.14 
gives some liistorical data on airborne import and export commerce 
by coastal customs districts. Airport location on or near an expanse 
of water is desirable because it affords unobstructed approaches and 
reduces noise problems. Airports are presently located in estuarine areas 
in Boston, New York (both Kennedy and La Guardia), Washington, 
Norfolk, San Diego, San Francisco and Oakland. 

A further element which will almost certainl}^ affect the estuarine 
zone is the development of new ports. For example, if the proposed 
free port in Maine becomes a reality there will be a rapid proliferation 
of all types of commercial transportation to service that port area and 
to provide a network for distribution. Since major refinery operations 
are part of the proposed plans, this development will include pipelines 
and associated petro-chemical facilities, and other modes of land trans- 
port. Such a free port could have far-reaching effects on the present 
distribution of cargo tonnages at east coast ports as well as develop 
an estuarine area which is now relatively pristine. 

Another factor which could significantly affect the trade distribu- 
tion of all ports is the development of the super-tankers and larger dry 
cargo vessels. These carriers require up to 60- foot channel and berthing 
depths. This will call for an enormous dredging operation in most ports, 
where maximum dredged channel depth now is around 40 feet. Some 
places, like New York, have already been dredged to bedrock level, so 
blasting would be necessary to go deeper. An alternative solution is 
to establish offshore docking facilities for the super-ships and bring 
their cargoes ashore through pipelines or in lighter-type ships. The 
bottom clearance requirements of these ships are considerably smaller, 
which would mean far less dredging for channel maintenance. How- 



221 




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222 

ever, the current world merchant fleet will no doubt continue to operate 
for at least another 20 years, which means that channels would have 
to be maintained at least until this generation of ships has been 
phased out. 

It has also been sujs^gested that a decrease in the number of ports 
might prove more economical in the handling of the super fleet be- 
cause of its enormous cargo capacity. Improved off-loading technology 
and larger warehouses will be necessary to handle the increased ton- 
nage, and it would be inefficient to develop a whole network of these 
facilities, some of which might lie idle part of the time. Furthermore, 
many smaller ports probably could not generate demand to warrant 
development of super ship capabilities. 

The expansion of land transportation can be expected to parallel 
port development in the future as it has in the past. Pipeline construc- 
tion will develop concurrently with oil production — probably at a 
rapid rate since the demand for natural gas and petroleum prpducts is 
expected to triple over the next 30 years. The future of rail transport is 
difficult to assess, no so much because of demand factors but because 
the roads (particularly in the east) are undergoing a period of ad- 
ministrative restructuring and a consolidation of service. 

The Houston-Galveston Bay complex demonstrates how a good har- 
bor can encourage the growth and development of an area and begin 
a demand spiral that leads to more intensive utilization of the harbor 
and the development of other transport facilities. The Port of Houston 
is now the third largest U.S. seaport in terms of total tonnage moved. 
In 1963, approximately one-third of Houston's economy was linked to 
the ship channel, the port and the resultant industry. Total investment 
flowing from the port facilities and related industries exceeded $2.5 
billion that year. The dredging of the Houston ship channel and the 
development of cargo facilities has thus been of major consequence in 
the development of this area. 

Table IV.4.5 shows the significance of transportation and its con- 
comitant, wholesale trade, for the Houston-Galveston Bay area for 
the years 1956 and 1967. The Port of Houston is served by six trunk- 
line railroads, 38 motor freight carriers, 8 barge lines, 11 export pack- 
ers, 35 freight forwarders, 19 stevedoring companies, and a large num- 
ber of marine outfitters and ship chandlers. More than 100 steamship 
lines offer service to all free- world ports. Future demand for all types 
of transportation is expected to increase as the population grows and 
industry expands. 

The San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission 
has done an excellent case study of the transportation pressures being 
exercised in its estuarine area. San Francisco was founded as a port 
city, and shipping is still of primary importance to the entire economy 
of the bay area. In addition tx) the economic impact of the shipping in- 
dustry itself, there are many other businesses and industries that have 
been drawn to the region because of the availability of water trans- 



223 

port. In 1065, Cliecchi & Co. estimated that 50,000 jobs were attribut- 
able to general -car 0:0 shippino- and industries dependent on shipping. 
This represented a payroll of about $820 million. 

TABLE IV,4.5.— TRANSPORTATION-WHOLESALE TRADE INDUSTRIES, BAY AREA, 1956-67 

1956 1967 

Employment: 

Total Instudyarea _._ - -- - 384,891 608,865 

Total in transportation-wholesale trade _. _ 62,790 96,550 

Transportation-wholesale trade as percentage of total , 16.3 15.9 

Taxable payrolls (millions): 

Total in study area. _ $1,535.6 $3,053.6 

Total in transportation-wholesale trade 255.6 637.2 

Transportation-wholesale trade as percentage of total 16.7 18.2 

Number of firms: 

Total in study area..-. 25,465 34,187 

Total In transportation-wholesale trade 2,977 4,269 

Transportation-wholesale trade as percentage of total 11.7 12. 5 

Source: County Business Patterns, 1956, 1967. 

By tonnage, the principal cargo passing through the San Francisco 
Bay is petroleum. This tonnage is expected to increase significantly in 
the future, and bring with it deep draft tankers with drafts as much 
as 60 feet. At this time, however, there are no reliable estimates of the 
impact of this future increase in San Francisco port traffic, nor are 
there reliable methods to measure the conflicting values and costs pre- 
sented by this phenomenon. 

NATIONAL DEFENSE 

The use of estuarine and coastal ports has always been an essential 
need of the national defense system for the movement of weapons, 
troops, and supplies to and from overseas bases and operations zones. 
Table IV.4.6 itemizes amoimts of military cargo and passengers trans- 
shipped by area for 2 recent years. Tons and dollar value of cargo went 
up appreciably from fiscal year 1966 to fiscal year 1967, while num- 
bers of passengers decreased. The impact of the Vietnam war can be 
seen in the comparison of figures for the Eastern and Western areas 
for the 2 years. However, it is a primary item of Defense policy that 
facilities be available for use in all coastal areas to meet particular 
military logistics requirements at any time. 

Future demands for the use of estuarine and coastal areas by the De- 
partment of Defense are difficult to project since they will vary greatly 
according to the state of international affairs and the impact of tech- 
nological developments. The Office of Business Economics has re- 
garded military employment as a constant after the year 1980 because 
of this lack of predictability. The examples given in chapter 3 of the 
impact of Naval activity on Narragansett Bay and San Diego Bay 
give at least a general idea of the magnitude of present and future 
military activities in the Naition's estuaries. 



224 

TABLE IV.4.6.— MILITARY CARGO AND PASSENGERS TRANSHIPPED THROUGH CONTINENTAL U.S. WATER PORTS' 





cargo areas 


Fiscal year 1966 




Fiscal year 


1967 


Part 1, 


Measurement 

tons 

(thousands) 


Dollars 
(millions) 


Measurement 

ton 2 

(thousands) 


Dollars 
(millions) 


Total, all areas. 




5,965.4 




134.0 


20, 835. 5 


184.6 


Eastern area- 


7,777.3 




52.0 


8,973.5 


66.8 


Atlantic ports 


5,723.5 
2,030.0 




39.9 
12.0 


6, 243. 3 
2.635.5 


49.1 


Gulf ports 




17.0 




ishington-Oregon) 




Western area.. 


8,188.1 




82.0 


11,862.0 


117.8 


North Pacific coast (Wi 
South Pacific coast. . 


1,625.2 
6,562.9 




14.5 
67.5 


3,275.5 
8, 586. 5 


29.1 
88.7 












passenger 


Fiscal year 


1966 




Fiscal year 


1967 


Part II, 


Passengers 
(thousands) 


Dollars 
(thousands) 


Passengers 
(thousands) 


Dollars^ 
(thousands) 


Total, all areas. 




213.7 




880.5 


120.5 


366.6 


Eastern area 


121.2 




365.9 


28.6 


171.8 


Atlantic ports... 


120.0 
1.2 




361.2 
4.7 


27.8 
0.8 


166.4 


Gulf ports 




5.4 




ashington-Oregon) 




Western area.. 


92.5 




114.6 


92.2 


194.8 


North Pacific coast (W 
South Pacific coast 


(0 
92.5 




114.6 


10.2 
82.0 


21.6 
173.2 











I With the exception of the Great Lakes. 

2 1 measurement ton equals 40 cubic feet. 

3 Dollar amounts represent cost, not revenue, which is computed on predetermined billing rates. 

« No movement reported. 

Source: Quarterly progress report. 4th quarter fiscal year 1957, RCSDD-IL (Q) 493, Military Traffic Management and 
Terminal Service, Washington, D.C. 



ESTUARINE MINING AND PROCESSING 

Actual extraction of both hard and soft minerals from the estuaries 
is presently limited. By far the most valuable and potentially profit- 
able mining activities in the estuary areas are petroleum extraction, 
gas and sulphur recovery, and sand, gravel, and shell dredging. It is 
important to note that the primary activity of extraction, with the 
exception of sand and gravel dredging, has had relatively little effect 
on the estuarine environment. Such secondary activities as petroleum 
refining, transport by pipeline or ship, and petrochemical processing 
have had much greater impact. Finally, the marginal activities which 
grow up to support the populations drawn to areas of heavy petro- 
leum extraction and secondary industry also place a heavy burden on 
the quality of the estuarine zone. 

Petroleum (oil and gas) dominates present and projected mining 
activity in the offshore regions of the United States, accounting for 
over 84 percent of offshore mineral production in 1966. Offshore 
sources supply a relatively small, but rapidly increasing, share of the 
total domestic oil output. 

As table IV.4.7 illustrates, offshore production of petroleum has 
grown steadily in the past decade, rising from less than 3 percent of 
total production in 1958 to nearly 10 percent in 1967. If exploration, 



225 

technolos^ies of recovery, and demands advance at expected rates, it is 
projected that 20 percent of total domestic production in 1980 — about 
1 billion barrels — may come from the offshore marine region. 

TABLE IV.4.7.-CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELPi 
[Million; of barrels] 







Location 




Total on 
shelf 


Percent of total 

production 

terrestrial and 

marine 


Year 

• 


California 


Louisiana 


Alaska 
(Cook Inlet) 


1948 


14.4 






14.4 

17.8 

27.5 

70.9 

100.0 

145.0 

195.3 

208.4 

257.5 

320.6 


0.72 


1953 


14.8 

16.5 

15.8 

15.2 

17.8 

20.9 

0) 
0) 
(?) 


3.0 .. 

11.0 .. 

55.1 .. 
84.2 

126.9 
163.3 
197.3 
243.1 
291.3 




.75 


1956 




1.05 


1958 




2.90 


1960... 

1962.... 

1964 

1965 

1966 

1967 


0.6 
10.3 
11.1 
11.1 
14.4 
20.3 


3.92 
5.45 
7.00 
7.25 
8.50 
9.85 



> It should be noted that totals from Texas are not included in this summary. It is thus a conservative picture of offshore 
oil production. 
2 Not available. 

Source: National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development, "The Economic Potential of the Mineral 
and Botanical Resources of the U.S. Continental Shelf and Slope," report by Economic Associates, Inc., p. 226, 1968. 

Nearly one-quarter of present U.S. reserves are found on the Conti- 
nental Shelf. Those reserves found under water depths of 200 feet or 
less are of particular importance to the estuarine zone; major areas 
identified as having significant crude oil deposits in near-shore water 
are listed in table IV.4.8. 

Sulphur mining is another major estuarine activity. Presently, most 
of the subsurface extraction is concentrated in three mines : two located 
on the Continental Shelf several males off the Louisiana coast and the 
third in a coastal bay off the same State. By 1970, these three mines 
are projected to supply about 2.5 million tons of Frasch sulphur, or 
about one-fourth of total projected domestic demand. 

Significant expansion of this industry in the estuarine zone seems 
unlikely in the near future, since there are large and economically 
competitive land-based sulphur sources in western Texas, as well as 
competition from gypsum byproducts and from probable byproduct 
recovery under new air pollution restrictions. 

Table IV.4-8 — U.S. areas with significant crude oil deposits — Estimated ultvmate 
reserves of offshore crude oil 

[Billioins of barrels] 
Region : 

Atlantic seaboard (excluding Florida) 1.0 

Florida, Northern Gulf Coast 3.2 

Mississippi and Alabama 2. 9 

Louisiana 17. 9 

Texas 7. 

Southern California 1. 3 

Alaska, Pacific Coast, and Gulf of Alaska 24. 



Total 57. 

Source : The Economic Potential of the Mineral and Botanical Resources of the U.S. 
Continental Shelf and Slope, op. cit., p. 221. 



226 

These fia^iires reinforce those already cited and identify the Gulf of 
Mexico biophysical region as the probable future focus of continental 
U.S. petroleum recovery and secondary processing growth. Alaska, 
perhaps includins; the Bering Sea and Arctic margins, is also certain 
to be an area of increasing exploration, recovery, and refining. 

The mining of sand and gravel from the estuary floor does not com- 
pare in economic importance to the extraction and processing of 
petroleum and sulphur. The present value of sand and gravel produced 
in coastal bays and estuaries is estimated to be between $18 and $v50 
million a year. Marine shell deposits, particularly oyster shell, have 
been harvested for years, mainly in the Gulf of Mexico and San Fran- 
cisco Bay. Production of shell was estimated to be about 21 million 
tons in 1966, with a value of approximately $33 million. 

Yet, the mining of sand, gravel, and shell has a significant impact on 
estuarine conditions wherever it is practiced. Unlike petroleum, the 
mining of these aggregates is not the spur for industrial and popula- 
tion expansion. The reverse is true. Demand for coastal and estuarine 
deposits of aggregates is the direct result of metropolitan growth and 
related urban demands for cheap construction material in the form of 
concrete and other building products. 

Since suitable construction aggregates are found nearly universally 
on the Atlantic, gulf, and Pacific coasts, and transportation of these 
materials often makes up one-half or more of the costs to the con- 
sumer, present and future growth of this industry in the coastal - 
estuary zone will be dependent on increasing urban developments, and 
the availability of competing deposits on the land surface. Thus, pro- 
jections of growth of coastal -estuarine extraction of aggregates are 
difficult due to the fact that local demand-and-supply conditions are 
now and will continue to be the major determining factor in decisions 
to exploit marine aggregate resources. 

Sources of aggregate extracted from supplies in coastal rivers and 
estuaries already provide the principal source of sand and gravel for 
such metropolitan areas as New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wash- 
ington, D.C., Norfolk, Mobile, and New Orleans. Oyster shell is a 
major source of cement and associated lime requirements in Galveston 
Bay, Tex. Significant quantities are also mined in the San Francisco 
Bay. It seems reasonable to conclude that as urban areas continue to 
grow through suburban expansion, as land values rise and as zoning 
restrictions are tightened, that the demand for estuary reserves of 
sand, gravel, and shell will grow. Offshore dredging on a massive scale 
is presently precluded due to the high cost of building suitable dredges, 
technological difficulties of deep-water recovery, and competing re- 
sources on land and the estuaries. 

Salt is an obvious yet relatively insignificant product extracted from 
estuarine water. Only three of over 100 salt-producing operations are 
located in estuarine areas. Their total production in 1967, valued at $17 
million, was about 7 percent of the total U.S. production. Such activity 
in estuarine areas is bound to decline as pressure is exerted by more 
competitive uses of estuarine land. 

Current interest in exploiting phosphorite and manganese nodules 
and contiguous deposits of nickel, cobalt, and copper is limited by 



227 

available technology. Gold and platinum metals exist in submerged 
beach and placer deposits off Alaska, California, and Oregon but it is 
unlikely that mining will be undertaken for them in the near future. 
Diamonds, gold, and zircon have also been identified in the estuarine 
sands of various States, but extraction appears unlikely. 

Magnesium metal, magnesium oxide, and bromine are all extracted 
from sea water and plants are presently located mainly in the estuarine 
zones of Texas and California. Production is adequate for projected 
demand and little expansion is anticipated, at least within the estuarine 
area. Relatively little modification of the estuarine environment results 
from these activities. 

In review, the future of mining in the estuarine zone and near 
coastal waters will center on two categories of minerals that may give 
rise to serious and increasing pressures on that environment: petro- 
leum, gas, and sulphur, and sand, gravel, and shell. Improved manage- 
ment of estuarine resources must take these primary and the associated 
secondary and marginal activities into account in any rational scheme 
to balance and optimize the values of the Nation's coastal resources. 

OUTDOOR RECREATION 

Historical trends 

Outdoor recreation awareness has existed since the establishment 
of the first communities in the United States with their typical 
commons and public parks. Parks and their value to an urban society 
were reemphasized by the great city planning movement of the latter 
decades of the 19th century. This revival was accompanied by an 
awareness on the part of urban scholars that natural resources were 
not inexhaustible and should receive a measure of protection. The ef- 
fect, of course, was the establishment of the national park and na- 
tional forest systems largely centered in the Western States and areas 
of very light population. The advent of the State park movement in 
the 1920's was augmented by a variety of national initiatives during 
the 1930's which tended to establish some balance in the distribution 
of land areas managed by public agencies for a variety of public pur- 
poses, including outdoor recreation. The objectives were largely 
resource-j)rotection oriented and the facility development which took 
place during the 1930's was directed far more at providing employ- 
ment than meeting, in a planned fashion, identified outdoor recreation 
needs. 

The years of World War II and a suddenly released affluence during 
the decade following the cessation of hostilities combined to produce 
an enormous awareness on the part of a rapidly changing society that 
the opportunities afforded by the public stock of resource areas was 
inadequate to meet their needs. A variety of landmark investigations 
into the status of outdoor recreation were undertaken and published 
during that decade. Principal among them were : intensive studies of 
the shorelines of the United States by the National Park Service, and 
a preparation of Operations Outdoors program by the U.S. Forest 
Service. These investigations culminated in the establishment of a 
California Outdoor Recreation Study Committee and the National 
Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. 



228 

Measures of demand 

Both these studies for the first time demonstrated the basic causal 
factors in outdoor recreation demand. In effect, they found that ade- 
quate planning for outdoor recreation required larger concerns than 
the biophysical environment; that the economic environment — 
expressing the preference of society for goods and services — and the 
institutional environment — decisions about the focus and character- 
istics of agencies charged with the protection of resources and the 
provision of outdoor recreation facilities — were equally important. 

The principal causal factors noted and documented by the Outdoor 
Recreation Resources Review Commission reports were : 

( 1 ) Growth in total population ; 

(2) Growth in leisure time ; 

(3) Increased mobility of the total population, including 
transportation ; 

(4) Changing population characteristics of the total 
population; and 

(5) Concentration of population in urban or metropolitan 
centers. 

It was concluded that, as the levels of the:se factors rose, the growth 
of outdoor recreation demand for specific activities or opportunities 
would accelerate faster than the net increase in total population. Sec- 
tions 1 and 2 showed that these principal factors in the growth of out- 
door recreation demand Avill exhibit sustained growth both nationally 
and within the estuarine zone. Therefore, although no specific quan- 
tification is presently available to project actual recreational demands 
on and uses of the Nation's estuarine resources, they will certainly 
increase at substantial rates in the future. It is uncertain whether 
the supply of recreation resources will in fact be sufficient to meet this 
large, if unquantified, demand. Continued degradation and restriction 
of recreation resources, particularly those in the estuarine zone, may 
well mean that some of the potential demand will be canceled by 
overcrowded, unattractive areas already much in evidence. 

Although specific estuarine projections are not available, it has been 
generally concluded by experts in the field that one indicator — attend- 
ance in public parks — has risen by about 10 percent annually for many 
years. This is a rate more than five times the rate of the "population 
explosion" noted in section 1. There are indications that this com- 
parative rate of growth for the outdoor recreation experience in public 
park areas must level off, but the immediate future would seem to 
maintain the trend toward more overcrowding and use, and the modify- 
ing pressures these entail, as figure IV.4.15 indicates. 

Recreation demands are expressions of desire for certain activities 
and thus are difficult to translate into requirements for particular 
quantities of bay shoreline, acres of marsh, and so on. Thus the mag- 
nitude of future demands and the consequent requirements for 
associated estuarine resources are extremely difficult to pinpoint. 

Perhaps the most common indicator of recreation growth is ex- 
pressed by "user days" of some particular activity. An example of this 
is provided by the national trends and projections developed by the 
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. Figure IV.4.16 indicates the projec- 
tions for five outdoor recreation activities that occur in the estuarine 



229 



Figure IV.4.15 

ATTENDANCE AT MAJOR TYPES OF OUTDOOR 
RECREATION AREAS 



Visits in millions 
400 



300 
200 

100 
80 

60 
40 

20 

10 
8 

6 
4 



I 

a8 

0.6 
0.4 



0.2 























y 










.'^ Corps 

/* reservoirs- 

J Lx 








^ / 










A / 




■ V 1 






-State parks 


' • 


//'^ 






' \ 1 


/V< 








\ ! 


1 ^F .^-?»/A 








\j 


.^r/y 










jj^/ 












f 








f^^ 

/ 


1 








A 


W 'f 










- V# 


\l // 








-f.'"^ ' 


■/J 








^ 


/ 


w 






— National for 




f 










/ 
1 










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•-' 










/ 

/ 
/ 












/ 

/ 










/ 










/ 












1 












f 












1 












i"' 












/ 












f National 
»'" park system 








, 



1910 



1920 



1930 



I960 1965 



Source: Morion Clowson and JocK L. Kultsch, Economics of Outdoor Recreation (Baltimore: 
John Hopkins Press, 1966), P. 44. 



230 

environment although, obviously, they can be accommodated in other 
areas as well. Numerous other inventories indicate similar exponential 
projections of recreation activity in coming decades. Of particular 
note here are the inescapable conflicts generated among recreation 
users themselves, and on the finite land and water resources of the 
Nation. For example, the tremendous rise in water sk'iing and high- 
speed motorboating directly conflicts with the more quiet pursuit of 
sport fishing which is increasing simultaneously. 



Figure IV.4.16 

PERCENT INCREASES IN SELECTED 
OUTDOOR RECREATION AREAS 



Percent Increase (1965=100%) 
400 




Water Skiing 



Camping 
Boating 



Noture Walks 



Fishing 



2000 



Source: Bureau of Outdoor Recreation 



It is necessary to distinguish between actual demands and potential 
demands. The actual demands for certain recreation activities such 
as hunting, sightseeing, and boating can be, in a general way, obtained 
from areas in which these activities are well-established and moni- 
tored. However, in many areas the potential for certain recreational 
activities is much higher than indicated by present use. For example, 



231 

the Delaware estuary comprehensive study — 1966 — estimated that the 
upper Delaware estuary alone had a capacity of over 8 million activity 
days for boating, while only 1,800,000 activity days are currently being 
used, which amounts to a utilization of the boating potential of only 
23 percent. Similarly, only 8 percent of the sport fishing capacity in 
the upper Delaware estuary appeared to be realized. Even though the 
definition of "capacity" used in this and similar studies is open to 
serious question, future demands will place great pressures even on 
those areas which appear to be underutilized today. 

On the other hand, it is known that the hunting opportunities in 
State and Federal reserves are not as good as they are on carefully 
managed private areas. This is due to the special characteristics of 
waterfowl, their sensitivity to overhunting, and the necessary latitudes 
of hunting pressures on publicly managed lands. It appears unlikely, 
however, that privately owned and managed lands, particularly those 
fronting on the estuaries, can maintain sufficient opportunities for 
future outdoor recreation let alone expand them. 

This points out that, while there may be ample present opportunities 
for some recreation activities in certain areas, on others the system and 
use demands impose severe limitations. It must be one of the prime 
concerns of the management of the estuarine resources that, while they 
will be used increasingly for all purposes, the resource base that satis- 
fies recreation demands must be retained. Destruction of the resource 
base would constitute the final absurdity of destroying the objects 
of increasing demand for the satisfactions of this environment. 

User groups 

The recreation pressures on estuarine resources are generated by 
three basic user groups. They are: 

(1) Periodic: Those who either reside in the estuarine zone 
or within short travel distance from the estuarine zone, and who 
travel from their place of residence to the estuary resources, 
participate in outdoor recreation activities and return to their 
place of residence within a single day. 

(2) Seasonal: Seasonal recreation users are those who main- 
tain residences at another place but who spend more than 1 day 
at a time in the estuarine zone. These users may range from those 
who spend a single weekend to those who spend 1 or 2 weeks or 
several months in some fonn of residence — that is, campground, 
hotel-motel, or cottage in the estuarine zone. 

(3) Permanent: Those who maintain permanent recreation 
residences in the estuarine zone. 

The demands for, and use of, the recreation resources in the estuarine 
zone by all three user groups will increase substantially in the future. 
Periodic users already overburden recreation facilities near metropoli- 
tan areas as anyone who attempts to reach near-shore areas on week- 
ends is well aware. With the growth of megalopoli from Maine to 
Virginia, both coasts of Florida, northern Texas and California in 
the near future, pressures from day-use participants is certain to rise. 

In addition, both the periodic and seasonal user groups concen- 
trate the bulk of their pressures on the estuarine and coastal environ- 
ment in the short summer-months span. Thus, the greatest use is made 



42-847 O — 70 16 



232 



Figure IV.4.17 

NATIONAL TIME BUDGET AND TIME DIVISION 
OF LEISURE, 1900, 1950, AND 2000 



Thousand Billion Hours 
3 



National Time Budget 




1900 



1950 



2000 



Hours 



Division of Leisure 




1900 



1950 



2000 



Source: Marion Clowson, How Much Leisure: Now ond in the Future . (Woshington, D.C.; 
Resources for the Future, Inc., 1964), P. 1 1. 



233 

of the shoreline and water in the period of maximum vegetal growth, 
and often the time when supplies of fresh water for all purposes such 
as drinking, carrying municipal wastes, et cetera, are least available. 
Instructive in this regard is the growth of resort communities, such 
as Ocean City, Md., from sleepy towns of 25,000 persons in April, to 
"cities" of 350,000 on weekends in the summer months. 

Perhaps the greatest recent change in user group pressure results 
from the tremendous growth of permanent residences constructed in 
coastal and estuarine locations. Recreation amenities provided by these 
areas is a prime factor in this trend. Although growth figures are not 
uniformly available, the growth of permanent and "second" homes 
appears to be general throughout the Nation, particularly in out- 
lying "suburbs" tied to metropolitan job centers by expanding trans- 
portation networks. This growth of permanent users of the estuarine 
zone is further increased by the phenomenal expansion of retire- 
ment communities in such areas as Florida, Texas, and California. 

Figure IV.4.17 summarizes the projections of leisure time which 
contribute heavily to the pressures discussed above. 

Section 4. Future Waste Discharge Impacts 

The amounts and impact of wastes generated by man's activities 
are a function of population growth, urbanization, industrial and 
commercial development, changing technologies, and consumption of 
goods and services — even those associated with leisure-time activities. 
The following discussion defines trends and the probable future course 
of events related to waste discharge affecting the estuarine zone. How- 
ever, in most cases, only an indication of the magnitude of the prob- 
lem can be set out here due to the lack of comparable long-term data, 
the complexity of the waste discharge assimilation process, and the 
unknown quantity and composition of future waste discharges. 

The emphasis in the following discussion is on those trends in 
waste discharge that most directly affect water quality, although it 
must be recognized that the problems associated with wastes affect the 
total environment, and extend well beyond the defined area of the 
estuarine zone, both landward and seaward. 

LIQUID wastes 

Fresh loater inflows 

Many of the sources that determine estuarine water quality are and 
will be external to the estuarine zone. The quantity, as well as quality, 
of fresh water inflows to the estuaries is largely determined by up- 
stream water use. Water diversion for irrigation, impoundment for 
flood control, and a host of other uses tend to cut the natural stream- 
flow necessary to the successful assimilation and diffusion of both natu- 
ral and manmade wastes. An example of upstream diversion of water is 
provided by the Texas Water Plan, which is projected to alter stream- 
flows radically into such productive estuaries as Galveston Bay and 
those situated in the southern Texas coast. Even if a tremendous 
planned diversion from the Mississippi River for fresh water inflows 
to the estuaries is completed on a timely basis, these estuarine systems 
are projected to face overall reduction of fresh water supply and the 



234 

accompanying stresses both on the natural assimilative capacities of 
these estuaries and the biofcic communities presently existing there. 
Pressures for increased upstream diversion and use of fresh water 
are certain to increase in all biophysical regions, but the relatively 
arid and high-growth western gulf and the Southwest Pacific coasts 
are projected to experience the greatest pressures on present estuarine 
systems for at least three main reasons : 

(1) Much of the upstream water is used to support irrigation 
with accompanying actual loss of water to the inflow systems by 
evaporation, transpiration, and absorption, as well as mineraliza- 
tion through leaching. 

(2) The amount of rainfall and snow pack is highly variable 
and often results in extended periods of flooding and drought in 
these regions. 

(3) Consumption of water other than for irrigation is bound 
to increase at a high rate in response to expected population growth 
considerably above the national average. 

It should be noted, however, that these diversion projects may also 
allow increased control of water inflows that could be beneficial to 
maintenance of existing estuarine productivity. Furthermore, some 
proposed projects may merely shift the major portion of existing in- 
flows from one area to another as in the case of the proposed diversion 
of Delaware River inflow from Delaware Bay, through the Hudson 
River, to Raritan Bay, and New York Harbor. 

Municipal wastes 

Municipal waste water disposal is the most frequently cited example 
of water quality degradation. The major impact of municipal waste 
water discharge is calculated on the basis of the amount of biological 
oxygen demand (BOD), bacterial indicator organisms, generally coli- 
forms, and suspended and dissolved solids reaching both fresh and 
estuarine water. The magnitude of the future extent of the water pollu- 
tion problem is indicated by the projection that, even if secondary 
treatment were provided for all urban and sewered population in the 
United States by 1980, the amount of residual wastes reaching the Na- 
tion's waters would be about the same as today when much of this popu- 
lation is not served by secondary treatment facilities. From approxi- 
mate coefficients developed by the Federal Water Pollution Control 
Administration for municipal wastes generated by man in areas served 
by sewers, a rough estimate of the overall yearly municipal sewered 
waste loads may be computed for the estuarine zone as shown in 
table IV.4.9. 

TABLE IV.4.9.— APPROXIMATE MUNICIPAL WASTES GENERATED YEARLY BY THE ESTUARINE ZONE POPULATION, 

1960-80 







1960 


1970 


1980 


Numerical 
increase, 
1960-80 


Waste water. . . 


billions of gallons 


1,611.7 
2, 229. 5 
2, 686. 1 


1,902.3 
2,631.5 
3, 170. 5 


2, 130 7 
2,947.4 
3, 551. 1 


519 


Standard BOD _ 

Settleable and suspended solids 


... millions of pounds., 
do 


718 
865 



Note: These projections are based on formulae found in the FWPCA publication. The Cost of Clean Water, Vol. II, "De- 
tailed Analysis" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968), p. 68. 



235 

Although these figures are approximate, and understate the magni- 
tude of the municipal waste load in the estuarine zone, they indicate 
the tremendous pressure increasing population itself will place on the 
water quality of the estuarine zone in the future. It does not take into 
account the increasing use of high-water-use appliances such as wash- 
ing machines, disliwashers, and garbage disposals, which will con- 
tribute significantly to higher per capita water wastes in the future. 

These hgures are reasonable statements of pressures from urban 
populations, but the exterior suburban and rural populations presently 
not served by sewers will undoubtedly contribute further significant 
liquid-bearing wastes to the estuaries. For example, beach- front and 
estuarine communities, particularly resort-oriented developments, 
have traditionally and continue to depend in large degree on septic 
tank disposal of municipal wastes. Problems of waste seepage from 
septic treatment have been noted in such places as the north and south 
shores of Long Island, Florida resort and retirement communities, 
and the Delaware-Maryland- Virginia shoreline. Furthermore, many 
coastal communities were originally sewered with primary treatment 
facilities. These facilities, often discharging directly into shallow back 
bays, are no longer adequate to meet increased development, density 
pressures, and the longer duration of stays caused by burgeoning 
"second home" markets. The communities, limited to residential tax 
bases, are hard pressed to finance facilities adequate to handle peak 
loads reached for relatively short periods in the critical summer 
months. 

TABLE IV.4.10.-CAPITAL OUTLAYS NEEDED TO OBTAIN ADEQUATE MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT FOR 
URBAN POPULATIONS IN MARINE COASTAL STATES AND ESTIMATES FOR ESTUARINE-ASSOCIATED PORTIONS 
OF THOSE STATES, 1969-73 

[In millions) 

Estuarine portions 
State Entire State of States 

Alabama 

Alaska 

California 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts.-- - 

Mississippi..- 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey - 

New York..- - - 

North Carolina -- --- 

Oregon --- -- 

Pennsylvania - 

Rhode Island - - 

South Carolina - - - 

Texas - 

Virginia : - - - 

Washington - - 

Total --- ---. 5,503.0 > 3,285.8 

1 60 percent 

Source: Computed from table 1-3A in The Cost of Clean Water, op. cit., p. 13. 



$137.0 


$15.2 


14.5 


Unknawn 


732.2 


574.0 


188.3 


118.0 


31.5 


31.5 


23.0 


23.0 


369.6 


286.3 


223. 1 


15,1 


40.1 


40.1 


195.0 


91.1 


47.0 


21.3 


136. 1 


124.4 


200.0 


149.0 


57.0 


4.9 


35.0 


9.2 


561.1 


507.7 


1070. 1 


682.0 


101.5 


11.4 


145.3 


92.1 


331.6 


105.2 


41.5 


41.5 


100.0 


19.6 


342.5 


88.1 


206.6 


114.1 


173.3 


121.0 



236 

A final indicator of the ma^itude of the municipal waste problem 
is provided by table IV.4.10. The marine coastal States are projected to 
require an outlay of $51^ billion between 1969 and 1973 to adequately 
treat municipal wastes during that period. This represents 63 percent 
of the national total of $8,693 billion projected for 1969 through 1973. 
The estuarine portions of the marine States (basically the coastal 
counties) are estimated to require 60 percent of the marine States' 
total outlay, or something over $2% billion during the same period. 

As one might expect, the heavily populated estuarine-associated 
States such as California, New York, New Jersey, and Florida will 
require bulk of expenditures in the near future (nearly two-thirds of 
the total). Similarly, the estuarine portions of the marine States 
located in the Middle Atlantic biophysical region (New York to 
Delaware) will account for nearly 44 percent of the national total for 
these areas. These and other urban-dominated areas will require the 
fullest possible resources, technology, and planning of private, local, 
State, and Federal establishment if estuarine water quality is to be 
maintained, and perhaps enhanced. 

Industrial toastes 

Although municipal wastes are shown to be a major and projected 
source of pollution, both nationally and associated with the estuarine 
zone, manufacturing is the principal source of controllable waterborne 
wastes. 

In terms of the generally quoted measurements of strength and 
volume, the FWPCA estimates that manufacturing establishments 
are responsible for about three times as great a loading as that caused 
by the Nation's population. Moreover, the volume of industrial pro- 
duction, which gives rise to industrial wastes, is increasing at about 
4.5 percent a year, or three times as fast as the population growth 
rate. 

Approximately 85 percent of the 14.2 trillion gallons of water used 
by manufacturing plants in 1964 was accounted for by four major 
industry groups; namely: Primary metal industries, chemical and 
allied products, paper and allied products, and petroleum and allied 
products. Most of the growth in manufacturing water demands 
between 1954 and 1964 may be attributed to these four industry 
groups. This may be expected to continue in at least the near future. 
Blast furnaces and steel mills alone accounted for 27 percent of the 
total ; industrial chemicals for about 21 percent of the total. Relatively 
large industry units account for nearly all measured industrial uses; 
3 percent of the firms inventoried by the census of manufactures made 
up 97 percent of the total industrial water used for the Nation. 

Estuarine economic areas identified as having significant concentra- 
tions of high water use industries are : 

(1) Chemicals and allied products: New York-northeast New 
Jersey, Philadelphia-New Jersey-Delaware coast and the Texas 
north gulf coast. 

(2) Petroleum refining: Philadelphia-New Jersey-Delaware 
coast, Louisiana coast, Texas north gulf coast and Texas south 
gulf coast, and California coast. 

(3) Paper and allied products: Marine coast, South Carolina 



237 

coast, Georgia-eastern Florida coast, central Florida gulf coast, 
Mississippi-Alabama-west Florida coast, Oregon coast, and 
Washington coast. 
All of these industries have high growth potential and may be ex- 
pected to intensify their activities in the future. 

Other high- water-use industries of importance to individual estua- 
rine areas are : 

(1) Textiles: Massachusetts-Rhode Island coast, New York- 
northeast New Jersey coast. North Carolina coast, and Missis- 
sippi-Alabama-west Florida coast. 

(2) Primary metals: Connecticut coast, Maryland- Virginia 
coast, and the Texas north and south gulf coasts. 

(3) Food and kindred products: Philadelphia-New Jersey- 
Delaware coast. North Carolina coast, southern Florida gulf 
coast, central Florida gulf coast, Louisiana coast, the California 
coasts, and the Oregon and Washington coasts. 

TJiermcdr wastes 

Although heated effluents may come from a variety of sources, elec- 
tric power generation is estimated to produce 81 percent of the total 
heat discharged to the Nation's waters. Demand and production of 
electric power in this country has doubled every 10 years during this 
century, with most of the increase coming through use of thermal- 
generating methods. Power requirements of electrical systems in 1980 
will be three times what they were in 1963. 

TABLE iV.4.11.— ELECTRICAL GENERATING CAPACITY IN THE UNITED STATES; IN AREAS ASSOCIATED WITH 

THE ESTUARINE ZONE, 1959-80 

[In electrical megawatts] 







Additions Additions 


Additions 






Total 


installed expected 


forecast 


Average 




installed 


in 1960 for 1967 


for 1974 


percent 




at end 


through through 


through 


increase 


Power supply area 


of 1959 


1966 1973 


1980 


per year 



New England (PSA 1 and 2) 6,700 2,300 5,500 6,900 5.7 

New York (PSA 3 and 4)... 11,600 5,800 6,100 9,900 5.2 

New Jersey, Delaware, most of Pennsylvania and Maryland, 

District of Columbia (PSA 5 and 6) 12,800 6,000 11,200 15,900 6.3 

Most of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina (PSA 18 and 21)_ 8,400 5,300 7,900 13,000 7.0 

Most of Florida (PSA 24) 3,300 4,300 6,700 15,400 11.1 

Northwestern Florida, Georgia, most of Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana, western Arkansas (PSA 22, 23, and part of 

25,33, and35) 8,300 5,900 10,900 18,600 8.2 

Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico (PSA 36-39, and rest of 33 and 

35). 11,700 8,100 15,600 26,100 8.2 

Washington, rest of Idaho and Oregon (PSA 42-45) 9,300 4,500 9,300 13,300 6.7 

California (rest of PSA 46-48). 12,800 8,500 9,200 16,500 6.4 

Alaska 200 

Hawaii 500 200 200 2.8 

Puerto Rico 400 200 600 900 8.2 



Total for United States 158,000 75,000 139,000 207,000 6.3 

Source: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, "Forecast of Growth of Nuclear Power." 

As table IV.4.11 indicates, overall expansion of electric generating 
capacity for the Nation will average about 6 percent annually during 
the period 1959-1980. Areas of particularly rapid growth include 
Florida, parts of the gulf coast, Texas, and Puerto Rico. 



238 




239 

Modern plants being installed presently, and in the near future, will 
be larger in unit size, thereby increasing plant efficiency, but concen- 
trating heat effects to a significant degree. Hydroelectric power gen- 
eration, with the exception of the Pacific Northwest, is projected to 
decline in importance. Fossil, and particularly nuclear, power genera- 
tion will expand tremendously to meet expected demands. It is 
estimated, for example, that by 1975 about half of the generation 
capacity will be nuclear fueled. 

The growth of nuclear power is significant, not only because of the 
large unit size (800 megawatts or larger) , but because they must pres- 
ently operate at lower, and therefore less efficient, temperatures. In 
sum, it will take more heat to generate a given amount of electrical 
energy in the future, and more of that heat will have to be dissipated 
somehow into cooling waters. Figure IV.4.18 gives an indication of the 
growth of new nuclear generating plants to 1973. 

Although the actual future number of fossil and nuclear plants 
located on the coasts and estuaries of the United States is unknown, 
an indication of future thermal alteration potential is provided by 
future operation of the following plants affecting coastal waters: 

TABLE IV.4.1Z.-EXPAN0ED OR PROJECTED POWER PLANTS AFFECTING ESTUARINE WATERS 

First 
Project Megawatts electricity 

Maine Yankee Atomic Powerplant, Lincoln, Maine 

Pilgrim Station, Plymouth, Mass 

Connecticut Yankee Atomic Powerplant, Haddam Neck, Conn 

Indian Point Station— Unit 1, Buchanan, N.Y 

Indian Point Station— Unit 2, Buchanan, N.Y -. 

Oyster Creek Nuclear Powerplant Oyster Creek, N.J 

Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Unit No. 2, Oyster Creek, N.J ,.- 

Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit No. 1, Philadelphia, Pa 

Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit No. 2, Philadelphia, Pa 

Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit No. 3, Philadelphia, Pa 

Surry Power Station Unit No. 1, Surry County, Va 

Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Powerplant Unit No. 1, Maryland - 

Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Powerplant Unit No. 2, Maryland -. 

Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 1, Brunswick County, N.C 

Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 2, Brunswick County, N.C... 

Crystal River Plant Unit No. 3, Crystal River, Fla 

Humboit Bay Powerplant, San Onofre, Calif... 

Malibu Nuclear Plant Unit No. 1, California 

RanchoSeco Nuclear Generating Station, California 

Diablo Canyon Nuclear Powerplant Unit No. 1, San Luis Obispo, Calif 

Diablo Canyon Nuclear Powerplant, San Luis Obispo, Calif — 



SOLID WASTES 

Solid wastes, particularly those associated with urban areas and 
concentrations of industry, must be recognized as major hazards to 
the maintenance of a desirable estuaidne environment. The problem of 
disposal of solid wastes becomes particularly acute as available land 
surrounding central cities is built up. Traditionally, wetlands have 
been considered convenient sites for the disposal of all types of un- 
wanted material, from demolition wastes to tricycles. It is estimated 
that the amount of land necessary to store and/or process solid wastes 
for ultimate disposal will nearly double from 1966 to 1976. 

A recent report conducted for the Regional Plan Association studied 
the New York metropolitan area generation and handling of wastes. 
The Study found that in 1965 the residential solid wastes generated 



790 


1972-73 


625 


1971 


462 


1967 


265 


1962 


873 


1970 


515 


1969 


815 


1972 


40 


1967 


1,065 


1971 


1,065 


1973 


783 


1971 


800 


1973 


800 


1973 


821 


1976 


821 .. 




825 


1972 


430 


1967 


462 


1973 


800 


1973 


1,060 


1971 


1,070 


1974 



240 

per capita per year averaged from about a half a ton to nearly two- 
thirds of a tone. Thus, nearly 11 million tons of residential solid wastes 
were generated in the New York metropolitan area in 1965. By the 
year 2000, it is estimated that residential solid wastes may triple. 

Solid waste by business was also found to be significant. An esti- 
mated 61^ million tons were generated in the study area in 1965 and 
the high projection for 2000 indicates a solid waste load for that year 
of over 22 million tons. 

Within comparative limits, the New York example is being repeated 
throughout the Nation, and p'articularly in metropolitan areas asso- 
ciated with the estuaries. 

Factors affecting the extent of the solid waste disposal problem, in- 
cluding internal processing techniques and external changes arising 
from social, economic, marketing, and consumption trends, indicate 
that solid wastes will expand at a rate substantially exceeding popula- 
tion growth in the foreseeable future and radically change both in 
volume and character. This projected situation is graphically high- 
lighted by figure IV.4.19. It should be noted that the gross amounts 
of nondegradable packaging materials such as plastics will also greatly 
expand, and the trend toward disposable containers will also contribute 
to the solid waste that must be accommodated by the environment. 

This brief review of the future of the estuarine zone as a receptacle 
for man-ciaused wastes leads to the conclusion that the continuation of 
current trends will ultimately bring about the destruction of much of 
the estuarine system as we know it. A great commitment of money, 
manpower, and technology will olearly be required to alleviate the ill 
effects of current practices and to prevent damages in the future, 

SUMMARY 

The anticipated continuing increase in population and industrial 
development in the estuarine zone will increase the strong pressures 
presently existing on the estuarine biophysical environment. The eco- 
nomic pressures will lead as coastal resources are exploited in more 
ways and more intensively, and as commercial exploitation of the deep 
ocean makes itself felt through use of the estuarine zone as a staging 
area. 

As the economic pressures increase, more and more estuarine areas 
will be preempted for commercial purposes, to the detriment of the 
intrinsic social value of the estuarine zone. The anticipated great 
increase in recreational need will tend to follow economic development ; 
therefore, recreational use may very well be relegated to small areas 
useless for other purposes imless effective overall management of the 
entire resource can be established and maintained. 

The great projected increases in waste discharges from all sources 
may do far more than usurp other uses — ithese wastes cian destroy part 
of the environment itself land thereby damage the very ecosystem of 
which man is an integral part and from which his sustenance comes. 



241 



FIGURE IV.4.19 CONSUMPTION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS BY WEIGHT 
1958-1976 (BILLIONS OF POUNDS) 



150 

140 

130 

120- 

110- 

100- 

90 1- 

80 



= 70- 



60 



50 



40 



30- 



20 



10- 



TohJlTDT 



6.67c 
1=0.8%=^ 

10.2% 
J=l.07o=i 

I6S% 



I7B% 



46^% 



Tofd 970 



10.9% 
=0.5%; 

ai% 

pl.9%Z3 
16.2% 



140% 



48.4% 



Total 119.0 



I IB% 

=0.3%= 
7(% 



3.0% 



16.0% 



12.7% 



49.1% 



Tbtal 1470 



1958 1965 

Source- Mklwest Reseoroh Institute 



1970 



11.7% 

=0.2%: 
6.0% 



4.3% 



16.2% 



11.4% 



50.2% 



Miscellaneous 



Textiles — 
Wood 



Plastics 



Gloss 



Metals 



Paper a 
Poperboard 



1976 



CHAPTER 5. POLLUTION IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

Man has always used the biophysical environment as he needed it for 
survival and thrown back into it his waste products and anything else 
he did not need. As long as civilization was limited to small towns 
and villages the impact of such treatment on tihe en\dronment was not 
noticeable and apparently insignificant. With the development of a 
civilization based on a complex socioeconomic environment, however, 
his impact on the estuarine environment has increased until now the 
most accurate term to express the relationship of man to the biophysi- 
cal environment is "pollution." 

Pollution is the degradation of the biophysical environment by 
man's activities; it is no longer limited to the discharge of sewage and 
industrial wastes, but now includes direct or indirect damage to the 
environment by physical, chemical, or biological modification. 

This chapter shows the relationship between man's presence in, and 
use of, the estuarine environment and its degradation. The kinds of 
materials and types of changes that tend to degrade the environment 
are the first topics of discussion, then the relationship of pollutional 
conditions to the various socioeconomic activities are described. The 
chapter concludes with a description of the impact of the socioeco- 
nomic environment on the biophysical environment and specific ex- 
amples of pollutional effects. 

Section 1. Materials and Conditions That Degrade the 
Environment 

Environmental degradation is the result of often-minute changes 
in water quality, water circulation, or other conditions which are part 
of the biophysical estuarine environment. Brightly colored or other- 
wise visible waste materials (fig. IV.5.1) have obvious pollutional im- 
plications, but by far the deadliest pollutants are those that are 
invisible and often unsuspected until the damage is done. These pollut- 
ants can be found only by the most delicate and sensitive tests ; even 
then, the presence of some highly dangerous materials or conditions 
can only be inferred from indirect evidence. 

decomposable organic materials 

One major constituent of municipal and many industrial wastes is 
decomposable organic material. Such materials consist primarily of 
carbohydrates from plants and paper, proteins from animal matter, 
and miscellaneous fats and oils (fig. IV.5.2). The decomposable or- 
ganics are not necessarily detrimental by themselves, but they exert 
a secondary effect by reducing dissolved oxygen in the water. This 
oxygen resource depletion results from the biochemical reactions in- 
volved in microbial utilization of organics for food. 

(242) 



243 

The biocihemicial oxygen demand (BOD) is the standard test for 
this component. It is an index of the availability of organic matter 
for biological food and the amount of oxygen utilized by organisms 
in the metabolism of this food. BOD is generally expressed as milli- 
grams per liter of 5-day BOD at 68° F. While natural waters have 
values around 1, untreated domestic sewage may average around 300. 

The flow of oxygen resources in an estuary is analogous to the flow 
of money in a bank if the estuarine system is viewed as a dissolved 
oxygen bank. There is a certain amount of oxygen in the system just 
as there are certain assets in a bank ; the oxygen is invested in support- 
ing and renewing the biota, while the bank assets are invested to earn 
money. There is a constant flow of oxygen into and out of the estuarine 
system, both to and from the atmosphere and the ocean. In the bank 
there is a cash flow to and from the depositors. Large waste discharges 
may exert an abnormal demand on the oxygen resources such as an 
emi3ezzler exerts on the cash resources of a bank. If enough dissolved 
oxygen is utilized in stabilizing wastes the system goes bankrupt. 

The amount of organic wastes that can be assimilated in the estuarine 
system without stressing the biota is dependent on the oxygen balance 
or the flow of oxygen in the system. The rate of oxygen renewal is de- 
pendent on the tidal driving force causing new oceanic water to flood 
into the system, the fresh water inflow, the wind, the surface area, and 
the amount of turbulence generated by the fresh-oceanic water mixing. 
The more turbulent the system the greater opportunity for atmos- 
pheric exchange with the attendant ability to assimilate more waste 
(fig. IV.5.3). Severely depressed dissolved oxygen levels, which result 
from an excess of oxygen-consuming organic wastes, affect many cate- 
gories of beneficial uses. With aquatic habitat damage, pollution- 
tolerant plants and animals replace the more sensitive types. Desirable 
game and food fish may be completely eliminated; areas of low dis- 
solved oxygen may block the passage of anadromous fish, thereby 
aifecting the reproduction cycle. If oxygen is totally depleted, noxious 
odors may develop, completely eliminating such uses as boating, swim- 
ming, and esthetic appreciation. 

The level of dissolved oxygen in the water is one direct index of the 
healthiness of the system. High levels generally indicate a healthy 
system which will support a diverse biota and multiple use. The lower 
the concentration of dissolved oxygen becomes, the sicker the system 
is, and the less desirable it is for habitat or use. 

FLESH-TAINTING SUBSTANCES 

Another class of materials, primarily organic, which can have con- 
siderable impact on the estuarine ecosystem, are the flesh-tainting sub- 
stances. Generally these materials are contained in industrial waste 
effluents and they result in offensive tastes, odors, and colors of fish and 
shellfish. The most common culprits are the oils or petroleum products. 
These materials in slight amounts will impart an oil or kerosene flavor 
to a wide variety of fish and shellfish, including mullet, mackerel, 
oysters, clams, and mussels (fig. IV.5.4) . 

Another source of tainting substances directly related to organic 
waste discharges can develop when some areas receiving waters 



244 



r 

IV-354 




245 

reach septicity ; i.e., all of the dissolved oxygen is depleted. Under such 
anaerobic conditions the decay of the benthic sludge deposits can result 
in the production of hydrogen sulfide, which has a very strong "rotten 
egg^^ odor. This gas, highly soluble in water, causes a black discolora- 
tion of bivalve shells and imparts an offensive taste and odor to their 
flesh when water carrying it moves across shellfish beds. 

HEAVY METALS 

The heavy metal salts are fairly soluble and stable in solution. Con- 
sequently, they will persist for extended lengths of time. Many of 
these are highly toxic to the aquatic biota. Since many marine orga- 
nisms accumulate and concentrate substances within their cell struc- 
ture, the presence of these metals in small concentrations can have 
deleterious effects. Table IV.5.1 lists the more common metals that are 
of environmental concern (IV-5-1) . 

TABLE IV.5.1.— CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON METALS OF CONCERN IN THE ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT 











Range of 










concentra- 






Natural 


Concentrations in 


tions that 






concentra- 


marine organisms 


have toxic 














Chemical 


water 


Plants Animals 


marine life 


Metal 


symbol 


(mg./l) 


(mg./l) (mg./l) 


(mg./l) 


Silver 


— Ag 


0. 0003 


0.25 lto3 


. Highly toxic. 


Arsenic _ 


As 


.003 


30.0 0.005 to 0.3. 


2. 


Cadmium 


Cd 


.08 


.4 0.15 to 3-... 


. 0.01 to 10. 


Chromium 


-.._ Cr 


. 00005 


1.0 0.2 to 1.0... 


. 1.0. 


Copper... 


Cu 


.003 


11.0 4to50 


. 0.1. 


Mercury 


— Hq 


. 00003 


.03 


, 0.1. 


Lead 


Pb 


. 00003 


8.4 0.5 


. 0.1. 


Nickel 


Ni 


.0054 


3.0 0.4 


. 0.1. 


Zinc 


Zn 


.01 


150.0 6 to 1,500... 


. 10.0. 



The toxic concentrations listed in the table represent the lowest 
values for the particular species tested and not absolute minimums. 
Also, these toxic levels do not consider the synergistic effect that may 
occur with the presence of other metals. For example, the toxic effects 
of mercuric salts are accentuated by the presence of trace amounts of 
copper. The table does indicate the minute quantities of metal salts 
that can damage an estuarine system. 



INORGANIC NUTRIENT SALTS 

Aquatic life forms require trace amounts of some minerals and 
vitamins for growth and reproduction. Elimination of such materials 
from the environment or their reduction below minimum levels can 
limit the growth and reproduction of some biota. Conversely, an over- 
supply of all necessary trace mineral salts and vitamins can retard 
growth or stimulate it ; providing satisfactory conditions of tempera- 
ture, salinity, and dissolved oxygen also exist. An oversupply of inor- 
ganic nutrient salts, such as those of nitrogen and phosphorus, may 
be associated with drastic shifts in the composition of the aquatic 
community. 

There may be shifts in population as the growth of one kind of 
life is stimulated more than that of others by additional nutrients. 



246 

there may be increases in the general productivity of the entire ecosys- 
tem, or there may be no changes at all if one necessary factor is missing. 
When there is excessive growth with associated changes in distribu- 
tion patterns and predator-prey relationships, some organisms may 
reach a state of "nuisance growths." This condition is defined as a 
density of growth that interferes with a desirable water use or the 
growth and reproduction of organisms desirable to man. Examples 
of these situations are : (1) excessive drifting plant growths that make 
bathing beaches unattractive, produce unpleasant odors, foul the bot- 
toms of boats, and spoil the esthetic appearance, and (2) dense popula- 
tions of rooted aquatics which interfere with the movement and re- 
production of fish (fig. IV.5.5) . 

In any case it must be stressed that some other environmental condi- 
tion, and not nutrients alone, maj^ be the controlling factor in such 
growths. The estuarine ecosystem is highly complex ; its composition 
is dependent on a large number of variables, many of which are as yet 
not understood. 

PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS 

One unfavorable consequence of municipal and some industrial 
wastes is the contamination of the receiving environment with bac- 
teria, viruses, and other pathogens with public health significance. 
The organisms, especially those from the intestines of warmblooded 
animals, frequently persist for sufficient periods of time and distance 
to pose a threat to the health and well-being of unsuspecting water 
users. Secondary channels of exposure to these organisms exist through 
the contamination of shellfish which can be harvested for food. 

Multiple use of any estuarine zone requires careful consideration of 
the potential for contact with disease-producing agents. The problem 
of finding pathogenic organisms in water is difficult. The methods 
available for determining the numbers of these micro-organisms in 
sewage and receiving water are not practical for routine use; nor is 
it possible to decide which organisms should be included in the testing 
procedures. 

Evaluation of the micro-organism density in water receiving waste 
discharges is based on the test for the total number of viable coliform 
bacteria present. This test procedure may be further extended to differ- 
entiate between the total numbers and those of probable fecal origin. 
The coliform bacteria in this instance are used strictly as indicator 
organisms. Although the coliform organism has been associated with 
infant diarrhea, it is generally considered as nonpathogenic in water. 
The organism is present in fecal material in large numbers, is highly 
viable in water, and is relatively easy to identify. The use of an indi- 
cator organism is justified on the premise that, if coliforms of fecal 
origin are present, other pathogens of fecal origin probably are present 
also. 

Although most human enteric pathogens do not survive for extended 
periods outside the host's body, evidence indicates that they may re- 
main sufficiently viable in all types of aquatic environment to reinfect 
healthy individuals. Although considerable investigative work has been 
done on fresh water and on oceanic water, many questions are yet to 
be answered where the two meet in the estuarine zone. 



247 

Some of the factors affecting the survival of pathogenic organisms 
are — 

(1) Environmental conditions such as salinity, temperature, 
amount o'f sunlight, and degree of dilution. 

(2) Biological agents antagonistic to the survival of the waste- 
borne organisms. 

(3) Bacteriophages or viruses. 

(4) Protozoan and other lower animals which consume patho- 
gens for survival. 

(5) Sedimentation and adsorption of pathogens with and 
by particulate matter in the receiving water, 

(6) The amount of nutrient material available to support or 
stimulate multiplication of the organisms. 

The presence of the colif orm organisms, especially the fecal colif orm, 
is an index to the degree of public health hazard. The two main avenues 
of exposure for humans in the estaurine environment are through 
body contact during recreation and through ingestion of contaminated 
food harvested from the estuary. In the former, the problem becomes 
one of balancing reasonable safeguards for public health and well- 
being against undue restrictions on the availability of waters for con- 
tact recreation. In estuarine recreation water, this problem is compli- 
cated by the lack of definitive epidemiological studies correlating the 
incidence of waterbome disease with degrees of bacterial pollution. 
To develop rational bacterial standards for contact recreation, the 
most promising approach appears to be through intensive monitoring 
of indicator organisms coupled with salinity studies. 

Shellfish contamination presents another problem in that the major 
concern is the ingestion and harboring of pathogenic enterovirus and 
bacteria by the organism. These viruses can then be passed on to a 
human host, especially if the shellfish are eaten raw. The relationship 
between the densities of colif orm indicator organisms and the presence 
of enteroviruses is still ill-defined and needs further definitive investi- 
gation to assure the adoption of rational public health protecting cri- 
teria. At present shellfish closures are based on very stringent colif orm 
bacteria concentration standards designed to provide a safety factor 
to insure public health. 

TOXIC MATERIALS 

Among the waste products frequently introduced into the estuarine 
environment are some directly toxic to marine organisms. Toxic mate- 
rials may exhibit a short catastrophic impact or a more subtle long- 
term interference with growth and reproduction processes. The end 
result is the creation of a biological desert in which no organism can 
survive. 

The short-term catastrophic type of toxicity usually results from an 
accidental spill or slug discharge of materials into the water. The 
impact is immediate and the results are dramatic. 

The long-term type of toxicity is manifested through the gradual 
destruction of the natural biota. The effects of sublethal concentra- 
tions of toxic mateirials are amplified through biological magnifica- 
tion. Many animals, especially shellfish, can remove these materials 
from the environment and store them in their tissues. This magnifica- 

42-847 O— 70 17 



248 

tion phenomenon has been documented with such pollutants as pesti- 
cides, heavy metals, and radionuclides. The body concentration of the 
toxicant may reach such a level that death results in the host organism 
when the material is released to the blood stream by physiological 
activity. Any higher carnivore consuming an organism with high tis- 
sue concentrations of toxic materials maj be subject to acute or fatal 
poisoning. Table IV.5.2 lists the biological magnification factors of 
five moUusks for specific pesticides (IV-5-2) . 

The pesticide group is of particular concern in the estuarine zone. 
Estuaries are the terminus for most of the major river systems, and 
as such they tend to concentrate the waterborne materials carried in 
by the large terrestrial drainage systems. The biological magnification 
capability of estuarine animals significantly increases the hazard and 
destructive potential of any contributed pesticides. Table IV.5.3 shows 
the concentration of selected pesticides that will kill 50 percent of 
exposed shrimp within 48 hours. Shrimp are one of the most sensitive 
groups of marine organisms (IV-5-1 ) . 

TABLE IV.5.2— MAGNIFICATION FACTORS OF FIVE SELECTED MOLLUSKS i 

Magnification 
Pesticide: f«"8e 

Lindane 10- 250 

Endrin 500-1, 250 

Methoxychlor 300-1, 500 

Dieldrin 700-1, 500 

Heptachlor 250-2, 500 

Aldrin 350-4, 500 

DDT... 1, 200-9, 000 

1 Mention of any trade name in this report does not constitute endorsement of the product by the Federal Government. 

TABLE IV.5.3.— THE 48-HOUR TLm' FOR SHRIMP FOR SELECTED PESTICIDES (IN MICR06RAMS/LITER) 



Organochloride Pesticides: 




Organochloride Pesticides: 




Aldrin 


0.04 


Dieldrin... 


.._ 0.6 


BHC 


2.0 


Endosulfan 


0.3 


Chlordane 


2.0 


Methoxychlor... 


4.0 


Endrin 


0.2 


Perthane 


3.0 


Heptachlor 


0.2 


TDE 


3.0 


Lindane 


0.2 

0.6 


Toxaphene 


3.0 


DDT 




Organophosphorous Pesticides: 




Organopohosphorous Pesticides: 




Coumaphos. 


2.0 


Naled 


3.0 


Dursban 


3.3 


Parathion- 


1.0 


Fenthion 


0.00 


Ronnel... 


5.0 



■ TLm=concentratlon which will kill 50 percent of exposed animals. 

Many other materials have a toxic effect on estuarine biota. These 
materials may be present in various industrial wastes or be byproducts 
of interaction within the estuary. Examples are cyanides from metal- 
plating wastes and sulfides from the anaerobic decomposition of 
sewages and industrial wastes. 

Wastes from the chemical industry are highly variable and poten- 
tially toxic. Ever-changing chemical technology leads to many new 
products, each creating a new, complex, waste-disposal problem. 

Included in the consideration of toxic materials are radionuclides 
discharged to the estuarine waters. Ionizing radiation, when absorbed 



249 

in living tissue in quantities substantially above that of natural back- 
ground, is recognized as injurious (IV.5.1). Since some isotopes 
may be extremely long-lived, and radionuclides may be cycled through 
the food chain or recycled to the environment if the host expires, the 
biological magnification factor is important. The potential conse- 
quences of each particular radioisotope discharge must be evaluated 
individually. The best rule is to minimize the amount of these materials 
cycling in the environment. 

Toxic materials directly kill the biota, interact in the food chain, 
or deleteriously affect the reproduction or growth processes. The ulti- 
mate damage is to stress or eliminate parts of the energy-conversion 
chain in the estuarine environment (fig. IV.5.6). 

HEAT 

The preceding discussion emphasized the many environmental fac- 
tors affecting the impact of various types of wastes on the estuarine 
environment. Water temperature was mentioned in almost every in- 
stance. Tlius the addition of large quantities of heat from industrial 
cooling water constitutes a form of pollution which must be considered 
(fig.IY.5.7). 

The impact of heat pollution on the environment appears in several 
different ways: 

( 1 ) Heat affects the physical properties of water such as density, 
viscosity, vapor pressure, and solubility of dissolved gases. Con- 
sequently, such processes as the settling of particulate matter, 
stratification, circulation, and evaporation can be influenced by 
changes in temperature. Since the solubility of oxygen in water 
decreases as temperature increases, thermal pollution reduces the 
oxygen resources. Most aquatic organisms depend on dissolved 
oxygen to maintain growth and reproduction. 

(2) Heat affects the rate at which chemical reactions progress, 
and it can speed up the formation of undesirable compounds or 
change dynamic chemical equilibria. It also affects biochemical 
reactions and can result in a more rapid depletion of the oxygen 
resources. If sufficient heat is added, temperatures can be elevated 
enough to sterilize the environment by killing all living organisms. 

(3) Environmental temperatures are important to the living 
resources. Physiological processes such as reproduction, develop- 
ment, and metabolism are temperature dependent. The range of 
many species of fishes and the species composition of communities 
are governed to a great extent by the environmental temperature. 
Temperature anomalies also can block the passage of anadromous 
fish, greatly reducing future populations. 

(4^ An increase in temperature can result in synergistic action ; 
that is, the simultaneous effects of separate agents is greater than 
the total sum of individual effects. Prime examples are increased 
toxicity of some materials, increases in susceptibility of fish to 
diseases, and increased virulence of fish pathogens. 

(5) Thermal pollution affects other aquatic organisms such as 
the aquatic plants, the benthos, and the bacterial populations. In- 
creased temperatures may reduce the numbers of species in the 



250 

community and stimulate excessive populations of individual 

species to nuisance conditions. 
The entire ecosystem may be stressed by thermal pollution. The 
amount of damage is dependent on the resulting temperature of the 
environment and the species composition of the biotic community. 
The total range of detriments should be carefully considered on an 
individual case basis before heat is released to the environment. 

SEDIMENTATION 

The estuarine zone serves as a repository for the susx^ended material 
carried by the Nation's rivers. From a pure mass standpoint, a signifi- 
cant percentage of these materials is comprised of the sediment load 
which is measured in billions of tons annually. For example, a conserva- 
tive estimate of the sediment from the Mississippi River through its 
delta complex is 500 million tons annually. 

Man's activities may purposely or inadvertently upset the natural 
balance of inflow, deposition, and outflow. If upstream erosion is 
increased due to poor land-management practlices, the load carried 
in suspension will increase. Conversely, activities along the coast can 
result in increased shore erosion, removing more sediment than is con- 
tributed. The primary pollutional problem from sediment, however, 
results from increased influx and accelerated deposition. 

The detrimental effects of sedimentation are reflected in an impair- 
ment of uses such as navigation, recreation, water supply, and fish 
propagation. Navigational interests are damaged by the accretion of 
materials in ship channels and near docking facilities; millions of 
dollars are expended each year in channel dredging to maintain navi- 
gation. Recreational interests suffer from the loss of safe boating 
water, increased maintenance of marinas, and from the loss of fishing 
areas (fig. IV.5.8). The cost of diversion and use for water supply 
purposes may be significantly increased because of the need to remove 
excess sediment. 

Fishery loss stems from the destruction of suitable habitat. This 
damage results from loss of suitable breeding areas, loss of food chain 
organisms because of change in benthic characteristics, and fish kills 
from excessive turbidity. 

Channel maintenance adds to the sedimentation problem. The cost 
of dredging is greatly influenced by the selection of spoil areas; 
if the spoil is redeposited in the water environment, changes in bottom 
characteristics are transferred to other areas, thus expanding the 
scope of impact. Dredging spoil disposal results in increased tur- 
bidities as well as changing bottom configuration. Both occurrences 
can adversely affect the aquatic habitat. Natural sedimentation is an 
integral part of the estuarine environment. Manmade sedimentation 
problem is a form of pollution that is significant in terms of dollar 
damages and must be considered in the overall management scheme. 

CATASTROPHIC ACCIDENTS 

One great threat to the estuarine ecosystem is the ever-present 
chance of a catastrophic spill of oil or other hazardous materials. The 
large volumes of petroleum and chemical products transported 



251 

through the estuarine zone by ships, barges, pipelines, trucks, and 
railroads present a continuing opportunity for accidental bulk spills. 
The consequences of these spills depend on the amount and type of 
material released and the characteristics of the receiving water. They 
may range in magnitude from tragic loss of human life to little more 
than economic loss for the transporter ( fig. IV.5.9 ) . 

When a significant spill occurs, the results can be dramatic. A large 
quantity of material i& suddenly disgorged into the system ; the fate of 
this material depends on its miscibility with water, its solubility in 
water, and its density, stability, and volatility. The fate of the environ- 
ment depends on what segments contact the material and the inherent 
toxicity of the material. 

The potential magnitude of the problem is staggering. The quan- 
tities and varieties of oils and other hazardous materials transported 
or stored are reflected in the following statistics : 

(1) Almost 4 billion barrels of petroleum and natural gas 
liquids are used annually in the United States, 

(2) Twenty-five billion pounds of animal and vegetable oils 
are consumed or exported annually. 

(3) Almost 80 billion pounds of synthetic organic chemicals 
are produced annually by some 12,000 chemical companies. These 
chemicals, many of which are toxic or have unknown effects on 
aquatic or human life, range from everyday food flavorings to 
lethal pesticides. 

The damage to water uses can be demonstrated by consideration of 
a catastrophic oil spill. Water birds are attracted by the slick on the 
surface. Once they contact the oil, their feathers become matted and 
oil soaked. The birds either drown, are killed by toxicosis from 
ingested oils or by exposure from the loss of body insulation, starve to 
death from inability to fly and search for food, or are eaten by 
predators (fig. IV.5.10). 

Fish become coated with oil and their gills become clogged, result- 
ing in death. If the exposure is sublethal, their flesh becomes tainted 
rendering them unfit for human consumption for a considerable time. 
Toxic oil fractions in the water can kill the larval and adult forms 
of invertebrate marine life necessary for a balanced ecosystem. 
Aquatic vegetation is destroyed. An extreme fire hazard can exist, 
depending on the type and extent of the oil blanket. Recreational use 
of the water is impaired. Swimmers become coated with oil which is 
difficult to remove; boat hulls are stained; beaches with oil deposits 
become virtually unusable. Apart from the physical damage, there 
is also an esthetic damage. Noxious odors may permeate the shoreline 
areas; and waterfront properties are despoiled (fig. IV.5.11). 

The direct damage is not the total economic impact. The cost of 
cleanup must be added and is considerable. The ever-present threat 
of a catastrophic spill places the estuarine treasure house of resources 
in jeopardy. 

DELIBERATE PHYSICAL MODIFICATION 

Building a bridge, dredging a channel, and filling land for a hous- 
ing development are not ordinarily regarded as forms of pollution, 
yet they can cause damage to the biophysical environment far more 
devastating than the most potent industrial or municipal waste. 



252 

Physical modification is permanent; once an estuarine habitat is 
destroyed by dredging or filling, it is gone forever. No waste treat- 
ment can correct or even minimize the damage. The destruction of 
a marsh or part of the estuarine shallows has an obvious effect on 
habitat value, but equally severe damages can be associated with 
apparently minor physical alterations. 

The effect any pollutant has on an estuarine environment depends 
on where it goes, how strong it is, and how rapidly it is assimilated 
or flushed out of the environment. These conditions depend on water 
movement and circulation patterns, which are in turn governed by 
the relationship of tide and river flow to estuarine shape and size. 
Dredging of new or deeper navigation channels, building of cause- 
ways or jetties, and even construction of bridge piers can cause subtle 
changes in water movement that can alter the balance of environ- 
mental conditions in an estuarine system and result in gradual unde- 
sirable changes in the ecosystem. 

Table IV.2.10 shows the amount of estuarine habitat lost by filling; 
table IV.2.11 lists the major river flow regulation structures affecting 
rivers in the estuarine zone ; table IV .5.4 gives a general idea of the 
numbers of miscellaneous structures in the estuarine zone. These 
three tables indicate only the extent of modification, not of its effects. 
While destruction of habitat by filling is measurable, the environ- 
mental changes wrought in an estuarine system by external flow 
regulation or by internal structures are so closely associated with its 
morphology that generalization is impossible. Table IV.5.4 shows 
that there are in the estuarine zone 752 jetties, dikes, and breakwaters 
averaging nearly 1,000 feet in length. These are all solid structures 
specifically designed and placed to modify flow patterns. While habi- 
tat damage may have been considered in the design of many of these, 
it is unlikely that effects on the estuarine environment were consid- 
ered seriously in the placement of many of the 989 causeways and pier 
bridges within the estuarine system. 

TABLE IV.5.4.— ARTIFICIAL MODIFYING STRUCTURES 







Jetties, dikes, and 
breakwaters 


Cause- 
ways 

Number 


Pier 
bridges 

Number 


Dredged channels 

Length t 
Number (feet) 


Total 
struc- 
tures (ex- 
cluding 
channels) 


Biophysicial region 


Number 


Length 

(average, 

feet) 


North Atlantic 




60 
171 
63 
44 
31 
196 
37 
51 
62 
37 


2,600 
160 

1,130 
960 
260 

1,100 

60 

930 

1,140 


48 
53 
19 
43 
32 
146 
22 
30 
44 
27 


48 
58 
37 
46 
34 
170 
30 
37 
41 
24 


146 
269 
37 
68 
43 
308 
55 
91 
73 
75 


48,640 
18,340 
99, 724 
40, 746 
18, 500 
22, 702 
12, 820 
8,800 

13, 000 


156 


Middle Atlantic 




282 


Chesapeake Bay 

South Atlantic. . . . 




119 
133 


Caribbean 

Gulf of Mexico 




97 
512 


Pacific Southwest 




89 


Pacific Northwest 




118 


Alaska 

Pacific Islands , 




147 
88 








Total 


752 


930 


464 


525 


1,165 


283, 272 


1,741 


> For depths greater than 35 feet. 
2 Not available. 

Reference: National Estuarine Inventory 

Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

















253 

Physical modification of estuarine systems may enhance the useful- 
ness of the biophysical environment. In fact, many modifications are 
made deliberately to improve or protect an estuary for a specific use, 
but often without consideration of the effects on other uses. The side 
effects of such modifications may be good or bad, depending on local 
conditions. For example, the piers and abutments that support bridges 
are frequently excellent fishing grounds, yet the same piers can have 
adverse eft'ects on water movement. 

A Public Health Service study of Great South Bay on Long Island, 
N. Y,, in 1961 found that water circulation west of the Bay Bridge was 
greatly restricted, dye tracers showed that the bridge piers acted as a 
partial barrier to water movement. Figure IV.5.12 (see p. 254) shows 
the Bay Bridge and schematically illustrates the movement of dye 
near the bridge. This study concluded that the restricted circulation 
west of the Bay Bridge was a contributing factor to the degradation 
of water quality in this area ( IV-5-3 ) . 

The insidtious nature of environmental damage associated with phys- 
ical modification makes it difficult to assess and predict the effects of 
specific physical changes on the estuarine environment. Three examples 
of the results of physical modification illustrate how flow regulation 
can damage an estuary, what the results of progressive filling can do, 
and how physical modification can improve the environment. 

Charleston Harbor^ South Carolina 

As part of the national plan to minimize unemployment during the 
depression of the 1930's, the South Carolina Public Service Authority 
was formed. Its purpose was to build a large dam, water supply, flood 
control, navigation, and recreation complex that would generate em- 
ployment opportunity. This complex, called the Santee-Cooper project, 
involved the diversion of the Santee River into the Cooper River 
through Lake Marion and Lake Moultrie. The outflow from Lake 
Moultrie would go through a hydroelectric plant into the Cooper 
River. In addition to the creation of large recreation lakes the project 
would open a navigation channel to Columbia, S.C. It was felt the 
increased flow in the Cooper River would benefit Charleston Harbor, 
because it would help flush pollutants from the harbor and improve 
water quality (fig. IV.5.13). 

The project was completed and placed in operation in 1942. By 1947, 
shoaling rates in the harbor had increased to the point where dredging 
was a full-time operation. Hydraulic model studies found the answer 
to the increased channel maintenance : the higher fresh water inflow 
had markedly increased salinity stratification and resulted in the for- 
mation of a salt wedge. Particles were entrapped in the wedge, and 
deposition of sediments increased. 

The intended modification changed the circulation patterns and, in- 
stead of improving conditions in the harborj created more serious 
problems. There is now a recommendation to divert the flow back into 
the Santee. The net longrun effect, regardless of the outcome of this 
recommendation, will be the complete alteration of two estuarine 
systems with an unknown total effect on the ecosystem (IV-5-^). 

San Francisco Bay^ Calif. 

San Francisco Bay is the largest of all natural harbors on the Pacific 
coast south of Puget Sound (%. IV. 5. 14). The fresh water inflow to 



FIGURE IV.5.12 



254 



WATER MOVEMENT NEAR A PIER BRIDGE, 
GREAT SOUTH BAY, LONG ISLAND, N.Y. 






TOP: DYE MOVEMENT THROUGH THE BAY BRIDGE ON 

A WINDLESS EBB TIDE. GREATEST WATER DEPTH 
NEAR THE BRIDGE WAS 9 FEET. 

BOTTOM: RECENT PHOTOGRAPH OF BAY BRIDGE. NOTE 

THAT DYE MOVEMENT WAS DIRECTLY TOWARD 
THE OPEN PART OF THE BRIDGE. (SECOND BRIDGE 
WAS BUILT AFTER THE 1961 DYE STUDY). 



255 

San Francisco Bay is primarily the drainage from the Central Valley 
of California; the Sacramento River from the north and the San 
Joaquiin from the south form a huge rich delta which is connected to 
the bay. The overall size not including the tidal delta area is about 435 
square miles at mean high water. 

In 1850, when California was admitted to the Union, San Francisco 
Bay was even larger than it is today. More than 300 square miles of 
marshlands along its shores gave it the appearance of being extraor- 
dinarily vast, particularly during maximum spring tides when the 
bay waters flooded far inland, drowning all but the tips of reeds and 
marsh grasses. Since those early days more than 240 sc[uarB miles of the 
salt marshes have been reclaimed, chiefly for agriculture and salt 
ponds. In addition, approximately 17 square miles of tidal and sub- 
merged lands have been filled, mostly along the waterfronts of San 
Francisco, Oakland, and Richmond; in Richardson and San Rafael 
Bays in Marin County ; and along the northern bayshore of San Mateo 
County. And yet the bay still seems so immense that it intrigues many 
minds with the possibilities of reclaiming additional square miles for 
industrial and residential developments, recreation areas, airports, 
highways, and commercial establishments. 

Tlie bay presents few obstacles to reclamation through land fill. It 
is shallow throughout much of its area, with 80 percent of the water 
less than 30 feet deep and 70 percent less than 18 feet deep at low-tide 
references. About 248 square miles of tidal and submerged lands in the 
bay are still susceptible to reclamation. If these areas were filled and 
used for urban purposes, only 187 square miles of the bay would re- 
main as deepwater channels for ships and many portions of the bay 
would be reduced almost to rivers. 

This example shows the magnitude of reclamation that can occur 
without consideration of future consequences. A total damage assess- 
ment has not been made, but there has been a drastic decline or elimina- 
tion of clam and shrimp fishing within the bay. When nursery areas 
of the size of San Francisco Bay are damaged this damage must be 
reflected in the life of the adjacent coastal waters (IV-5-5) . 

Mission Bay^ San Diego^ Calif. 

Mission Bay in California is one of the better examples of deliberate 
modification to intensify use. In fact, this unique case demonstrates 
what can be accomplished through coordinated Federal, State, and 
local planning and construction. The end result has added considerable 
value to the community and has preserved a portion of the estuarine 
environment in a metropolitan area (fig. IV.5.15). 

Mission Bay and San Diego Bay lie in the delta of the San Diego 
River. Prior to about 1825 the river would switch channels and flow 
into one or the other, depending on the whims of nature. Between 1826 
and 1877, history shows the San Diego River channel emptying into 
San Diego Bay. Since San Diego Bay was one of the best natural 
harbors on the Pacific coast, the shipping interests became very con- 
cerned over the sediment load deposited in the harbor. It was felt that, 
if this sedimentation process were not controlled, the bay would be 
come too shallow for navigation. 

Consequently, in 1877 the San Diego River was permanently di- 
verted into Mission Bay. The period from 1900 to 1950 was one of 



256 

exceptional growth for southern California. Private and Federal de- 
velopments in the San Diego Bay portion of the delta were of sufficient 
magnitude to warrant flood control works on the river. Subsequently, 
a separate flood control channel, which empties into the ocean, was 
built for the San Diego Eiver, and some navigation dredging was done 
in Mission Bay. 

During the same period of time (1900-1959), changes were occur- 
ring in Mission Bay. In 1929, California incorporated Mission Bay 
into its State park system. In 1945, title to the tidelands and sub- 
merged lands was granted to the city of San Diego. The city passed a 
$2 million bond issue for improvement of Mission Bay. It also coop- 
erated with the Corps of Engineers, complying with all conditions 
necessary to obtain a multipurpose flood control and navigation project 
for the San Diego Eiver and Mission Bay. 

Since 1946, the venture has accomplished a completely separate flood 
channel for the San Diego River, a superbly planned recreational 
development in Mission Bay including private investments totaling 
over $22,500,000 for support and service facilities, an orderly preser- 
vation of habitat necessary for coastal fisheries, and open- water recre- 
ation areas with water quality sufficiently high for all water-contact 
sports. The bay has been zoned for various activities, banks have been 
stabilized, and beaches have been created. All of this area is just a few 
minutes drive from the center of San Diego. 

The total dredging effort in Mission Bay since 1946 has cost over 
$6,500,000 and over 9,500,000 cubic yards of material have been 
removed. Mission Bay stands today as a shining example of what 
determined community effort can achieve (IV-5-6, IV-5-7). 

Section 2. Sources of Poixution 

Nearly all of man's activities can result in environmental degrada- 
tion. The pollutants and polluting conditions outlined in the preceding 
section are rarely unique to a particular use or specific activity, but 
they result from man's existence in the estuarine zone as well as his 
use of it. The major sources of pollution described in this section fall 
into three broad categories : 

(1) Those sources associated with the extent of development of the 
estuarine zone, including waste discharges from municipalities and 
industries, and land runoff from urban and agricultural land. 

(2) Those sources associated with particular activities of great pol- 
lutional significance, specifically dredging and filling, watercraft op- 
eration, underwater mining, and heated effluent discharges. 

(3) External sources having impact derived through flow regula- 
tion and upstream water quality. 

MUNICIPAL WASTES 

Over 8 billion gallons of municipal wastes are discharged daily into 
the waters of the estuarine zone. While most of this volume is domestic 
sewage, many municipal waste discharges also contain significant 
amounts of industrial wastes, which may add to their variability and 
complexity. 



257 

Municipal waste discharge have four important effects on receiving- 
water quality: 

(1) The decomposable organic matter of municipal Vt^aste dis- 
charge exerts a demand on the oxygen resources of the receiving 
water. This demand can result in depletion of dissolved oxygen 
to the point where desirable biota cannot tolerate the environ- 
ment ; they disappear or are killed. Complete depletion can result 
in noxious odors with destruction of esthetic values. 

(2) Municipal wastes may contain pathogenic organisms dan- 
gerous to human beings. The colif orm bacteria measurement is an 
index of the possible presence of pathogens. The basic premise is 
that if fecal indicator organisms are present, there is a high prob- 
ability of pathogens being present; this condition is a public 
health hazard for anyone ingesting or contacting the water. There 
are many documented cases of waterborne epidemics and water- 
transmitted diseases to support the health hazard premise. 

(3) The sett] cable material in municipal wastes may be de- 
posited on the bottom, resulting in large sludge banks of organic 
content. These sludge banks can also deplete the oxygen resources 
through biochemical reactions. The suspended materials, if suffi- 
cient in quantity, can reduce the depth to which sunlight pene- 
trates, altering that portion of the ecosystem dependent upon 
photosynthetic activity. 

(4) Dissolved salts can make the water less desirable for other 
uses and the fertilizer or nutrient portions are sometimes impli- 
cated in stimulating nuisance growths of algae and other aquatic 
plants. These aquatic growths in an enriched stream can cause 
severe fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentrations and can 
interfere with other legitimate uses. 

Table IV.5.5 summarizes municipal waste discharge volumes into 
the biophysical regions. While the Middle Atlantic region has by far 
the largest volume of municipal waste discharge, the potential impact 
on the estuarine zone is greatest in both the Pacific Southwest and in 
the Pacific islands because of the small estuarine water areas in these 
two regions. This potential impact is lessened by the ability to use deep 
ocean outfalls, an approach made practicable by the narrow Conti- 
nental Shelf in these regions. 

TABLE IV.5.5— MUNICIPAL WASTE DISCHARGES IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 



Biophysical region 

North Atlantic 

Middle Atlantic 

Chesapeake Bay _ _ 

South Atlantic ._. 

Caribbean 

Gulf of Mexico.-- _ 

Pacific Southwest 

Pacific Northwest 

Alaska - --- 

Pacific Islands (Hawaii only) - - 

Total - - -, 8,300 50 180,000 

^ Based on 150 gallons per capita per day of total population in standard metropolitan statistical areas, 1965. 
2 Data from USDI, FWPCA, "Cost of Clean Water, 1969." 
^ Not available. 





Percent of 


Voluftie 




sewered 


per 




population 


square 


Total 


with 


mile of 


volume of 


secondary 


estuarine 


municipal 


treatment, 


area 


wastes 1 


1968 J 


(gals./day) 


550 


25 


160, 000 


3,500 


60 


680, 000 


640 


90 


140, 000 


270 


75 


70, 000 


160 


(3) 


220, 000 


760 


75 


70, 000 


1,900 


30 


2, 380, 000 


390 


50 


200, 000 


13 


25 
25 


1,000 


85 


5, 700, 000 







258 



Sewage treatment reduces and alters the impact of municipal waste 
on the environment. Primary treatment with chlorination removes 
part of the decomposable organic material, removes nearly all of the 
settleable and suspended solids, and almost eliminates the possibility 
of pathogens in the effluent. Secondary treatment can almost eliminate 
decomposable organic material, and some special processes can elim- 
inate certain dissolved salts. About half the municipal wastes dis- 
charged to estuarine waters receives secondary treatment, with the 
most extensive use of secondary treatment being in the Chesapeake 
Bay estuarine region. 

INDUSTRIAL WASTES 

Associated with the major metropolitan developments are large 
numbers of industrial complexes with their attendant waste products. 
Many of these wastes, especially from the chemical and petroleum in- 
dustries, are so complicated that it is difficult both to identify them and 
to assess their effects on the receiving streams. 

Table IV.3.2 gives a summary of the major manufacturing indus- 
tries in the estuarine zone. Table IV.5.6 presents the basic character- 
istics of wastes from each major industrial category. Table IV.5.7 
and table IV.5.8 show the waste discharges and levels of waste treat- 
ment associated with this industrial development. 

Table IV. 5. 6. — Pollution characteristics of industrial waste 

Origin of major waatea 

Powerplant, stack washing, leaching from 
ashes, lubrication and hydraulic oil spil- 
lage, surface cleaning, treating and 
painting, plating operations, trimming 
and buffing operations, milling with cut- 
ting oils. Repair and rework operations. 

Washing of raw products, slaughtering, 
separation of skins, peels, pits, scales, 
feathers and other inedible fractions of 
crude products, rendering of fats, blanch- 
ing, cooking operation, curing and pick- 
ling operations, byproducts of too little 
value to market, spills, floor and equip- 
ment cleaning, diffusion extraction opera- 
tion, wet grinding operations, steep tank 
liquors, still bottoms and cooling water. 

Mainly dry operations, some incidental 
cleanup operations. 

Wool scouring, desizing operations, clean- 
ing, dyeing and bleaching. 

Dry operations. 



Type of industry 
Ordnance and accessories. 



Food and kindred products. 



Tobacco manufactures. 
Textile mUl products.. 



Apparel and other finished prod- 
ucts made from fabrics and 
similar materials. 

Lumber and wood products, ex- 
cept furniture. 



Furniture and fixtures. 



Leaching of logs being floated to mills and 
held in ponds for milling. Sawdust is 
potentially a heavy polluting agent if 
disposed so that it is washed into surface 
waters by storm runoff or if stored so that 
leachate reaches surface waters. Preserva- 
tives and glues. 

Water curtain utilized to pick up waste 
from varnishing, painting, and finishing 
operations. 



J 



259 



Table IV.5.6. — Pollution characteristics of industrial waste — Continued 



Type of industry 
Paper and allied products. 



Printing, publishing, and allied 

industries. 
Chemicals and allied products.. 



Petroleum refining and related in- 
dustries. 



Rubber and miscellaneous plastic 
products. 



Leather and leather products . 



Stone, clay, glass, and concrete prod- 
ucts. 

Primary metal industries 



Fabricated metal products, except 
ordnance, machinery, and trans- 
portation equipment. 



Machinery except electrical. 



Origin of major wastes 

Pulping operations, including leaching of 
logs and chips, chemical pulping treat- 
ments, and bleaching operations. De- 
barking processes. Condensate from re- 
agent recovery evaporators. Disposed 
fibers from papermaking. Glue, ink, and 
coloring agent spills. Heavy contamina- 
tion from production of naval stores. 

Mainly dry operation. Some waste from 
glueing and preparation of plates. 

Bleeding of recycle streams to avoid buildup 
of impurities, wet scrubbing of stacks and 
condenser exhausts, side reactions in 
many processes, acid, alkaline and 
organic extraction agents, impurities in 
raw materials, catalysts, unreacted mono- 
mers and other feed reagents, stabilizers, 
contaminated cooling water, dispersing 
agents, spent culture media, cleanup, and 
spills. 

Crude oil and process brines, cooling water 
from heat exchangers. Leaky heat ex- 
change equipment. Side reaction products 
from cracking and synthesizing opera- 
tions. Fractions that escape collection by 
distillation columns. Stack washing, 
storage tank drainoff and spills. 

Most processes dry. Cooling water used in 
considerable quantity. Acid or alkali di- 
gestion of reclaimed rubber and washing 
of digested product. Acid, salt, and alcohol 
coagulants for latex processes. Wash 
water for latex processes. Lubricating and 
hydraulic oil spills. Reagent spills and 
cleanup operations. Latex and reclaim 
processes greatest polluters. 

Wastes occur almost exclusively in tanning 
and finishing operation. Salting of hides, 
leachate and scraping from hides, green 
fleshing, unhairng, bating, pickling, de- 
greasing and tanning. 

Grading of sand, clay and other mined com- 
ponents is ma^or waste-water contami- 
nation source. 

Cleaning and pickling acids. Various clean- 
ing solutions and detergents. Oils for 
forming operations. Coke quenching and 
stack washing water, cooling water, 
molding and ore sands, machining opera- 
tions. Leaching agents for ores, flotation 
process, ore purifying. 

Lubricating and hydraulic oil spills from 
processing equipment. Machining opera- 
tions, flue gas washing, metal cleaning 
operations, paint spraying operation, 
electroplating anodizing. 

Water wash of stacks, blowdown of boiler, 
cooling tower residues, ion exchange 
wastes, drainage from cinder and ash 
dumps, cutting oils, lubricating com- 
pound spills and rinse, hydraulic oil 
leaks, sand blast dusts, dispersions, metal 
chips, metal surface cleaners, corrosion 
prevention reagents, painting and plating 
operations. 



260 

Table IV.5.6. — Pollution characteristics of industrial waste — Continued 

Type of industry Origin of major wastes 

Machinery, equipment, and sup- Metal forming operations, metal cleaning, 
plies. plating and painting operations. Cutting 

and drilling of insulators. 
Transportation equipment Stack washing, cutting oils, spills of lubri- 
cating oils and hydraulic oils, pickling and 
cleaning operations, plating operations, 
cooling water, blowdown of boilers, cor- 
rosion protection, painting operations, 
and sanding. 



Major wastes characteristics 



Treatment 



Suspended solids as fly ash, metal 
powder, paint solids, domestic 
wastes and miscellaneous cleanup 
solids. Cutting, lubricating and 
hydraulic oils. Detergents and 
organic cleaning agents. Cyanide 
and heavy metals. 

Heat, high BOD and suspended 
solids, detergents, nitrogenous 
substances, fat, organic acids, 
salts, large operations cause severe 
nuisance growth; animal path- 
ogenic hazard. 

Minor problem 

High BOD, heat and suspended 
solids, acids, bases, bleaching 
agents, detergents and dyes with 
high coloring activity. Many 
waste components have biocidal 
action. 

Very little water pollution 

Large amount of BOD in leachate 
from logs and from sawdust. 
Some biocidal contiminant in 
leachate and in preservative spills. 

Solvents, pigment, varnish solids. 
High BOD and biocidal compo- 
nents. 

very high suspended solids, BOD, 
heat, oil, acid, alkali, color and 
biocidal component problem. The 
volume is large and treatment 
difficult. 

Some BOD glueing and acidic metal 
solutions from plate preparation. 
Very limited source of cyanide 
from plating operations. 

Acids, alkalies, salts, flammable and 
biocidal organic compounds in 
great variety, suspended solids, 
oils, phosphorous, sulfides, cya- 
nides, heavy metals detergents, 
elastomer dispersions and fluo- 
rides. High BOD loads. 



Plant control. Oil separators, flocculation 
and sediment action. Cooling systems. 
Buffer lagoons. Aerobic biological treat- 
ment. Use of municipal system. 



Process control, keeping water use at a 
minimum and exclusion from waste- 
water screens, fat separators, sedimenta- 
tion, biological treatment and municipal 
plants, separation of solids for landfill or 
barging to sea, disinfection. 

Municipal plants. 

Process control, physical, chemical biologi- 
cal, particularly activated sludge and 
aerated lagoon. Municipal plants. 



Municipal plants. 
Process control. 



Process control chemical, sedimentation, 
boi-oxidative, municipal plants. 

Process control, chemical precipitation, neu- 
tralization, sedimentation and centrif- 
ugation. All types of biological treatment. 
Lagoons, landfill and irrigation. Con- 
trolled discharge on outgoing tides. 

Process control, chemical, physical, munici- 
pal plants. 



Process control, chemical, neutralization, 
oxidation, precipitation, sedimentation, 
oil separation, bio-oxidative treatment 
with adapted systems, particularly acti- 
vated sludged and aerated lagoons. Many 
wastes require isolation and special treat- 
ment. Buffer lagoons help handle difficult 
loads. Buring of separated solids or oils. 



261 

Table IV.5.6. — Pollution characteristics of industrial waste — Continued 



Major wastes characteristics 



Treatment 



Various oily components. Phenolic 
compounds. Sour waters contain- 
ing sulfides and mercaptans. 
Ammonia. Cyanide. Pyridine. 
Spent caustic solutions. Various 
detergents. Hot streams. Various 
sludge components. Chromates. 
Biocidal agents. Chemicals that 
cause fish flavors, a major waste- 
water problem. 

Large quantity of hot water. Sulfur 
zinc compounds and wide variety 
of biocidal organic compounds. 
Organic acids and BOD compo- 
nents. Discoloration from carbon 
black. Detergents and suspended 
solids. 

Salt, animal fluids, proteinaceous 
compounds, fat, suspended flesh, 
sulfide and ammonium salts, de- 
tergents, organic solvents, vege- 
table and chrome tanning agents. 
Very high BOD and nusiance pro- 
motion components. Components 
with biqcidal action. 

Suspended solids from mineral grad- 
ing in large quantity, when min- 
ing associated with manufacture. 
Small amount of suspended solids 
from grinding and cutting opera- 
tions. 

Fly ash, metal chips and powder, 
iron salt solutions, acids, bases, 
chromium, variety of organic 
chemicals, cyanide, oils, deter- 
gents, sulfides, ammonia, fluorides 
and heat. Volume hugh. 



Oils, metals powder and chips, de- 
tergents, paint solvent and solids, 
chromic acid, phosphoric acid, 
cyanide and heavy metals. 

Suspended solids, oils, detergents, 
acidic metal salts, organic sol- 
vents, cyanide, ammonia, fluor- 
ide, phenolic compounds, phos- 
phoric and chromic acids. Many 
substances unfavorable to aquatic 
organisms. 

Metal chips and powder, other sus- 
pended solids, oils, acides, deter- 
gents, cyanide, heavy metals, 
paint solvents and solids. These 
industries are not regarded as 
heavy polluters but carry on oper- 
ations that consistently lead to 
polluted water. Plating baths are 
a serious hazard and demand close 
control. 



Physical, chemical, oxidation, cooling, neu- 
tralization, oil separation, sedimentation, 
bio-oxidation in adapted systems, partic- 
ularly activated sludge and aerated la- 
goons. Flotation, electrostatic separators 
and centrifugation. 



Process control, physical, acclimated bio- 
oxidative system. 



Process control, chemical coagulation, sedi- 
mentation, bio-oxidative treatments. 



Sedimentation. 



Process control, chemical, physical neutral- 
ization, precipitation, oil separation, flo- 
tation, magnetic separation, acclimated 
bio-oxidative systems particularly acti- 
vated sludge and aerated lagoons. High 
speed mills and deteriorating ore quahty 
leading to more waste. Deep wells. No 
separation of fluorides. 

Process control, chemical, sedimentation, 
oil separation, bio-oxidation, municipal 
plants. 

Process control, chemical, oil separation, 
sedimentation, bio-oxidation, municipal 
plant. 



Process control, double tanking of cyanide 
baths, chemical, oil separation, sedimen- 
tation, bio-oxidation and municipal plants. 



262 

Table IV.5.6. — Pollution characteristics of industrial waste — Continued 



Ma or wastes characteristic 



Treatment 



Oils, metal chips, detergents, acids, 
iron salts, cyanide, heavy metals, 
fly ash, paint solvent and soUds 
and alkaline waste. Many com- 
ponents with biocidal activity. 



Process control, chemical, physical sedi- 
mentation, oil emulsion, breaking and 
separation, special isolation and destruc- 
tion of cyanide wastes. Bio-oxidative 
treatment with acclimated systems. 



TABLE IV.5.7.-INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISCHARGES IN COASTAL STATES, 1963 





Total waste discharge 


Treated waste discharge 


Untreated waste discharge 


Totel 




Number 


Volume 


Number 


Volume 


Number 


Volume 


treated 


State 


plants 


(m.g.d.) 


plants 


(m.g.d.) 


plants 


(m.g.d.) 


(percent) 


Maine 


64 


447 


21 


55 


43 


392 


12 


New Hampshire 


40 


96 


12 


14 


28 


82 


15 


Massachusetts 


304 


395 


78 


44 


226 


351 


11 


Rhode Island 


67 
209 


44 
319 


11 
65 


8 
25 


56 
144 


36 
294 


18 


Connecticut 


8 


New York! 


565 


1,559 


176 


578 


389 


981 


37 


New Jersey . 


421 

(2) 


1,082 
4,041 


148 
10 


361 
1,008 


273 

(2) 


721 
3,033 


33 


Pennsylvania' 


25 


Delaware.. 


45 


499 


21 


318 


24 


131 


71 


Maryland 


143 
147 


1,099 
753 


48 
69 


258 
189 


95 
78 


841 
564 


23 


Virginia. 


25 


District of Columbia 


'2) 


(2) 


(2) 


(2) 


(2) 


(2) 


(2) 


North Carolina 


238 
158 
200 


400 
277 
584 


86 
60 
58 


151 

38 

208 


152 
98 
142 


249 
239 
376 


38 


South Carolina 


14 


Georgia 


36 


Florida 


116 


630 


59 


219 


57 


411 


35 


Alabama 


154 


663 


44 


249 


110 


414 


38 


Mississippi... 


71 


178 


23 


66 


48 


112 


37 


Texas 


343 


3,986 


169 


737 


174 


3,249 


18 


Louisiana 


171 


2,310 


68 


819 


103 


1,491 


35 


California 


578 


857 


230 


526 


348 


331 


61 


Oregon 


(2) 


414 


49 


93 


(2) 


321 


22 


Washington 


(2) 


934 


(» 


296 


80 


638 


32 


Alaska 


(2) 


83 


(2) 


11 


(2) 


72 


13 


Hawaii 


(« 


279 


(2) 


41 


(2) 


238 


15 


Total 


4,034 


21,879 


1,505 


6,312 


2,668 


15,567 


29 



1 Includes some discharge to the Great Lakes and the Ohio River. 

2 No data av liable. 

Reference: National Estuarine inventory. 

Source: U.S. Oept of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 

Note: The establishments included in this table are those having water use of 20,000,000 gallons or more annually. This 
represents 97 percent of total industrial manufacturing water use. 



263 



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264 

These tables show industrial water use for the coastal States, not 
for the coastal counties only, but nearly all wastes discharged into 
the waters of these States ultimately reach estuarine waters. Only 
4,000 of the more than 200,000 manufacturing plants in the coastal 
States account for 97 percent of the total liquid wastes discharged. 
Of the nearly 22 billion gallons of industrial wastes discharged daily, 
only 29 percent receive any waste treatment. The Pacific Southwest 
biophysical region has the greatest percentage of industrial wastes 
treated, while the North Atlantic biophysical region has the least. 

Of the major water use industries shown in table IV.5.8. the petro- 
leum and coal products industries have the highest percentage of 
wastes treated and the chemical industries have the least. These five 
industrial groupings are responsible for 76 percent of the total volume 
of industrial wastes discharged in the coastal States. 

The primary metals and petroleum and coal products industries are 
centralized in the Middle Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific Southwest, and 
Pacific Northwest regions, but the other major water use industries 
are distributed throughout all regions. The kinds of wastes associated 
with food, paper, and chemical manufactures are therefore universal 
problems, while the other major industrial waste types concern only 
particular estuarine environments. 

This discussion considers only the volumes of wastes either treated 
or not treated; it does not consider the level of treatment provided. 
Some industrial wastes, including those from all major water use 
industries, require extensive treatment before disposal to the environ- 
ment. Others do not require anything other than settling and clari- 
fication. The percentages of wastes treated, however, do give an idea 
of relative concern for the environment expressed in action by the 
industrial and institutional communities. 

Desalination operations and the ever-growing nuclear power facili- 
ties are new kinds of industry representing potential environmental 
problems. Salt water conversion plants remove dissolved materials 
from water to make it fit for municipal consumption and industrial 
process use. In the case of sea water, where salt concentrations are as 
high as 33,000 mg/1, the purification of each million gallons of water 
results in a waste containing almost 300 pounds of impure salts. Nu- 
clear operations present a completely different problem — ^that of pro- 
tecting the environment from exposure to harmful ionizing radiatlion. 
Since environmental exposure must be held to a minimum, careful 
control and monitoring of existing and potential radiological waste 
sources are essential. 

DREDGING AND FILLING 

Intensification of use of the estuarine zone has resulted in many 
artificial changes being made in its physical structure. Shoreline areas 
have been filled to create more land area for residential and commer- 
cial use ; channels have been dredged and maintained to permit safer 
and better navigation; harbor facilities have been dredged; bridges 
and causeways have been built. All of these activities have impact on 
the coastal zone ecosystem, but the activities having the most impact 
on water quality are dredging and filling. The potential for pollution 
of the system exists in both filling and dredging; both can introduce 
foreign materials into the water, destroy aquatic habitat, and alter 



265 

physical circulation patterns. In the case of dredging, exposed bottom 
materials, if sufficiently high in organic content, can adversely affect 
oxygen resources. Disposal of dredged materials often creates another 
problem — unless the materials are used for land fill, dredged material 
creates water quality problems in the disposal area. 

The general magnitudes of dredging and filling activities are shown 
in tables IV.2.9 and IV.2.10. These generalities hide the slow attrition 
of estuarine areas by the small bulklieading, filling, and dredging 
activities associated with statistically small operations such as those 
associated with improvement of numerous private residences. Prob- 
ably few such operations create noticeable habitat damage, but the 
total effect in local areas may be severe over an extended period. 

HEATED WASTE DISCHARGES 

Waste heat is another type of pollutant that is discharged to the 
water environment as an expediency. Heat energy can be equally as 
dangerous to aquatic environment as the other more obvious forms of 
pollution. The primary source of heat energy is from industrial cool- 
ing water effluents. Table IV.5.9 is a summary of the cooling water 
use by industry for the United States. Power plants are the major 
users of cooling water in the estuarine zone as shown in table IV.2.7. 

Power generation capacity has approximately doubled each decade 
during this century. The impact of this growth on the estuarine areas 
is evidenced by the fact that in 1950 22 percent of the powerplants 
were in the coastal zone ; it is anticipated that over 30 percent of the 
plants will be located there in the late 1970's. 

The existing cooling water use and waste heat discharges are sum- 
marized in table IV.2.T. The contrasts among the various regions are 
related to differences in factors such as the degree of urbanization and 
industrialization and the availability of hydroelectric power. 

TABLE IV.5.9.— INDUSTRIAL USE OF COOLING WATER DURING 1964i 

Cooling water 
intake (billions 
Industry of gallons) Percent of tota I 

Electric power 

Primary metals 

Chemicals and allied products .:_ 

Petroleum and coal products.. 

Paper and allied products 

Food and kindred products ,.. 

Machinery 

Rubber and plastics 

Transportation equipment 

Another 

Total 50,065 100.0 

» Data from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "Census of Manufactures, Industrial Water Use," 1964. 
WATERCRAPT OPERATIGN" 

Estuarine areas are important highways of commerce; thousands 
of commercial vessels, foreign and domestic, from oceanliners to 
barges, traverse the coastal waterways each year. Added to this traffic 
are many of the 1,500 Federal vessels and many of nearly 8 million 
recreational vessels. All of these watercraft carry people and/or cargo. 



40,680 


81.3 


3,387 


6.8 


3,120 


6.2 


1,212 


2.4 


607 


1.2 


392 


.8 


164 


.3 


128 


.3 


102 


.2 


273 


.5 







266 

and they are a real or potential pollution source. Just based on an 
occupancy rate alone, the waterways of this Nation received untreated 
wastes from vessels equivalent to a city of 500,000. Added to these 
wastes are the many gallons of oils, bilge water, ballast water, wash 
water, chemicals, and accidental cargo spills. 

Recreational boat usage creates a somewhat different waste impact 
from that of commercial traffic. These craft are generally congregated 
near large population centers, and boat usage is most intense on the 
weekends when the boatowners have free time. In addition to the 
human waste and garbage, there are large quantities of unburnt fuel 
products exhausted from boats, particularly from the two-stroke cycle 
outboard motors (fig. IV.5.16). 

Figure IV.5.16 

INFLUENCE OF THE USE OF THE 
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE ON 
DIFFERENT MEDIA AND ON THE ESTUARIES 



_ Chemical Change 
Gaseous .——^——— "*"~"~Tk 



I Exhaust and 



Aquatic 




Estuaries 



Terrestrial 



267 



MINERAL EXPLOITATION 



Commercial exploitation of the mineral resources in estuarine areas 
is another potentially significant waste source. Three types of extrac- 
tive activities exist in the estuarine zone: (1) sub-bottom mining of 
sulfur and petroleum, (2) mining of materials such as sand, gravel, 
and oyster shell from the estuarine bottom, and (ii) mineral extraction 
directly from the water. Each creates a different water-quality 
problem. 

The sub-bottom operations, especially for petroleum, interfere with 
the aquatic habitat m several w^ays. In the exploration phase, the use 
of seismic explosions can be detrimental to the biota in the immediate 
vicinity. Drilling activities always present the potental threat of a 
blowout or rupture resulting in a wild well (fig. IV.5.17). Potential 
problems in the production phase include the possibility of collision 
or storm damage to the rig and the disposal of the oil well brine. 
Transportation of oil whether by ship or pipeline poses an additional 
pollution threat. 

In sulfur mining, the Frasch process is generally used; super- 
heated water (325° F.) is pumped into the sulfur formation and 
molten sulfur is pumped out. The bleedoff waters must be vented from 
the deposit, and these waters are highly saline with a rather high 
hydrogen sulfide content (fig. IV.5.18) . 

Both petroleum and sulfur mining cause a secondary impact due to 
the shoreline support facilities that accompany their development. 

The shoreline development creates problems similar to those dis- 
cussed under municipal and industrial waste sources. 

Mining from the estuary floor causes alteration of the estuarine 
shape and water circulation characteristics. A secondary effect is the 
turbidity problem associated with material removal. Mining of sand 
and gravel from the estuarine floor is universal, while oyster shell 
dredging in any great quantity is restricted to the gulf coast. These 
operations remove part of the estuarine floor with a concomitant de- 
struction of habitat and life. There are also great amounts of sus- 
pended and settleable solids frequently released in the water, from 
which they are redeposited in other places. Phosphate mining, common 
in North Carolina and Florida, may introduce nutrient phosphates 
and toxic fluorides into the water. 

Extraction of minerals from sea or estuarine water is the third type 
of mining activity. Minerals extracted include common salt, magnesium 
oxide, magnesium metal and bromine. Available information indicates 
that the pollutional impact of the water extraction process is 
insignificant. 

The extent of estuarine mining activities is shown in table IV.2.8. 
On a nationwide basis the subbottom mining industry is restricted to 
the Gulf coast of Texas and Louisiana, and the coasts of California and 
Alaska. Isolated areas of the other types of mining activity also are 
shown in the table. The economics of bottom mining and of water ex- 
traction compared to the availability of materials from other sources 
seems to preclude extensive development, except for materials such as 
sand and gravel. 



268 

FRESH WATER INFLOWS 

The quality of estuarine areas is dependent not only on direct waste 
sources but also on the quality of the streams and runoff entering the 
system. Tributary influent quality is generally a good index of the 
type and intensity of land use in the surrounding area and upstream 
from an estuarine system, and it can be a major cause of ecological 
stress within the system. The complex interactions between fresh and 
salt water may magnify the effects of pollutants carried into the tidal 
regime, resulting in quality anomalies completely alien to either fresh 
or oceanic environments. It is, therefore, imperative to examine the 
secondary or relatively uncontrollable pollutant source of tributary 
inflow. 

The first item to be considered is the quality of major rivers and 
streams entering the estuarine area. Many streams are subjected to 
various uses and abuses in their upstream reaches; by the time they 
reach the coastal area the full cumulative effects of pollution are ex- 
erted. If no regulatory actions were taken, there probably would be 
severe quality deterioration throughout the coastal regions of the 
country. However, the implementation of the water quality standards 
program through joint Federal -State effort has provided a two- 
pronged attack on pollution with two levels of regulatory power. Rigid 
enforcement of this program should result in a steady improvement 
of the quality of water entering the estuary systems. Table IV.5.10 
summarizes the tributary inflow quality from upstream pollution for 
selected streams entering the estuarine zone. These data are for the 
first station above tidal influence and show the baseline for manage- 
ment planning. These data may be contrasted with natural river water 
quality shown in table IV.1.8. 

TABLE IV.5.10.— EXAMPLES OF RIVER WATER QUALITY AS STREAMS ENTER THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

Biophysical 
region River Typical observed water quality conditions in inflowing river 

North Atlantic Merrimack Bacterial counts (MPN) above 1,000,000; dissolved oxygen (DO) 

below 50 percent saturation. 

Middle Atlantic Connecticut MPN above 10,000; DO near saturation. 

Chesapeake.. _._ Potomac MPN less than 1,000; DO near saturation; high turbidity during 

moderate to high flows. 
South Atlantic. Savannah High turbidity during moderate to high flows; high natural dissolved 

organic load, low DO. 

Caribbean.. _. Canals from Everglades High natural dissolved organic load; low DO. 

Gulf of Mexico Mobile __ MPN above 10,000. 

Pascagoula MPN above 10,000. 

Pearl High natural dissolved organic load, low DO. 

Pacific Southwest Russian MPN above 5,000. 

Pacific Northwest Willamette _ MPN above 10,000. 

Alaska Yukon.. Very high turbidity. 

The second item to consider is the quality of the inflow from land 
runoff". The pollutional potential of this source is dependent on land- 
use patterns, the rainfall-land runoff relationship, and rainfall inten- 
sity. If the land is essentially natural marshland or covered by natural 
vegetation, runoff does not pose a serious water quality problem. Run- 
oft' from agricultural land, however, can be a threat, depending upon 
the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides used and the degree 
to which the land can be eroded. If the land is urbanized with lar^e 
paved areas, the runoff can be up to twice as strong as normal domestic 



269 

sewage because of the oil and other materials carried from the streets 
andyards(fiff.IV.5.18). 

Figure I vTl.lS shows the seasonal variation in precipitation for 
selected coastal stations. This figure shows a rather varied distribution 
of precipitation throughout the national coastal areas and indicates the 
seasons when runoff could present problems. 

In addition to the pollutants carried in the runoff, the fresh water 
itself may stress the ecosystem through dilution of the salinitv to con- 
centrations lower than those necessary to support some life forms. A 
case in point is the annual killing of aquatic vegetation in Tampa Bay 
with the onset of summer rains (fig. IV.5.19) . 

Last in runoff consideration is the degree of flow regulation or water 
resource development upstream from the tidal environment. These 
upstream impoundments, with the attendant flow regulation, may have 
both beneficial and detrimental effects. The reservoirs can serve as 
equalizing basins, providing a rather constant quality of estuarine 
fresh water inflow. The difference between regulated flows and nat- 
ural flows however, may cause ecological stress through alteration of 
the salinity regime or the circulation patterns. Table IY.2.11 is a com- 
pilation of flow regulation structures on major estuarine streams. 

Section 3. Extent of Pollution Effects 

Environmental damage from human activities manifests itself in 
changes in water quality and in changes in living communities. Either 
or both may be caused by any of the kinds of pollution or sources of 
pollution already discussed. 

This section contains separate discussions of degradation of water 
quality and damage to living communities, but water quality is an 
integral part of estuarine ecosystems and changes in one are usually 
reflected in the other. An accurate and thorough analysis of the re- 
lationship of pollution to environmental damage must recognize these 
related factors. The compartmentation of discussion in this section is 
necessary because water quality studies and ecological studies are 
rarely conducted simultaneously in the same system. This situation, 
indeed, is one major existing deficiency in the present approach toward 
study of the estuarine environment. 

degradation of water QUALII*r 

One key to the degree of environmental impact is measurement of 
alteration in water quality. Extensive data have been collected on a 
few of the estuaries with the most severe problems, and limited in- 
formation is available on other estuarine systems to outline the emer- 
gence, or document the existence, of water quality problems. For the 
majority of the Nation's estuarine systems, however, there are little 
or no data to describe existing water quality conditions. 

The northeastern coast of the United States is the most intensively 
used and the best studied part of the estuarine resource (fig. IV.5.21) . 
From the Virginia-North Carolina border to the tip of Maine there are 
10 Coastal States encompassing 15 major estuarine systems and har- 
boring an estimated 1966 population of 45,416,000. Economic develop- 
ment includes a wide variety of commercial, industrial, and 
governmental activities. Nearly all waste products from this all- 



270 



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271 

encompassing megalopolis are discharged to the estuarine systems. The 
Chesapeake Bay system, which is one of the largest estuarine com- 
plexes in the country, has many areas of water quality impact. The 
problems in the Potomac River downstream from the Nation's Capital 
are documented by numerous scientific studies. Pollution in Baltimore 
Harbor and noxious conditions in the James River have been recorded 
in detail. (IV-5-10) 

Tlie Delaware River and Bay system has been the subject of consid- 
erable study for the development of a water quality restoration pro- 
gram. Likewise Boston Harbor, Penobscot Bay, New York Harbor, and 
Narragansett Bay have been studied in detail to quantify water quality 
changes and to provide a technical base for developing remedial 
measures. 

The estuarine zones along the coast from North Carolina to southern 
Florida have not been studied as extensively as those in the northeast 
(fig. IV.5.21) . Except for Charleston Harbor and the Savannah River, 
little concerted effort has been expended in documenting quality 
changes. The rapid growth of the Miami area is focusing attention on 
the estuarine waters of southern Florida. The water quality of estu- 
aries of the U.S. Gulf coast is well-defined by field investigation only 
in several critical problem areas. Tampa Bay, the Mississippi Delta to 
a lesser extent, the Houston ship channel, and parts of Laguna Madre 
in Texas, have been investigated from the water quality standpoint. 

The geomorphology of the Pacific coast is different from that of the 
AtlantJic and Gulf (f%. IV.5.21) . The coast, for the most part, is com- 
posed of steep rocky bluffs with little or no beach. The estuaries are 
natural watercourses cut through bluffs and are generally enclosed to 
some degree by an oceanward sandbar. Because of this rugged coast- 
line, intense urbanization has occurred only near the major estuarine 
systems that form natural harbors. This unique settlement pattern has 
been reflected in the concentration of estuarine water quality work 
along the Pacific coast. Systems such as San Diego Bay, San Pedro 
Bay, Santa Monica Bay, Monterey Bay, San Francisco Bay, and Puget 
Sound have been studied rather intensely, to either define localized 
problems, or to reflect long term degradation. Examples are the studies 
of San Diego Bay that led to the construction of a metro-sewage sys- 
tem with disposal through a deep ocean outfall ; investigations of pulp 
and paper industrial pollution of Puget Sound ; studies of the effects 
on the Columbia River of radioactive wastes from Hanf ord, Wash. ; 
and the effect of agricultural drainage from the Central Valley of 
California on San Francisco Bay. 

Most of the estuarine zones of Alaska are still unknown quantities 
from the water quality standpoint (fig. IV.5.24). Pollution has made 
some impact on isolated areas but the degree of damage is not well- 
documented. In Hawaii the situation is very similar. Except for Pearl 
Harbor and Kaneohe Bay there is an extreme paucity of data on the 
estuarine areas. Guam, Samoa, and the Virgin Islands have not yet 
felt intense development. Tlie potential of these areas is still to be ex- 
plored. The scope of existing water quality problems as well as extent 
of water quality change is not known. Puerto Rico has development 
concentrated in separated coastal areas. San Juan Harbor has been 
studied rather extensively and is in poor water quality condition (fig. 
IV.5.21). Pollution surveys have also been carried out in the estuaries 



272 

serving other coastal cities such as Ponce, Mayagiiez, Arecibo, Fajardo, 
and Aguadilla which all have sufficient populations to create estuarine 
pollution problems. 

The great variety of kinds of pollution and the different ways in 
which the many components of waste materials interact with the 
estuarine environment to damage water quality preclude the choice of 
a single parameter to define the overall extent of water quality deg- 
radation. Damage to water quality can be a direct and obvious thing 
such as paper and solids from a sewage discharge (fig. IV.5.25) or 
as subtle and invisible as the pathogenic organisms which may accom- 
pany it. 

Table IV.5.11 lists some estuarine systems with severely degraded 
water quality. While not exhaustive, this list shows the extent of water 
quality degradation in many of the estuarine systems of the United 
States, and it gives a general appreciation of the kinds of water 
quality damage that now exist. The data in this table show only that 
water quality degradation exists in the estuarine systems listed. In 
many cases the data available are not sufficient to determine specific 
sources of the pollution or how to correct it. 

DAMAGE TO ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEMS 

Pollutional damage to estuarine ecosystems may be sudden and dra- 
matic as fish or other aquatic life forms suddenly dying, or it may be so 
gradual as not to be noticed for many years. 

Fish kills such as those shown in figure IV.5.26 are readily apparent 
even to the casual observer; their causes are sometimes not so easy to 
determine. Industrial wastes appear to be responsible for the majority 
of fish kills in 1966, the last year for which data are available, with 
food processing being the most common industrial activity responsible. 
The estuarine brackish and salt waters, however, had less than 1 per- 
cent of the fish casualties reported ; probably one reason is the enor- 
mous volume of waters available for dilution of waste discharges 
(IV-5-11). 

The effects of physical destruction of habitat are also easy to assess, 
at least in terms of the immediate damage caused. The more subtle 
related effects of damage to organisms dependent indirectly on the 
habitat for food supply are more difficult, sometimes impossible, to 
determine. 

Many studies of different aspects of estuarine biology have been 
made, but there are only a very few cases in which comprehensive eco- 
logical studies have been made of pollutional effects. The available in- 
formation on the extent of ecological damage is summarized in table 
IV.5.12. The information base for this table is exceedingly sparse: 
most studies were done when there was apparently some damage or 
other kind of ecological problem. Therefore, it is not possible to say 
whether 38 percent of the Nation's estuarine systems are undamaged 
or merely present no identifiable problems at this time (IV-5-10). 

The estuarine systems of the Middle Atlantic biophysical region 
have suffered the most damage; 83 percent exhibit some ecological 
damage, but only in a few cases is the extent known in any quantifiable 
sense. The Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico regions have the larg- 
est numbers of heavily damaged systems, probably because of the in- 
tensity of use of the estuarine systems in these regions. Forty percent 



273 




274 

of the estuaries of the Pacific southwest region are heavily damaged ; 
this reflects the intensive development of the relatively few estuarine 
systems of this region. 

TABLE IV.5.11.— SOME ESTUARINE SYSTEMS WITH DEGRADED WATER QUALITY i 



Major source of water quality degradation 2 



Biophysical region 



Low dissolved 
oxygen (under 
50- percent 
saturation) 



Bacterial 
contamination 
(over 1,000 m.p.n. 
total) 



Other 



North Atlantic: 

Penobscot Bay X 

Salem, Marblehead, Nahant Bays X 

Boston Harbor. X 

Middle Atlantic: 

Providence River - X 

Connecticut River 

Port Chester, Stamford X 

Moriches Bay 

New York Harbor X 

Raritan Bay 

Cape May Inlet X 

Delaware River X 

Chesapeake Bay: 

James River X 

Potomac River X 

Baltimore Harbor X 

Choptank River .-- X 

South Atlantic: 

Cooper River (Charleston, S.C). X 

Savannah River X ' 

Altamaha River 

St. Johns River X 

Caribbean: 

Upper Biscayne Bay.. X 

San Juan Harbor X 

Gulf of Mexico: 

Tampa Bay X 

St. Joseph Bay X 

Pensacola Bay X 

Mobile Bay X 

Mississippi River 

Galveston Bay.. X 

Matagorda Bay 

Corpus Christi Bay 

Laguna Madre X 

Pacific Southwest: 

San Francisco Bay... 

Monterey Harbor 

Los Angeles Harbor X 

San Diego Bay 

Pacific Northwest: 

Columbia River 

Elliot-Bellingham Bays (Puget Sound) X 

Alaska: Silver Bay X 

Pacific Islands: Hiio Harbor 



Toxic materials. 



Excess nutrients. 



Sedimentation. 



X 



Toxic materials. 
Sugarcane debris. 



' Inclusion in this table means only that there are zones within this system where water quality is degraded in the 
manner shown. It does not mean that the entire estuarine system is of degraded quality. The evaluations presented are 
based on water quality data in the National Estuarine Inventory and on additional reported data. 

- The most obvious and severe type or types of degradation are indicated; other forms of pollution may be present. 



275 

TABLE IV.5.12.— ECOLOGICAL DAMAGE IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE' 







Extent of damage 






No damage or 
no information 






Heavy 


Moderate 






Biophysical region 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Number 1 


'ercent 


Total 


North Atlantic 


5 


8 
21 
25 
14 

4 

30 
40 
10 

2 
12 


34 

68 

61 

35 

18 

102 

13 

24 

5 

5 




56 
62 
39 
44 
72 
48 
24 
40 
6 
16 


22 
19 
57 
34 
6 

47 
20 
30 
79 
23 


36 
17 
36 
42 
24 
22 
36 
50 
92 
72 


61 


Middle Atlantic 


23 


110 


Chesapeake Bay 

South Atlantic 


40 

11 


158 
80 


Caribbean.. 

Gulf of Mexico. 


1 
65 


25 
214 


Pacific Southwest. 


22 


55 


Pacific Northwest 


6 


60 


Alaska 

Pacific Isia nds 


2 

4 


86 
32 








Total 


179 


20 


365 




42 


337 


38 


881 



'Data from Reference IV.5.10. 

Section 4. Examples of Estuarine Systems Damaged by Pollution 

Even though water quality damage and ecological damage are dif- 
ficult to quantify in terms of exactly how much damage has been 
done and what was its cause, many estuarine systems have felt the 
deleterious impact of human exploitation. Examples showing the im- 
pact of one particular source of pollution or of one kind of pollutant 
are rare, because use of the estuarine resource is seldom confined to a 
single type of activity. The estuarine systems discussed here were 
chosen because one particular kind of poUutional situation or effect 
seems to dominate the environment ; but, nevertheless many other con- 
ditions contribute to the total environmental damage in each case. 

municipal wastes 
Raritmi Bay 

Raritan Bay between New York and New Jersey is a prime example 
of a polluted estuary surrounded by an intensively developed area 
(figure IV.5.27). The Raritan system, which is composed of the bay 
itself, the Raritan River, the Arthur Kill, and the Narrows receives 
approximately 1,500 million gallons of wastes per day which contain 
over 1,300,006 pounds of BOD. Although 75 percent of the waste 
volume is from industry, the major impact on the estuary is from the 
nutrient and bacteriological content of the municipal sewage. The 
densities of bacteriological indicator organisms along the shorelines 
of the bay and in the confluences of the tributary systems indicate 
gross contamination with human wastes, and the nutrient materials 
contributed by municipal sewage systems have been sufficient to upset 
the ecological balance in the system. 

In some portions of Arthur Kill and the Raritan River dissolved 
oxygen values reach zero in summer conditions, and the western part 
of Raritan Bay also has depleted dissolved oxygen. High photo- 
synthetic production by algae counteract these effects in the larger part 
of the bay itself. 

Coliform bacteria counts are high throughout much of the bay and 
have forced the closing of some public bathing beaches; dye tracer 
studies showed that unchlorinated human waste discharges from the 
upper bay (New York Harbor) reached beaches on Staten Island 



276 

within six hours. In 1961 an outbreak of infectious hepatitis was 
traced to raw shellfish taken from Raritan Bay in the areas within 
influence of these human wastes. 

The investigations of the Raritan system have been in progress for 
a sufficient length of time to document both the polluted conditions and 
the beginning of recovery due to the construction of pollution abate- 
ment facilites. Bacterial contamination still exists but the biological 
community is recovering to form a more diversified and stable aquatic 
population (IV-5-8). 

Potomac River^ D.C.^ Md.^ Va. 

The head of the Potomac estuary near Washington, D.C., is severely 
polluted by the municipal wastes of the Washington metropolitan 
area. Nowhere is there such a clear example of the effects of massive 
municipal waste discharges on an estuary. During the low flow periods 
of the warm summer months, dissolved oxygen levels approach zero in 
some reaches, being kept from total depletion by heavy production 
from large algae growths. The effects of these waste discharges are 
measurable along 20 miles of the river (IV-5-9). 

James River^ Va. 

Another example of sewage wastes in an estuarine system is the 
James River in Virginia (figure IV.5.28) . The James River is the most 
southerly major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. It is approximately 
400 miles in length and varies in width from 5 miles at the mouth to 
less than 0.1 mile in its upper extremities. The river is tidal from its 
mouth to the city of Richmond, a distance of 90 nautical miles. The 
freshwater-saltwater interface migrates between river mile 24 and 60, 
depending on tide and river flow conditions. 

Richmond, Va., is the major waste source on the upper James. 
Wastes from this city have caused an over enrichment of the upper 
river section which has resulted in nuisance growths of algae typical 
of polluted water. The saline sections of the river have not reflected 
hyperfertilization and are in the transitional stages. 

However, brief flareups of nuisance biological growths have oc- 
curred and its appears that these nuisance conditions will remain for 
longer periods of time until a noxious stability is reached (IV-5-10). 

Upper Bwcayne Bay^ Fla. 

This is one of the man bays on the Florida coast in which the shal- 
low depths allow light penetration sufficient for the growth of sub- 
merged vegetation (such as grasses) and algae. Among the impacts 
of raw sewage discharges into such systems are the limitation of light 
penetration due to suspended solids and the settling of organic mate- 
rial to the bottom. Both of these impacts affect the submerged vegeta- 
tion and algae. 

Upper Biscayne Bay is located between Miami and Miami Beach. 
It is nonuniform in width (2 to 4 nautical miles) and is approximately 
6 nautical miles in length. The Miami River enters the southwest 
portion of the bay (fi^. IV.5.29). The total number sewage outfalls 
entering upper Biscayne Bay was 70. The Miami River, carrying the 
sewage from 29 outfalls, was the major pollutant source. It is estimated 
that 30 to 50 million gallons per day raw sewage flows into the bay. 

Kinds of fixed vegetation divided the bay into two major zones. 



277 

Along the Miami shoreline was a zone of red algae, which can survive 
in low light intensities, and most of the surrounding bay was a zone 
of grasses and other vegetation requiring much sunlight. No life was 
found at locations above the Miami River mouth in areas near sewage 
outfalls, and there was a zone in midbay containing no fixed vegetation. 

The softest sediments were found along the Miami shoreline just 
north of the Miami River mouth. Soft sediments also occurred in mid- 
bay with harder sediments along the shores of Miami and Miami Beach 
w^here the currents are stronger. 

The oxygen consumption of the sediments was highest in the softest 
sediments just north of the Miami River mouth, in the northwestern 
portion of the bay, and in the deep water south of the Miami River 
mouth. These zones were relatively deep, had poor bottom circulation, 
and were zones of major deposition of organic-rich material. 

Both harmful and fertilizing effects w^ere observed in Biscayne Bay. 
The harmful effects were indicated by the absence of life. These areas 
were within 200 yards of sewage outfalls, were greater than average 
depth and had soft, sticky mud with high amounts of oxidizable organic 
matter. The fertilizing effects were most pronounced in areas 200-600 
yards from outfalls in shallow water with good tidal circulation in 
firm sandy mud. Species associations within definite communities were 
fomid to be indicative of both the harmful and fertilizing effects 
(IV-5-10). 

INDUSTRIAL WASTES 

Los Angeles Harbor^ Calif. 

The Los Angeles Harbor portion of San Pedro Bay, Calif., provides 
an example of an estuarine system receiving oil refinery wastes. These 
wastes were discharged intO' enclosed basins or slips which had very 
limited tidal circulation and flushing. The effects on the receiving sys- 
tem were reflected in progressive studies of the benthic bilogical com- 
munity. Initial investigations showed the bottom to be composed of 
black oily material with the odor of hydrogen sulfied, a characteristic of 
anaerobic conditions. The receiving area was subsequently bridged, 
and a diverse population of bottom organisms began to populate the 
area. The continuous discharge of the refinery waste, however, elimi- 
nated the biota after a relatively short time. This example demonstrates 
the ability to recover if proper management techniques are utilized 
(IV-5-10). 

Silver Bay., Alaska 

Another example of the water quality changes caused by industrial 
wastes is the Silver Bay system of Alaska, A paper pulp mill located 
on the bay discharges sulfite waste liquor to the waste surface. Water 
quality sampling of the bay demonstrated extensive degradation of 
the surface water stratum as indicated by depressed dissolved oxygen 
concentrations, changes in pH (hydrogen ion concentration), and in- 
crease in turbidity. Vertical profiles of these water quality parameters 
indicated that the waste materials remained on or near the surface in 
a low-density layer. The concentrations of the sulfite waste liquor were 
sufficient to be toxic to many of the natural food chain organisms and to 
cause abnormalities to oyster larvae and fish eggs (IV-5-10). 



278 

Honokaa^ Haxoaii 

Located on the north coast of the island of Hawaii (largest of the 
Hawaiian Islands) is a complex of six sugarcane processing plants. 
These mills are remotely situated along an inaccessible shoreline char- 
acterized by steep cliffs 100 to 200 feet high. The alongshore currents 
push the wastes long distances along the shore and then out into the 
ocean. 

The main effects of the sugarcane wastes have been the shading of 
coral by the highly turbid waters, the occurrence of high phosphorus 
and coiiform concentrations, and the lowering of fish diversity and 
productivity. The slope of the ocean floor near shore is steep and great 
depths are reached in a short distance. Thus, the mixing and dilution 
capacity of the deep water minimizes the effects within a short distance 
offshore, while some wastes drift alongshore with the currents. 

With the mixing and current structure of the steeply sloping ocean 
bottom, the effects of the sugarcane mill wastes on the hydrography of 
the area are negligible. There is no significant difference in the oxygen 
concentration, temperature, or salinity in the outfall area. The color of 
the waste from the sugar mill is that of the soil carried with the cane 
from the fields (the common mode of harvesting sugarcane is with the 
aid of a bulldozer and considerable soil is scraped up with the cane and 
hauled to the processing mill) . The soil is a bright red-brown color, 
and this color, plus the turbidity produced by washing the cane before 
crushing, is discharged into the ocean producing a vivid contrast to 1:he 
surrounding blue water. The alongshore currents carry this turbidity 
great distances along the shore instead of allowing it to be diluted 
further out at sea. 

One of the more distinguishing characteristics of a tropical coast 
is the large quantity of coral. In the sugar mill waste disposal area 
at Honokaa, the coral has been completely covered with sludge (com- 
posed mainly of bagasse and settleable solids) within a radius of one- 
quarter mile from the outfall. For the next quarter mile on either 
side of the sludge deposit, the coral coverage has been reduced to about 
10 percent total coverage. For the third quarter mile downcurrent from 
the outfall, the coral coverage is between 10 and 55 percent. The coral 
coverage on the downcurrent side of the outfall does not reach normal 
density until about three-fourths of a mile from the outfall, where 
coverage is about 55 percent (considered normal for comparable areas) . 
There is little doubt that the reduced coral density is a result of the 
increased turbidity, since coral relies upon light penetration for its 
formation and maintenance. 

At many sugarcane mills, the normal procedure is to combine human 
sewage with the sugarcane wastes. This practice results in very high 
concentrations of coiiform bacteria, because the bacteria in the warm 
sugar-laden waste multiply rapidly. At the outfall of the Honokaa 
mill, the coiiform count was 100,000 per 100 milliliters. The coiiform 
concentration was still as high as 1,000 per 100 milliliters at a distance 
of 1 mile downcurrent from the outfall. 

Many tropical fish are dependent upon the coral reef structure for 
protection from predators and on the organisms symbiont with coral 
reefs for food. Since the coral in the Honokaa sugar mill outfall area 
was destroyed, it is reasonable to expect that the fish population also 



279 

deteriorated. The diversity of fishes in the outfall area decreased to 16, 
as compared to a normal 60 found 2 miles away. The biomass of fish 
was also reduced near the waste disposal area; 160 pounds per acre 
during the sugarcane grinding season, compared to 600 pounds per 
acre 2 miles away (IV-5-10). 

DREDGING AND FILLING OPERATIONS 

Lag Vina Madre 

One good example of water quality changes from dredging and 
filling operations is South Bay of the Laguna Madre system in Texas 
(Figure IV.5.30). The dredging and redredging of the Brownsville 
ship channel resulted in almost complete enclosure of the South Bay 
from Laguna Madre. Settlement of suspended sediment has caused a 
60 percent reduction in depth in South Bay and has changed the bottom 
characteristics from desirable vegetative habitat to soft mud. The 
water circulation has been reduced and salinities have increased, and 
composition of the biological community has been altered in terms of 
number and density of species (IV-5-10) . 

UNDERSEAS MINING OPERATIONS 

Petroleum production in the estuarine areas of the Nation is now big 
business. The pollution potential of this extraction industry is stagger- 
ing to the imagination. The damage that could occur to fish, wildlife 
recreational utilization, and shoreline structures from well blows and 
broken pipelines is immense. The oil industry is well aware of this 
hazard, and since 1955 there have been only eight such incidents. The 
primary pollutional effects of these occurrences to date have been high 
mortality of waterfowl in the area of the oil slick and nuisance con- 
tamination as a result of oil washing onto shoreline areas. 

The 1956 blowout in Louisiana w^as accompanied by a rather severe 
fire. The crude oil spill was out of control for approximately 2 weeks. 
Ecological studies for 2 years after the spill did not demonstrate any 
significant damage to the biological community in the spill area as con- 
trasted to control areas outside the sphere of influence (IV-5-10) . 

The well publicized blowout in Santa Barbara is another example 
of water quality impact from mining operations. As a result of this 
accident, in January 1969, large numbers of waterfowl were killed by 
contact with the oil and some prime recreational beaches were con- 
taminated. The total extent of damages to the ecosystem have not been 
assessed and will await the findings of extensive studies. 

HEATED EFFLUENTS 

As population centers develop in the estuarine zones of the country, 
demand for electric power increases. This growing power demand is 
usually met through the construction of either fossil -fueled or nuclear- 
powered thermo-electric plants. Since these plants are only between 20 
and 40 percent efficient in the conversion of thermal energy to elec- 
tric energy, tremendous quantities of heat must be wasted to the 
environment. There are many examples of water quality changes due 
to thermal discharges. 

42-847 O — 70 19 



280 

The Chalk Point nuclear power plant on the Patuxent River estuary 
in Maryland has altered the temperature regime considerably. The 
Contra Costa and Pittsburg, Calif., plants have created a new tem- 
perature environment on the San Joaquin River in the delta area of 
San Francisco Bay, Cooling water from Turkey Point plant in Bis- 
cayne Bay, Fla., and the Morrow Bay plant in southern California 
has created thermal structures that may be as high as 10°F above 
ambient temperature. 

These examples represent only a few of the many thermal discharges 
from power plants. Other industrial manufacturing processes utilize 
considerable quantities of cooling water and may cause the same type 
of environmental changes in addition to generating wastes. 

LAND USE AND RUNOFF 

Indiscriminate use of land areas contiguous to estuaries has resulted 
in severe water quality problems (IV-5-10). There are many docu- 
mented cases of pollution from land runoff. One of the most serious is 
the tremendous impact created by the widespread application of in- 
secticides to control fire ants in the southeast. The spraying programs 
were apparently initiated without consideration of the potential un- 
sought consequences, and the heavy toll of birds, fish, and other mam- 
mals was phenomenal. 

Runoff from such uninhabited areas is not the only culprit. In 1968, 
Endrin released in storm sewers found its way into Northeast Cape 
Fear River in North Carolina. Thousands of fish, including many ana- 
dromous species, were killed (IV-5-10) . 

Studies of the pollutional effect of storm runoff in Boston Harbor 
have shown significant increases in deoxygenating substances, as well 
as bacterial indicator organisms. Control of storm runoff is extremely 
costly, but it is a very real part of pollution control. 

Runoff from phosphate mining areas in North Carolina and Florida 
has added large quantities of nutrients to estuarine systems. The phos- 
phate material combined with sewage and other nutrient sources forms 
a unique, enriched aquatic environment with a real nuisance potential. 

STREAM FLOW REGULATIONS 

Stream flow regulation structures have been built on many of the 
rivers directly tributary to estuarine systems. For the most part these 
structures have had a beneficial influence on estuarine water quality. 
The regulated stream flow provides a more uniform source of fresh 
water with fairly constant quality which allows the estuarine system 
to reach a dynamic equilibrium. In addition, the reservoirs act as set- 
tling basins, reducing the sediment load in the estuaries. In a few cases 
the flow regulation has so restricted the fresh water inflow that the 
estuarine salinity structure has changed. 

Water quality changes resulting from the construction of flow regu- 
lation structures are demonstrated in the following examples: 

(1) In the San Francisco Delta, upstream salinity intrusion is 
controlled by releases from reservoirs on the Sacramento River. 
Conversely, regulation of flow in the San Joaquin River is par- 
tially responsible for recurring quality problems in the Stockton 
area of the Delta ; and 



281 

(2) The construction of Santee-Cooper complex in South Car- 
olina resulted in the diversion of the combined flows of the San- 
tee and Cooper Rivers into Charleston Harbor. This flow regu- 
lation created a complex sedimentation problem and changed the 
vertical salinity in Charleston Harbor. 

Upstrecmi loater quality 

Among the more significant considerations in the quality of any 
estuarine environment is the quality of the inflowing stream. If the 
fresh water inflow is polluted, the impact may be felt throughout the 
entire system. A good example of this phenomenon is the St. Johns 
River in Florida. The St. Johns carries large quantities of municipal 
and industrial wastes into the tidal area (IV-5-10) . 

The poor quality is further degraded by additional w^aste discharges 
from the urbanized area near the estuary mouth. The total impact is 
a grossly polluted estuarine system which also 'affects the portions of 
the coastal beaches around the mouth. 

Wastes from watercraft 

Commercial and recreational boating on estuarine waters is the most 
visible and picturesque water use. These watercraft, however, con- 
stitute a continual threat to the quality of the estuarine environment. 
An ocean liner with 1,000 passengers is a small floating city and ac- 
cordingly has wastes that must be discharged. A sailboat represents 
only one of the millions of pleasure craft in this country and when 
large numbers of the craft are congregated in a small area, a significant 
waste source is created. 

The pollutants discharged include sewage, oils, chemicals, and other 
wastes, not infrequently involving accidental spills of valuable and/ 
or dangerous cargoes. The uncertainty of discharges as to number, 
time, place, and frequency adds to the hazard and control problem. Re- 
cent activities by both Federal and State Government agencies to com- 
bat pollution from vessels should rectify this situation by requiring 
waste treatment devices (IV-5-11). 

Section 5. Conclusion 

The complex nature of pollution in the estuarine zone prevents 
the separation of sources of pollution, kinds of pollution, and types of 
environmental damage into neat compartments of cause and effect. All 
human activities in the estuarine zone can damage the environment, 
and most of them do. 

Wherever people live, work, and play in the estuarine zone their 
social and economic activities place stresses on the biophysical environ- 
ment. These stresses frequently result in degradation of that 
environment, perhaps not immediately or even in a few years, but 
nonetheless certain in its devastating final impact. 

Environmental degradation is not a necessary feature of man's asso- 
ciation with the estuarine zone. The examples discussed in chapter 2 
of the results of community effort as in San Diego Bay, and of indus- 
trial responsibility as in the management of Avery Island, show that 
pollution and socioeconomic activity need not be synonomous. The 
massive planning effort just completed in San Francisco Bay shows 



282 

that even the most complex use and pollution problems can be resolved 
with careful, determined study. 

Pollution in the estuarine zone has been largely a matter of a lack 
of concern and a lack of knowledge combined with nebulous manage- 
ment authority and responsibility. Continuing use of the estuarine 
zone for all human needs and desires is a fact of man's existence. Ac- 
commodating all uses while preserving the environment is a matter of 
knowledge, concern, and determination. 

REFERENCES 

IV-5-1 Anonymous, "Report of the Committee on Water Quality Criteria", 
U.S.D.I., F.W.P.C.A., Washington, D.C., pp. 83-88 (1968). 

IV-5-2 Butler, P. A., "Pesticide Residues in Estuarine Mollusks", National 
Symposium on Estuarine Pollution, Stanford University, Stanford, 
Calif., pp. 107-121 (1967). 

IV-5-3 Anonymous, "A Study of Water Circulation in Parts of Great South 
Bay, Long Island", U.S. Public Health Service, unpublished report, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 25 pp. (1962). 

IV-5^ Anonymous, "Survey Report on Cooper River, S.C. (shoaling in Charles- 
ton Harbor)", U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Charleston District, 
Charleston, S.C. (1967). 

IV-5-5 "The San Francisco Bay Plan", San Francisco Bay Conservation 
and Development Commission, San Francisco (1968). 

IV-5-6 "A Case Study of Estuarine Sedimentation in Mission Bay — San Diego 
Bay, Calif.", a report prepared by Marine advisers for F.W.P.C.A. 
under contract No. 14-12-425, 200 pp. (1969). In press. 

IV-5-7 "Estuarine-Oriented Community Planning for San Diego Bay", a re- 
port prepared by Ralph Stone and Co. for F.W.P.C.A. under contract 
No. 14-12-189, 178 pp. (1969). In press. 

IV-5-8 Anonymous, "Proceedings of the Conference on the Pollution of Raritan 
Bay and Adjacent Waters", U.S.D.I., F.W.P.C.A., Northeast Region, 
Boston, Mass., 448 pp. (1967) . 

IV-5-9 Anonymous, "Report on' Pollution of the Potomac River in the Wash- 
ington metropolitan area", U.S.D.I., F.W.P.C.A., Middle Atlantic 
region, Charlottesville, Va., 150 pp. (1969). 

IV-5-10 Odum, H. T., "Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States", 
a report prepared under contract No. 14-12^129 by the University 
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., 1878 pp. (1969). In press. 

IV-5-H Anonymous, "Statistical Abstract of the United States", U.S. Dept. of 
Commerce, Bureau of the Census (1967) . 

IV-5-12 Anonymous, "Report on Water Pollution Caused by the Operation of 
Vessels", U.S.D.I., F.W.P.C.A., Washington, D.C., 20 pp. (1966). 



CHAPTER 6. USE CONFLICTS AND DAMAGES 

The consequence of damage to the biophysical environment is loss of 
use either immediately or at some time in the future. Loss of use, 
however, may also be associated with the appropriation of part of 
the estuarine resource for one exclusive use even when no damage to 
the environment itself occurs. 

Institutional management copes with the problems of responsibility 
and authority in achieving maximum multiple use of the estuarine 
resource. Within this comprehensive framework technical management 
must resolve the problems surrounding conflicts of use, competition 
for the resources of the estuarine zone, and environmental damage. 
The primary objective of technical management is to achieve the best 
possible combination of uses to serve the needs of society while pro- 
tecting, preserving, and enhancing the biophysical environment for 
the continuing benefit of present and future generations. 

This chapter deals w^ith the problems of use conflicts and damages 
and relates these to probable trends in estuarine ecology as the basis 
for guidelines within which technical management can function ef- 
fectively to achieve its primary objective. 

Section 1. The Nature or Use CoNFLicyrs 

The uses of estuarine zone grew and changed in consonance 
with population growth and industrial development. Not until recent 
years was a concerted attempt made to understand and resolve the 
conflicts that arose in the competition to use and exploit these land 
and water resources. During the past 300 years of growth and in- 
dustrial expansion with its emphasis on economic growth and direct 
monetary gain, large parts of the estuarine zone were preempted or 
usurped to serve the individual needs of commercial enterprises. The 
net result has been less a conflict in existing uses than an exclusion 
of some uses. 

Nearly all estuarine uses involve both land and water, either directly 
or indirectly. For example, the construction of a manufacturing plant 
on the shore of an estuarine system may not involve any direct use of 
the water (even for waste disposal), yet it limits access by its occupa- 
tion of the shoreline and so may interfere with other uses. Conversely, 
the disposal of liquid waste into the water may make the shoreline 
unusable for recreation as well as making the water itself unsafe. 

The impact of one estuarine use on another may be either pro- 
hibitive or restrictive depending on the kind of use and sometimes on 
the manner in which it is carried out. 

PROHIBITIVE IMPACJTS 

These involve permanent changes in the environment and thereby 
prohibit all uses unable to cope with such changes. The geographical 
range of such impacts may be from the limited area in which they 

(283) 



284 

occur to an entire estuarine system, depending on the nature and size 
of the change. The impact may be temporary, if it is possible to return 
the environment to its original form, or it may be permanent. 

Any use or activity requiring physical modification of the shoreline, 
marshes, or bottom of an estuarine system may have a prohibitive 
impact. Modification of water circulation also tends to be prohibitive 
when it has any conflicting impact. 

Navigation channel dredging 

This is probably the most widespread and constant permanent 
modifying activity in the estuarine system. It is carried out solely to 
maintain and improve navigation needed for commercial and recrea- 
tional purposes and for national defense. Dredged navigation channels 
must be kept clear for navigational purposes, and the bottom is 
constantly being removed. Both of these conditions preclude the large- 
scale use of such areas for purposes other than navigation. 

The disposal of dredging spoil may also be a prohibitive estuarine use 
when it is deposited in other parts of the system or on adjacent 
marshes or land. The destruction of habitat which can result from 
such disposal will, at a minimum, remove the areas used for productive 
participation in the estuarine ecosystem. 

The prohibitive impact of navigation dredging may, however, 
affect an entire system, particularly where a major channel realine- 
ment or channel deepening occurs. The prohibitive impact of such 
modification may not be in direct destruction of habitat, but may 
result from a change in water circulation patterns. 

For example, a change in current structure associated with channel 
deepening in the James River prevented the upstream transport of 
oyster spat to the beds where they normally settled and grew to edible 
size(IV-6-l). ^ 

Such prohibitive use impacts are not always associated with the 
dredging of navigation channels; in fact, such activities can enhance 
the environment by improving water circulation and creating new 
habitat. When there is an impact, however, it is prohibitive in that it 
permanently excludes other uses while the channel exists. 

Land fits 

The operations of dredging and filling associated with the creation 
of dry land from marshes and estuarine shallows may have severe 
prohibitive impact on other estuarine activities. The massive areas 
ifilled for large residential and industrial developments destroy much 
of the envronment directly; and, in many cases, the areas involved 
are large enough to make a significant impact on water circulation 
and even on the total volume of water in an estuarine system. 

Large fills, such as those made for airports, also limit access to 
estuarine waters, thereby permanently limiting the recreational 
potential of such areas. 

Solid Waste Disposal 

The use of undeveloped estuarine shoreline areas for final disposal 
of garbage and other solid waste materials is not only prohibitive 
in the same sense as other filling operations, but also the drainage and 
runoff from such sites can have a severe and continuing impact on 
water quality. 



285 

Although reliable figures showing the impact of solid wastes on the 
estuarine environment are lacking, a situation from the San Francisco 
Bay area is instructive : "In some instances, bay water has leaked into 
old dumpsites ; when the tide goes out, black sludge is carried into the 
water and hydrogen sulfide gas escapes into the air. In every dump, 
even including those where no garbage is buried, an increase in 
temperature plus an amount of decay produces hydrogen sulfide." 
(IV-6-2.) In combination with salt water this produces a vile odor 
that produces numerous complaints from residents near such dumps. 
In short, the cost of cheap dumping of solid refuse despoils not only 
the land surface to the west and the air for miles, but ultimately the 
water quality of the bay itself. 

Such use has prohibitive impact because of the uncontrollable nature 
and permanent damage cause by such activities. 

Bridges^ Jetties^ Dikes^ Breakwaters^ Causeways 

The prohibitive impact of such structures, when it occurs, is usually 
far more gradual than the impact of large land fills. The group of 
structures discussed here are either deliberately placed in an estuary 
to control water movement or else cross the system to carry land 
transportation. In either case they are long, narrow structures which 
affect water movement patterns. Their effects may be beneficial to the 
environment or they may be the reverse. 

The construction of a highway through the coastal area of Louisiana 
and Mississippi effectively separated the inland areas of the coastal 
marshes from the outer marsh areas, completely altering the circula- 
tion patterns of the entire marsh system. The result has been saltwater 
intrusion into the outer marsh system (in the absence of the fresh- 
water inflow from inland sources now prevented by the highway), 
with the subsequent results of soil alteration and eventual alteration 
of the marsh vegetation (IV-6-3) . 

Such alterations may permanently change ecosystems and therefore 
exclude the estuarine uses which depend on them. Commercial fishing 
and sports fishing are particularly impacted by such changes. 

Shoreline Development 

Estuarine shorelines are extremely valuable for both commercial 
and residential development. The shorelines of large cities are exten- 
sively built up, primarily for navigation access and other commercial 
development, but with considerable areas of shoreline drives and 
residential developments. Nearly all of such kinds of development 
extend up to, and sometimes beyond, the natural shoreline and 
terminate in bulkheads, docks, or other permanent structures. 

The individual impact of such development is probably minimal 
except in extremely confined areas, but the total effect of t\\^ shoreline 
development of a large city can be to drastically and irretrie^^ably 
change the natural environment, even to the extent of damaging the 
uses for which the changes were made. 

Reduced currents and changes in water circulation may result in 
increasing rates of sedimentation and added expense for channel 
maintenance. 

Changes in circulation associated with both spoil disposal and manu- 
factured residential islands in parts of Tampa Bay were followed by 



286 

changes in sedimentation patterns and an apparent decrease in produc- 
tivity in some areas (IV-6-4) . 

Mining 

The taking of materials from the estuarine bottom immediately de- 
stroy the local habitat and the movement and settling of suspended 
material may extend the damage to other areas. Sand and gravel 
dredging are universal activities in the estuarine zone; oyster shell 
dredging exists in several areas along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. 

Posphate sand or rock mining in estuarine systems may raise the 
concentration of phosphorus in the water and change the ecological 
balance of the entire estuarine environment, as well as directly killing 
fish and other aquatic organisms. 

Mining operations exploit a nonrenewable resource, and even after 
mining operations have ceased, the hole in the bottom of the estuary 
may affect water circulation throughout the estuarine system. 

Flow regulation 

The ecological balance of an estuarine system is the result of inter- 
action of the dominating environmental factors discussed in part IV, 
chapter 1. Among these factors are the amount and annual distribution 
of fresh water inflow. Upstream flow regulation may have many 
beneficial effects, but radical changes in the annual riverflow pattern 
may cause drastic changes in both water circulation and in ecological 
balance. 

The harbor of Charleston, S,C. was a deepwater port with fresh- 
water inflow from only coastal drainage until the flow of the Santee 
River, averaging 15,000 cubic feet per second, was diverted into it. 
This caused salinity stratification to set in and sedimentation became 
a severe problem. Dredging requirements grew from 120,000 cubic 
yards per year to over 7,000,000 cubic yards per year and many of 
the docks had to be abandoned because adequate depths could not be 
maintained. The prohibitive dredging costs have resulted in a Corps of 
Engineers proposal to redivert the Santee River away from Charleston 
Harbor (see case study p. 302) . 

Some of the more productive oystering areas in the Potomac River 
are in a reach where high springtime river flows reduce salinities 
enough to kill the oyster drills (a predator) but not kill the oysters. 
Flow regulation to reduce the high spring flows would probably change 
this relationship. 

RESTRICTIVE IMPACTS 

Some estuarine uses may restrict use for other purposes but do not 
automatically exclude other uses. These are those activities which do 
not require a permanent modification of the estuarine system; they 
generally include those uses directly involved with the estuarine 
waters and other renewable resources. 

Restrictive impacts may involve damage to water quality, living 
organisms, or aesthetic quality ; such impacts may also result from the 
exclusive appropriation of space. The key feature of uses which cause 
restrictive impacts is that they may, with proper management, be car- 
ried out simultaneously with other uses. 



287 

Liquid waste disposal as a restriethe impact 

Although not generally regarded as a beneficial use, the discharge 
of liquid Avastes to estuarine waters is and is likely to continue to be 
one of the major universal uses of the estuarine zone. The present dis- 
cussion considers liquid waste disposal as one of many uses of the 
estuarine environment which has the potential of conflicting with 
other uses but which will probably have to be accommodated within 
the overall use patterns of nearly all estuarine environments. 

The major restrictive impacts of liquid wastes arise from the dis- 
posal of untreated or inadequately treated wastes in massive quantity 
to estuarine waters. The discussion in part IV, chapter 5, pointed out 
the various pollutional effects different types of municipal and indus- 
trial wastes can have, and presented some typical examples of pollu- 
tional effects. Six types of impacts tend to restrict other uses: 

1. Floating or settleable materials make the system unpleasant or 
destroy bottom-living organisms. 

2. Decomposable organic materials deplete oxygen necessary for 
aquatic life and may cause nuisance conditions. 

3. Toxic materials destroy living organisms by killing them di- 
rectly, damaging their reproductive ability, or poisoning their food 
supply. 

4. Nutrient materials cause over-production of some ecosystem com- 
ponents causing adverse effects on others. 

5. Pathogens create public health hazards. 

6. Heated waste discharges reduce available oxygen and cause other 
adverse effects on the ecosystem. 

These kinds of impacts adversely affect the living resources or aes- 
thetic quality or create a public health hazard. The damage to living 
resources can be catastrophic when waste discharges are large in vol- 
ume, strong in concentration, or prolonged in time. Such discharges 
are restrictive rather than prohibitive, however, in that removal or 
significant reduction of the waste discharge will permit a healthful 
ecosystem to slowly reestablish itself with consequent full reestablish- 
ment of the formerly restricted uses. San Diego Bay, discussed earlier, 
is an excellent example of this. Commercial fishing, recreation, and 
water supply are the major uses restricted by pollution ffom liquid 
waste discharges. 

GoTmnercial fisMng as a restrictive impact 

Fisheries may be affected adversely either by damage to fishery re- 
sources or by imposing a public health hazard which makes the harvest- 
able product unsafe. The fishery resource, whether finfish or shellfish, 
may be damaged by the direct killing of marketable species, by the 
killing or poisoning of a necessary food supply, or by damage to the 
reproductive capability of any part of the food chain. Any or all of 
these may occur, depending on the waste discharge characteristics. 

Oysters, mussels, and clams are susceptible to these damages: in 
addition, their meats may be made unsafe for human consumption by 
the suspected present of wastes containing pathogenic organics or 
toxic materials which such animals tend to concentrate in their tissues. 
It is important to recognize that the conflict in use arises from the 
inability to market the shellfish product because of necessary public 



288 

health considerations, and that there may be no damage at all to the 
shellfish habitat, particularly if the waste is treated domestic sewage, 
which contains excellent nutrients for shellfish. 

Recreation as a restrictive impact 

Liquid wastes may have restrictive impacts on both body contact 
and non-contact forms of recreation. The invisible dangers of water- 
borne pathogenic organisms are as important in restricting recre- 
ational use as the floating scum and oil which damage aesthetic quality 
and cause people to go elsewhere. 

Recreational use is never entirely eliminated. Even around the most 
polluted estuarine areas can be found an occasional fisherman or boat- 
ing enthusiast. The people who cannot go elsewhere will use their local 
estuarine zone in whatever fashion is possible, even if there is a public 
health danger or the environment is unpleasing. The dangers inherent 
in such use fall primarily on children, who tend to play in any avail- 
able puddle, not caring whether it is the local swimming hole or New 
York harbor. 

Water supply as a restrictive iTnpact 

The use of estuarine waters for municipal and industrial process 
water supplies is not extensive because its primarily brackish quality 
makes it difficult to treat adequately and economically. Estuarine 
waters are used extensively for industrial cooling water use, and waters 
with suspended solids, high acid of alkali concentrations, or high 
nutrient concentrations are difficult to use. Such waters clog screens, 
corrode pipes, or develop slimes which require added maintenance 
expense. 

With increasing population and industrial growth in many coastal 
areas and increasing demands for potable and industrial process water, 
the use of fresh estuarine waters for water supplies may become an 
important estuarine water use. Fresh waters in the estuarine zone 
occur near where the rivers reach sea level, and it is here at the natural 
head of navigation that many of the large ports are located and dis- 
charge their wastes. 

Oom/mercial fishing 

Some kinds of commercial fishing require the use of trawls or the 
setting of traps or nets that must be left for some time. The use of such 
devices restricts other uses while the devices are in place, but there is 
no permanent appropriation of estuarine waters or space. The major 
conflict is with recreation in that recreational boating must be excluded 
from areas where fishing gear is near the surface. 

Shellfishing is restrictive in the sense that commercial oyster and 
clam beds require the waters above them to be of far better quality 
than is required for safe body contact. This has been a significant 
impact up to the present only in that waste treatment requirements of 
some municipal and industrial wastes have had to be set higher than 
would otherwise be necessary. With increasing numbers of watercraft 
in estuarine waters the potential additional human wastes from these 
boats may require restriction of some waters to recreational traffic in 
order to protect shellfish beds. 



289 

Section 2. Examples of Use Damage 

Where there is conflict, the scene is set for trade-off, that is, a willing 
substitution of one activity for another. The scene is equally set for 
uncompensated damage where one user group precludes the activities 
of a second unrelated user group but does not reimburse them for dam- 
age. Several examples will demonstrate the types of damages and the 
difficulties in quantifying them. Essentially, the damage is the value 
of the use which is precluded or foregone, and the same type of use 
valuation problems as discussed earlier are applicable. 

Actual documented examples of use damages are difficult to find. One 
major reason is the basic fact that has permeated much of the discus- 
sion of economic and social values: Many estuarine values are not 
quantifiable. While damages to a commercial enterprise, such as com- 
mercial fishing, can be quantified in terms of the economic loss, the 
essentially intangible values of recreation and estuarine habitat are 
difficult to measure. 

Recreational loss would have to be measured in terms of how many 
people don't swim or go boating in the Potomac River because it is 
polluted. It is far easier to find out how many people do go there even 
if it is polluted; even these values are hard to find. 

The value of estuarine habitat is just as difficult to establish. There 
are now about 5.5 million acres of important estuarine marsh and wet- 
land habitat remaining in the estuarine zone of the United States. 
Perhaps each acre is not valuable by itself, but the total habitat is 
irreplaceable. The problem of measuring the value can be illustrated 
by this example: 

A poor worker had been given a loaf of bread for his supper. On his 
way home he met along the road several friends who each asked for a 
slice of bread. Being generous, and since a single slice of bread is a 
small thing, he gave each of them a slice. When he arrived home he had 
only the wrapping left. Since his family couldn't eat that, they went 
supperless to bed. 

How valuable is a slice of bread? 

How valuable is an acre of estuary? 

DAMAGE TO MARSH HABITAT 

Delaioare Bay 

The following example shows how, in the Delaware Bay system, 
there has been steady attrition of estuarine marsh area for industrial 
development in recent years. The example is taken from testimony 
presented by Mr. Allston Jenkins, representing Philadelphia Con- 
servationists, Inc., before a congressional subcommittee in March 
1967. 

(1) In 1955 the Tidewater Oil Go. started acquiring some of the finest estua- 
rine marshes in the State of Delaware for the purpose of constructing a large 
refinery in the vicinity of Delaware City about 30 miles north of the Bombay 
Hook National Wildlife Refuge. State conversation officials and citizen groups 
endeavored to persuade the company to locate its refinery on land other than 
the estuarine marshland. It was of no avail. Some 1,000 acres of productive 
estuarine marshes were purchased, filled-in, and lost as a natural resource. 

(2) In 1961 the Shell Oil Co. started a similar acquisition of estuarine marshes 
in Delaware upon which to construct a large refinery in the vicinity of Smyrna 



290 

about 5 miles north of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge. Efforts of 
State conservation officials and citizen groups to persuade the company to locate 
on the upland instead of on the marshes have proved futile. The company has 
acquired some 1,000 acres of natural estuarine marsh and is continuing a 
program of further acquisition. I am told that the vote of one member of a small 
township zoning board was the decisive factor in determining whether there 
should be 1,000 acres of prime estuarine resources or 1,000 acres of bottom silt 
landfill. 

(3) Recently the B. F. Goodrich Co. applied to the Corps of Engineers, U.S. 
Army, for a permit to dredge in the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal (the connect- 
ing link between the Delaware River Estuary and the Chesapeake Bay Estuary) 
for the purpose of constructing a dock and berthing facilities for a plant to 
be constructed on the edge of the canal. Over 1,000 persons attended a public 
hearing on the application on February 9. Over 90 percent of those attending 
were opposed to the granting of a permit. Yet this may not be decisive with the 
Corps of Engineers. The corps is concerned primarily, almost solely, with the 
effect on navigation of the proposed dock and berthing facilities. If the comjiany 
can show that the proposed facilities would not seriously hamper navigation 
it is not at all unlikely that the corps will grant a dredging and filling permit. 

(4) Two or 3 years ago the Sinclair Oil Co. acquired 300 acres of estuarine 
marsh near Milford Neck, Del, 18 miles south of the Bombay Hook National 
Wildlife Refuge, for use as a tank farm and unloading port 

(5) A recent newspaper article, confirmed by the New Jersey Division of 
Fish and Game, states that the Atlantic City Electric Co. has acquired 4,500 to 
5,000 acres of marsh between Stowe Creek and the Oohansey River along the 
Delaware River near Bridgeton, N.J. The company intends to construct a nuclear 
energy plant and industrial complex. The New Jersey green acres program and 
the division of fish and game had both marked this area for preservation. These 
are some of the finest estuarine marshes of the estuary. 

Connecticut coast 

Connecticut State Board of Fisheries and Game "Tidal Marsh 
Area — A Summary as of February 1965" says that the earliest record 
that seems to have been accurately obtained gives a figure of 36.5 square 
miles. This figure was published in 1914 in the First Annual Report 
of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association, In the "1954 
Wetlands of Connecticut," published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, about 21.7 square miles of this area remained, a reduction of 
9,500 acres in 40 years. This reduction averages slightly less than 240 
acres per year, slightly less than 1 percent per year. 

A resurvey in 1959 led to the publication of a second "Wetlands of 
Connecticut, Revised June 1959". At that time these areas had been 
further reduced to about 20.2 square miles — 12,937 acres. This reduc- 
tion averaged about 190 acres per year, slightly less than 1.4 percent a 
year, 6.8 percent for the 5-year period. Hence, while the actual acreage 
lost during this period is less than in similar periods, earlier, the 
percentage lost each year is increasing. A second resurvey in 1964 
shows a further reduction to about 18.6 square miles — 11,900 acres 
for the areas of the 1914 survey. This reduction averaged about 200 
acres per year, 1.6 percent per year of the 1959 acreage, 7.9 percent 
reduction in acreage over the 5-year period. Both percentagewise and 
in actual acreage lost the 1959-64 period is higher than was 1954^59. 

The data in the wetlands publications are not directly comparable 
to those given above, since some upriver tidal marshes are grouped 
with the saline marshes. These are, in some cases, somewhat less 
vulnerable to destruction. 

About 20,500 acres of tidal marsh in the State were rated for their 
value to wildlife in 1954. The high- and moderate-value acreage 
totaled about 13,000 acres, about 63 percent of the area. The resurvey 



291 

in 1959 showed a reduction of more than 1,300 acres, leaving a total 
of 19,200 acres. Of the high- and moderate-value areas 12,600 acres 
remained, which represents a 3-percent loss in the more valuable 
tidal marsh during the 5-year period, a reduction in total area of 
about 6 percent. However, this is not the complete picture. 

While more than 3 percent of the tidal marshes were completely 
or partially destroyed during this 5-year period, their value for water- 
fowl was not reviewed in 1959 or 1964, and much of the area that 
was of high or moderate value in 1954 may have been reduced in 
quality making the loss more severe than that recorded. 

The total loss of tidal marsh tabulated in the 1954 and 1959 surveys 
is about 6 percent for the 5-year period. The loss for the 5 years 1959 
to 1964 is about 7 percent. 

The data on causes of marsh destruction do not fall into well- 
defined categories. Dredging for a marina and placing the fill on 
adjoining marsh represent two classes of destruction, but the figures 
do not separate them. Similarly, there are little data on the use to 
which filled areas are put — in housing, factories, boat storage, dumps. 
Major causes of this loss involved miscellaneous fill (48 percent) ; 
waste disposal (14 percent) ; roads and parking (9 percent) ; indus- 
try (7 percent) ; marinas (6 percent) ; housing (5 percent) ; recrea- 
tional developments (3 percent) ; and schools (1 percent). 

The loss of these marshlands can only be partly justified as needed 
for our economic growth and the demand of a growing population. 
Much of it has been the permianent destruction of an irreplaceable na- 
tura;l resource for a very temporary economic advantage. The accumu- 
lative effect has been changed in the ecology of the Connecticut shore- 
line with the decline of formerly abundant species of fish and shellfish 
as well as the total disappearance of certain species of shell and finfiish 
in specific areas. 

DAMAGE TO FISH AND WILDLIFE 

GhesapeaJce Bay 

At tlhe request of the Federal Water Pollution Control Admini- 
stration the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife conducted a study 
of "Fish and Wildlife Resources as related to Water Pollution" in the 
Chesapeake Bay area. The report was issued in 1968 ; its results are 
summarized here. 

The study area covered by biological considerations in this report 
included Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, except the Susquehanna 
River Basin. Tliis area includes the major drainages of the James, 
Rappannock-York, and Potomac Rivers as well as Chesapeake Bay 
and its minor tributaries. These drainages encompass virtually all of 
Maryland, a sizable portion of Virginia, and small segments of Dela- 
ware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. 

To evaluate the relative effect of pollution on fish and wildlife re- 
sources, the total resource potential under polluted conditions was 
compared with what would be available if pollution were eliminated. 
These resource potentials, both with and without pollution, were then 
compared to the expected user demand to determine their relative avail- 
aibility under both conditions. Specific data on present, future, or pro- 
jected conditions are often minimal or lacking. Therefore, data analysis 



292 

must be made on a general basis. This diotaJtes that study results should 
be recognized as being relative in nature and utilized to gain an insight 
into problem areas. Figures quoted in the remaining portions of this 
narrative represent rounded data. 

The 1960-64 average annual commercial fishery harvest from the 
study area included 288,740,000 pounds of finfish and 107,584,000 
pounds of shellfish for a total of 396,324,000 pounds. 

Wetlands wildlife habitat occupied approximately 614,000 acres of 
the study area in the mid-1950's. Since that time, losses resulting from 
drainage, land fill, highway construction, and similar developments 
have reduced wetland habitat to a current area of about 558,000 acres 
or less. Wetland loss is thus 56,000 acres. 

Pollution affects approximately 432,000 acres of finfish habitat and 
42,000 acres of shellfish grounds for a total of 463,000 surfaces acres 
(adjusted for overlap), or about 14 percent of the study area's fish 
habitat. 

Average annual losses from significant pollution effects on 101,000 
acres of finfish habitat and 42,000 acres of shellfish habitat amount to 
$1,861,000 and $1,090,000, respectively, or a total fishery loss of $2,951,- 
000. No losses were assigned to 331,000 acres of negligibly polluted fin- 
fish habitat. Projected demand for both sport and commercial fishery 
harvest presently, or in the near future, will exceed the average annual 
sustained harvest capability from most individual habitat classes under 
existing pollution levels. 

Table 23 of the report (table IV. 6.1) shown on the next page, gives 
the loss broken down by drainage basins. Finfish resource plus shell- 
fish resources equals fishery resource. 

TABLE IV.6.1.— SUMMARY OF POLLUTED FISH HABITAT CHESAPEAKE BAY AREA AND TRIBUTARIES (EXCEPT 

SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASINS) 

FINFISH RESOURCES! 
Pollution effects (acres) Total Average annual loss 



Mod- Per- Per- 

Negllgible Light erate Intense Severe Acres cent Dollars cent 

Chesapeake Bay Area... 51 4,578 427 17,905 4 22,965 5.3 687,971 37.0 

James River Basin 87,047 24,976 19,385 1,541 73 133,022 30.8 768,927 41.3 

Rappahannock-York 

River Basins 

Potomac River Basin 



593 


.._ 199 . 

1,902 174 


"390" 


792 
274, 805 


.2 
63.7 


13, 549 
390, 290 


.7 


243,543 28,796 


21.0 


330,641 58,943 


21,714 19,819 


467 


431, 584 


100.0 


1,860,737 


100.0 



Total study area. 
Percent 76.6 13.7 5.0 4.6 .1 100 



Shellfish resources Fishery resources 



Closed areas Average annual loss Polluted habitat Average annual loss 



Per- Per- Per- Per- 

Acres cent Dollars cent Acres i cent Dollars cent 

Chesapeake Bay area 

James River Basin 

Rappahannock- York River 

Basins 

Potomac River Basin 

Total study area 42,255 100.0 1,089,981 100.0 462,521 100.0 2,950,718 100.0 

> Area not cumulative owing to overlap. 



26, 429 
•12,571 


62.5 
29.8 

7.3 
.4 


549, 580 
361, 151 

173, 483 
5,767 


50.5 
33.1 

15.9 
.5 


38, 254 
145, 593 

3,869 
274, 805 


8.3 
31.5 

.8 
59.4 


1, 237, 551 
1,130,078 

187, 032 
396, 057 


42.0 
38.3 


3, 077 


6.3 


178 


13.4 



293 

Hudson River {Wappinger Creek) 

The material for this case study was obtained from the New York 
State Conservation Department, Fish and Game Division, Albany, 
N.Y. They graciously provided a legal case from their records. The 
case study quoted here is one of less than a half dozen situations dur- 
ing the past 40 years in which legal evidence, sufficient to be assured 
of a successful court case, could be obtained. Faced with the evidence 
an out-of-court settlement was reached. 

The fact that in 40 years less than six legal cases could be obtained 
along a river-estuary system as well developed as the Hudson River 
points out the extreme difficulty in obtaining positive confirmation 
of a use damage. 

On June 27, 1962 a delivery of No. 6 fuel oil was made to a storage 
tank which was not emptied sufficiently to accomftiodate all the oil 
delivered. An unknown quantity was spilled in Wappinger Creek, 
a direct tributary of the lower Hudson River. The oil company re- 
ceived complaints from property owners along the stream and decided, 
after skimming and pumping failed, to use a chemical, Ozene, which 
would be sprayed on the oil. It is estimated that about 30 gallons of 
Ozene was actually used in the stream spraying operation. It can 
safety be assumed that at least 20 gallons went directly into the waters 
of Wappinger Creek. 

An abundance of dead fish was observed from the site of the spray- 
ing operation to about 1 mile downstream. Occasional dead fish were 
observed as far as 4 miles downstream. The fish kill was estimated at 
10,000 fish, with about 75 percent being rough fish and minnow, 15 
percent pan fish, and 10 percent trout. 

A bio-assay was conducted using a solution of Ozene at the Rome 
hatchery using sprmg water, and a solution concentration of 4.5 p.p.m. 
orthodichlorobenzene. One hundred percent of test fish were killed in 
8 hours. On this basis, 20 gallons of Ozene would be capable of making 
toxic approximately 5,125,000 gallons of water. Since spraying would 
result in even higher local concentrations before complete mixing, the 
high concentration would kill in a time period of 10 minutes or less. 

The fish kill was the direct result of the application of a material 
called Ozene to the surface of Wappinger Creek. A $500 settlement 
for violation of section 180 "Pollution of Streams Prohibited" of the 
New York State Conservation laws effected by out-of-court settlement. 
The oil spill itself was a violation of the classification standard 
established by the Water Pollution Control Board for Wappingers 
Creek. 

DAMAGE TO WILDLIFE FROM OIL SPILLS 

New Haven Harhor^ Conn. 

The following quotation is from a release by Mr. O. E. Beckley, 
supervisor, Game Management, Board of Fisheries and Game, State of 
Connecticut, dated March 28, 1961, and describes the death and value 
of duck life destroyed by oil resulting from a tanker with a rupture 
in her hull : 

"On December 17, 1960, the S. S. Sister Katingo, a supertanker owned by the 
Nautilus Petroleum Oorp. of New York, carrying a cargo of bunker "C" oil, 
reportedly struck a submerged object somewhere off Brenton Reef, R.I., causing 
a rupture in her port side. 



294 

"According to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, a large quantity of oil was 
lost at the time of the impact, which resulted in the blackening of Nantucket 
Island. The ship proceeded to her destination. New Haven Harbor, and arrived 
during the evening of December 17. Pumping activities were started early the 
next morning and were completed by noon the following day, 

"It has been estimated that upwards of 240,000 gallons of bunker "C" oil was 
lost, with a conservative estimate of over 42,000 gallons spilling into the confines 
of the New Haven Harbor. The oil quickly spread itself out upon the waters 
of the harbor, breaking up into pools and slicks, coating bulkheads, seawalls, 
and beaches with black. Incoming tides carried it to upper shores reaches and 
then receded, leaving pools which in some areas were 4-5 inches deep. Approxi- 
mately 10 miles of shorelines were blackened in the Great New Haven Harbor 
area. Within a week, marks of the spillage could be observed extending along 
approximately 20 miles of shorelines from Guilford to Milford. Evidence of the 
spillage was present on many of the off-shore islands in the entire area. 

"The Connecticut State Board of Fisheries and Game became aware of the 
problem on Tuesday evening, December 20. Investigations were initiated the 
following morning to determine the extent of the damage to wildlife. 

"The first affected birds observed, while few in number, served for department 
game biologists as a grim warning of what might be expected in the days to 
come. Immediate efforts were made to initiate a clean-up operation and a series 
of contracts with the oil company and municipal officials and landowners was 
made in an attempt to expedite clean-up. But as negotiations proceeded the 
ddath toll grew. Dead, oil-encased birds appeared with greater frequency along 
the shore. Except for body form, these black, shrouded shapes with not a feather 
visible could hardy be recognized as ducks. 

"A census of dead ducks was started on December 21. At the end of the first 
week of the investigation, 995 dead ducks had been counted in the Greater New 
Haven Harbor area. Of the dead ducks counted, approximately 400, or 40 percent 
were dabbling ducks, and 595, or 60 percent were diving species. Virtually all of 
the dabblers seen were black ducks with only a few, one mallard and two 
baldpates observed. The dead diving ducks counted included approximately 300, 
or 30 percent, scaup, 140, or 14 percent, goldeneyes, 60, or 6 percent, canvasbacks, 
and the remaining 10 percent included 35 scoters, 30 old squaw, 20 bufflehead, 
and 10 mergansers. 

"In addition to ducks, other species affected included herring gulls, horned 
grebe, loon, purple sandpiper, cormorant, clapper rail, and kildeer. 

"Biologists estimated through reports and observations that at the time when 
the count of dead birds in the Harbor area was completed, an additional 3,000 
ducks had been affected. Of the total 4,000 birds affected, including 995 known 
dead at the end of the first week after censusing was started, it was estimated 
that 2,860, or 75 percent, consisted of scaup ; 500, or 12 percent, or black ducks, 
including only a few mallard and baldpate ; 340, or 9 percent, goldeneyes, and the 
remaining 7 percent were made up of 85 caiivasbacks, 80 scoters, 90 old squaw, 
30 bufflehead, and 15 mergansers. 

"Spot checks of hunter bags were made from December 22, 1960, through the 
end of the gunning season on January 7, 1961. These bag checks, which were 
taken in an area extending approximately 20 miles both east and West from 
the New Haven Harbor, disclosed 185 oiled ducks of the 358 ducks killed, or 
approximately 52 percent oiled ducks for the entire area. During the period 
from December 22 to December 31, 1960, 55 percent of 293 ducks killed were 
oiled. During the period from January 2, through January 7, 1961, 35 percent 
of 65 birds killed were oiled. 

"During the aerial inventory of waterfowl by Department personnel on Janu- 
ary 9, 1961, 33,187 ducks were observed in the 20 mile oil-contaminated area 
from Guilford to Milford. Species represented in this count consisted of: 1,462 
blacks, 200 mallards, 20,150 scaup, 220 canvasbacks, 112 scoters, 28 goldeneyes, 
8 old squaw, 5 mergansers, 2 bufflehead. 

It is a reasonable assumption that many of these ducks seen in the oil- 
contaminated area were affected by oil to varying degrees and could raise the 
total affected by many thousand. 

From observations conducted when the oil spillage first occurred, through the 
end of the hunting season and during the abnormally cold x)eriod in January and 
February, it is conservatively estimated that at least 3,000 ducks perished as a 
result of being oiled. 



295 

Commercial game breeder's quotations on the following species show that blacks 
sell for $3 each, scaup $30 each, goldeneyes .$10() each, and canvasbaeks $50 each. 
No prices were available for scoters, old squaw, bufflehead, and mergansers since 
they are very difficult, if not impossible, to raise. It is estimaited that replacement 
costs, if replacement were possible, would run well in excess of $100,000, based 
on current game breeder's prices. 

During the early stages of the investigation, approximately 400 live ducks, oiled 
to varying degrees, were collected by Department personnel and shore residents. 
Various types of cleaning agents were exi>erimented with ; many of these cleansed 
birds were returned to the water. Some were kept penned at a game breeder's 
farm to observe survival rates. Of 22 penned tliat were cleansed, only six were sur- 
viving at the end of a 3-week period. Despite the efforts made to rehabilitate 
ducks, it is felt that their chance for survival is very t^oot. 

Thames River, Con/necticut 

The information for this case study is quoted directly from the Con- 
necticut Newsletter : of the Connecticut Audubon Council dated Feb- 
ruary 15, 1969, Vol. 2, No. 8. 

An industrial oil barge ran aground, Thursday, January 16, 1969, on Bartlett's 
Reef near Waterford, Conn., causing an undetermined amount of heavy 
bunker "C" oil to be spilled in Long Island Sound. The Coast Guard apparently 
did not hear about this spillage until Saturday despite the fact that all oil rup- 
tures are to be reported at once. 

The beaches and rocky shore areas from Niantic to coastal Rhode Is- 
land were blackened with large globs of gooey tar-like oil. 

The Thames Science Center, 622 William Street, New London, was notified and 
were first on the scene with their three-man professional staff to appraise the situ- 
ation. Several oiled-homed grebes were picked up completely covered and unable 
to fly. Red-breasted merganser, black duck, greater scaup, common goldeneye, 
blufflehead, surf scoter, Canada Greese, mallard, mute swan, common loon, herring 
gull, and greater black-backed gulls were all found oiled in various stages in 
their struggle for survival. As of January 30 the following is a summary of 
accurate figures of birds observed by the Thames Science Center Staff. 



Species Captivity 







Oil covered, 








in natural 








habitat 






Known 


recovery 




ity 


dead 


questioned 


Totals 





19 


8 


27 


4 


140 


2 


146 


2 


3 


18 


23 


1 


1 


30 


32 





3 


6 


9 








1 


1 





1 


18 


19 


1 


8 


19 


28 


13 


13 


36 


62 








31 


31 





1 





1 








3 


3 








85 


85 


1 








1 



Common loon 

Horned grebe— _- 

Mute swan... 

Mallard 

Black duck 

Greater scaup 

Common goldeneye 

Bufflehead 

Red-breasted merganser. 

Herring gulls 

Surf scooter 

Black-back gull 

Canada geese 

White winged scoter 



Total 22 189 257 486 



On January 22, all beaches from the Connecticut River at Griswold Point, Old 
Lyme to the Harkness Memorial State Park south of New London at the mouth 
of the Thames River were visually checked. The only beach still with noticeable 
oil was Harkness Memorial State which was fairly cleared of the heavy oil. A 
policeman in Niantic said the tides cleared most oil from their beach. 

As of Friday, January 24, the Thames Science Center executive director, John 
Gardner, summarized the situation as follows : 

"The oil pollution was not severe because of the limited volume of pollutant in 
the water, the tendency of the oil to remain in globular form, its rapid mixing 

42-847 O— 70 ^20 



296 

with sand, and dissipation by wave action. Beaches appear in good condition 
on the surface. Marine life seems to have minimal problems. Because of winter- 
ing populations most waterfowl suffered moderate losses. However, we know that 
80 percent of the loons, 90 percent of the horned grebes, and 23 percent of the red- 
breasted mergansers wintering in the survey area have been affected." 

A revised appraisal on January 30 concludes that : 

At this time beaches are relatively clean, although rocky beaches still contain 
varying amounts of oil. Marine life seems to have minimal problems. Algae on 
rocky shores are expected to die, but regrow by spring. Waterfowl deaths now 
stand at 189 (known and verified). Two hundred and fifty-seven birds have been 
sighted with some oil fouling, and we expect that the majority of these will not 
survive. Seventy-four birds reported last time are unaccounted for at this time. 
It is normal for injured or sick birds to move into grassy areas or dense marsh 
areas where they die or are preyed, upon by predators. Consequently, we assume 
the 74 birds not accounted for are dead. (If these are added to confirmed deaths 
it brings the death toll to 263. ) The 257 birds sighted with oil covering parts of 
their body are not expected to survive. Deaths are attributed to oil ingestion. 
All data based on actual field studies and confirmed reports. No estimates or pro- 
jections included. 

DAMAGE TO COMMERCIAL SHELLFISHERIES 

Raritan Bay^ N.Y. and N.J. 

Exhaustive studies in Raritan Bay were carried out by the Public 
Health Service as part of the investigations resulting from shellfish 
bed closures and public health hazards resulting from pollution of 
Narragansett Bay. Most of the information presented in this case study 
was taken from the enforcement conferences which resulted from these 
investigations. 

An outbreak of hepatitis in 1961 was traced to consumption of raw 
shellfish from the Raritan Bay. In 1963 the Public Health Service 
found the same level of pollution as in 1961 and the project scientist 
concluded that in that year this health hazard "precluded a safe shell- 
fish industry and interfered with legitimate use of the waters of 
Raritan Bay." 

The bay was closed in 1961 to all shellfishing by order of the New 
Jersey State Commissioner of Health, Dr. Kandle. 

Bathing has been restricted on most of the beaches on Staten Island 
along this bay ( see case study on Staten Island beaches) . 

A total of 3,789 fishermen lost their livelihood in all of New Jersey 
due to closings, as of 1965. The Raritan Bay closing, therefore, would 
represent a maximum of 3,000 men out of work. 

All 1961 and 1962 water samplings by the Public Health Service 
show a heavy fecal bacteria count, both on mean average as well as 
for spot samples (lowest mean 50/100 ml., highest 9,700/100 ml.). The 
origin was traced to many insufficiently treated sewerage plants par- 
ticularly at Atlantic Highlands, and Keansburg and raw sewerage 
from the Earle Ammunition Depot (N.J.) and seven sewerages serv- 
ing a total of 3,000 inhabitants in Tottenville, Staten Island. Besides 
these, three additional sources of pollution are (1) the Narrows where 
sewerage from New York City passes through a "funnel," (2) the 
Raritan River, and (3) Arthur Kill. 

Great Kills Park was a man-made landfill, where garbage was 
dumped as a fill. It was impossible to ascertain how much pollution 
could be attributed to this fill operation. Only the statement by wit- 
nesses that the landfill operation caused pollution of the adjacent 
water is available. 



297 

Raritan Bay covers roughly 90 square miles of which an estimated 
5 percent was once harvested for shellfish. Thus, about 2,850 acres 
(A. S. Merrill) are suitable for shellfish. At the rate of 2,000 bushels 
of oysters on one acre (A. S. Merrill, 1967 Conference — Pollution 
of the Navigable Waters of Eastern Niew Jersey (November 1967) pre- 
pared for FWPCA, p. i^84) or 2,000 bushels of clams per acre (Jerome, 
Chesmore, and Anderson, Study of Marine Resources of Beverly- Salem 
Harbor (1967), p. 49) combined with a dockside price per bushel of 
$1.50, the loss per acre per year is $3,000. If 2,850 acres of the bay were 
so utilized, that total loss would amount tto $8.5 million annually. 
These figures will vary as follows : 

(1) 2,000 bushels per acre represents the upper limit of current bot- 
tom harvest yields. Three dimensional farming is already yielding 
over twice this amount per acre. On the other hand, a more average 
bottom yield would be on the order of a few hundred to 1,000 bushels 
per acre. 

(2) The $1.50 figure is very low since a bushel of oysters currently 
(1968) brings about $10 in the New England area. This would be the 
dockside landing value of the bushel. Then there is the expanded value 
of bushel or that represented by the flow of money and jobs generated 
by people employed in processing and marketing the product. The 
expanded value runs from five to ten times the dockside value. 

The pollution of shellfish beds in Raritan Bay has resulted, there- 
fore, in the following : 

( 1 ) loss of employment and loss of an industry ; 

( 2 ) an epidemic of hepatitis ; 

( 3 ) loss of recreational shellfish harvest ; and 

(4) loss of $8.5 million annually and five to ten times this 
amount if the expanded value is used. 

From 1948 to 1960 Raritan Bay shellfish reaching the New York 
City market of 20,000 to 30,000 bushels a year brought $6 per bushel 
or $120,000 to $180,000 annual dockside value. A survey bythe North- 
east Shellfish Sanitation Research Center (circa 1965) indicated a 
standing crop of some 5 million bushels of clams which agrees with 
the estimate made above. 

Penobscot Bay^ Maine 

The "Report on Pollution — Navigable Waters of the Penobscot 
River and Upper Penobscot Bay in Maine", Merrimack River Project- 
Northeast Region, Boston, Mass., February 1967, Federal Water Pol- 
lution Control Administration, provided the information for this case 
study. 

Penobscot Bay and River are troubled with at least four major types 
of pollution which affect the shellfish 'beds. Untreated or insufficiently 
treated sewage, poultry processing wastes, sulfite waste liquor, and 
heavy metal contamination from mining operations have compounded 
the problem of trying to reopen the closed shellfish beds. 

T'he long axis of the Penobscot River-Bay-Estuary system is ap- 
proximately 35 miles in length. Shellfish growing areas of the upper 
bay were first closed in 1946. Since that time, more and more closures 
have been required along the entire upper perimeter of the teay and 
the lower estuary. Increases in poultry processing and other industrial 



298 

and commercial expansion have required a drastic increase in the acre- 
age of flats and waters closed because of pollution. Some of the prob- 
lem is due to heavy metals mining. 

Levels of toxic metals are at or above the maximum of the normal 
range for shellfish. In the case of lead, the concentration is double or 
triple the maximum guideline recommended by the U.S. Public Health 
Service. 

In addition to the high coliform counts, there is a problem in the 
Penobscot Bay area due to poultry processing. The following informa- 
tion gives a picture of the problems caused by the poultry industry 
(report on "Pollution-Navigable Waters of the Penobscot River and 
Upper Penobscot Bay in Maine"). 

On June 28, 1966, the Maine Sea and Shore Fisheries reported finding floating 
chicken entrails in Stockton Harbor at the northeast side of Sears Island. They 
reported that these entrails had a total ool'iform value greater than 170,000 
MPN/100 ml. Again on July 8, 1966, floating chicken entrails were found by fish- 
eries personnel in Stockton Hartior at the same location. They also reported that 
on June 28, 1966, an animal fat film was found on the waters from the south tip 
of Sears Island to the north tip of Sears Island in Stockton Harbor. Large 
amounts of feathers have been reported found on Sears Island and Islesboro 
Island. A ferry nmning from Islesboro Island to Lincolnvllle, which is south of 
N'orthport, reported that their water intake screen had to be cleaned at least 
once a week in the past, due to chicken feathers clogging the screen. In the past, 
chicken entrails have been found all along the banks of Belfast Bay. During the 
period samples were being collected by the Merrimack River project, there were no 
significant discharges of either feathers or entrails, indicating that either the 
new screening devices were working properly or that closer attention was given 
to maintenance of these screens. 

Sterile gauze swabs were placed at 21 stations for about 5 days. Salmonellae 
were found at five of the stations poultry plant effluent. The United States 
Public Health Services Communicable Disease Center determined the serotyi)e. 
The results clearly pointed out that poultry plant wastes are pathogenic to man 
since all Salmonella b^acteria are pathogenic. Salmonellae were isolated from 
both swabs placed in the Penobscot River. 

The Maine Water Improvement Commission found that the disisolved oxygen 
placed the Penobscot River either in the nuisance condition or in class D (suit- 
able for transportation of sewage and industrial waste without causing a public 
nuisance) from Bangor to Bucksport. Zero D.O. was found from Bangor to Win- 
terport during the summer of 1963, with the oxygen sag curve moving down- 
stream at low tide and ui>stream at high tide. This dissolved oxygen condition 
limits usage of the entire river below Bangor and prevents fish, including anadro- 
mous fisih such as salmon, from passing through these waters. 

Another problem is sulfite waste liquor resulting from the process- 
ing of pulp using the sulfite process. "Bioassays of Pulp Mill Wastes 
with Oysters, Biological Problems in Water Pollution," U.S. Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1965, 
showed that concentration of SWL above 10 p.p.m. prevented the em- 
bryonic development of the Olympic oyster from eggs to shelled 
larvae. Upper Penobscot Bay area had SWL concentration near 60 
p.p.m. and at low tide near Fort Point the value was about 100 p.p.m. 

In November 1954, about 5 miles of shoreline and a fivefold increase 
in the total area of flats and overlying waters were added to the orig- 
inal Belfast Bay closure. Prior to this time, 50 commercial diggers 
had been licensed in the Belfast area alone. 

Additional closures have been made periodically since 1954. Finally, 
by July 1, 1966, the last remaining open areas were closed, making 
the closure complete from Great Spruce Head in Northport up the 
Penobscot River and down the east shore to Castine. 



299 

For the total area of Penobscot Bay affected by the recent shellfish 
area closures, the estimated population was placed at 96,000 bushels 
of marketable soft clams, valued from a community standpoint (note: 
this is the concept used in other case studies as the expanded 
value * * * it is generally 2.5 to 7 times the dockside or landing value) 
at $1,876,000 to $5,216,400. Potential harvest during a second season 
was estimated to be 46,200 bushels. These would have a value to the 
community of from $896,800 to $2,494,800. 

DAMAGE TO SHELLFISH HABITAT 

Great Bay^ N.H. 

Two documents provided the information for this case study: 
"Coastal Watershed" by the New Hampshire Water Pollution Com- 
mission, July 1965, staff report No. 51, and "A Biological Survey of 
Great Bay, New Hampshire by the Marine Fisheries Commission, 
No. 1, Physical and Biological Features of Great Bay and the Present 
Status of its Marine Resources," C. F. Jackson, director. Biological 
Institute, University of New Hampshire, Durham, N.H., March 1944. 

Historical data indicate that the Great Bay area was at one time 
especially rich in natural resources, such as salmon, shad, cod, and 
various shellfish. Rapid decline or ultimate disappearance of many of 
these food fishes dates from the beginning of the industrial 
development of this region about 1800. 

Great Bay and the tidal rivers afford some 2,815 acres of potential 
clam flats. Most of these are nonproductive due to pollution, silt, or 
the growth of Spartina. The situation in reference to oysters parallels 
closely that of clams. In early days the oyster fisheries probably 
exceeded in commercial importance those of the clam. In later years, 
however, this situation has been reversed, due first, to the growing 
scarcity of the oyster, and secondly, to restrictive legislation. 

Clams and oysters were once harvested in Great Bay Estuary. In 
1938 the estuary was closed to the commercial production of clams due 
to bacterial pollution. In his biological survey of Great Bay in 1944, 
C. F. Jackson estimated a loss of $2 million annually on clams in 
Great Bay. Thus, with no commercial utilization of clams in Great 
Bay over the last 30 years, a loss can be calculated at $60 million since 
it is based on a per bushel value of $1.50 and the 1944 price of clams. 
The current per bushel price of clams in the New England area is 
nearly $10. Thus the loss, dockside, may be nearly seven times greater 
or nearly $420 million since 1938. Oyster production in Great Bay 
Estuary has also been closed commercially since 1938. A recent survey 
estimated the total acreage of oyster beds at roughly 25 acres in Great 
Bay. At a production of 500 bushels per acre, this would result in a 
loss of 12,500 bushels annually. Oysters at $10 per bushel would then 
bring in $125,000 annually. Over the 30-year period since harvesting 
has been closed this loss due to pollution amounts to nearly $4 million. 

All tributaries of Great Bay are dammed. Many of these dams have 
existed since 1800 and provide a block for fish such as salmon, alewives, 
and American shad, which need freshwater areas to complete their life 
cycles. The lost value of such fisheries over the years would run into 
many millions of dollars to both commercial and, more recently, sport 
fishermen. It should be pointed out that no definite estimate of this 
loss has been made but it is definitely measurable. 



300 

Moriches Bay and Great South Bay., L.I. 

Information for this case study was supplied by contract investiga- 
tions conducted as part of the National Estuarine Pollution Study, 
two Federal enforcement conference proceedings and a report of the 
Nassau-Suffolk Kegional Planning Board (IV-6-5) . 

Up to 7 million ducks annually live in farms located on Moriches 
Bay and parts of Great South Bay. These ducks are a source of pollu- 
tion to the bays. In one form, they cause the closing of valuable shell- 
fish beds due to high coliform counts. Another form of pollution they 
create is BOD and eutrophication due to the duck sludge which covers 
the bottom of the bay in some sections. 

Studies conducted by the Division of Laboratories and Research of 
the New York State Department of Health on duck wastes have shown 
them to be high in solids, BOD, nutrients, bacterial content, and con- 
stitute a public health hazard. It was found that the strength and 
volume of the wastes reaching the waste stream depended on the num- 
ber, age, activity, position of ducks in the pens, amount of rainfall, 
runoff area, normal water use at the farms, and availability of water 
to the ducks. 

Coliform densities were found to vary from a median MPN of 
5.8X10'' per 100 ml. to 60X10« per 100 ml. Typical water usages 
ranged from 0.290 mgd to 3.0 mgd per farm and from 14 gallon to 120 
gallons per day per duck. 

Since 1940, there has been a decline in the oyster and fish production 
of Great South Bay. These conditions have coincided with the buildup 
of the duck industry in the areas surrounding Moriches Bay. The 
wastes from the duck farms effectively fertilized these waters but with 
a low ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus. 

As a result of the increased nutrients, especially phosphorus, the 
waters of Great South Bay have exhibited increased algal populations. 
Heavy growths of algae developed in the early spring and persisted 
through summer and fall. At its peak, the conce^ntration of algal cells 
exceeded 10 million/ml. The dominant bloom algae was a small, uni- 
cellular species often termed "small form." This algae differed greatly 
from the flora typical of bays and estuaries in the same region and its 
persistance over long periods of time eliminated the typical seasonal 
succession of forms in the bay. 

The decline of the oyster industry was directly correlated with the 
increase in the "small form." This was due to the fact that the optimum 
conditions for oytser growth included a mixed algal population. Al- 
though oysters do feed on the "small forms," these algae are an in- 
adequate nutrient source. Serpulid worms which are capable of 
effectively utilizing the "small forms" for food have overrun the oyster 
beds periodically and thereby adversely affected oyster production by 
competitive exclusion. 

The report of the Nassau-Suffolk Regional Planning Board, "The 
Status and Potential of the Marine Environment," states that "the 
oyster industry has declined 99 percent in the past 50 years from $50 
million to $1/2 million" ( p. 2-7) . 

In addition to the habitat damage caused by the duck farm wastes, 
there are productive areas of shellfish beds closed because of bacterial 
contamination. 



301 

The closed acreage, about 6,000 acres with 4,500 usable acres at 5 
bushels per acre at $10 per bushel, is estimated to be capable of pro- 
ducing clams with a docks'ide value of $225,000 and an expanded value 
in excess of $2,250,000 annually. Tliis loss has been in effect for 25 
years. Adjacent open waters provide the proof of use an<l tlie dollar 
values used to estimate the loss. 

DAMAGE TO RECREATION 

Staten Island Beaches 

The information presented in this case study was obtained through 
interview of the manager of the Parks Department, Staten Island, 
F.D.E. Boardwalk, and the manager of Wolfe Pond Park, Staten 
Island, in April 1969. Additional information pertaining to average 
coliform density on the Staten Island Beaches was obtained from the 
New York City Department of Health. Former uses of the beaches are a 
matter of record and can be verified through old newspaper clippings 
of the Staten Island Advance as well as discussion with older residents 
of New Jersey and Staten Island. These statistics are not available in 
published form and have been verified and rechecked bv interview and 
investigation as part of the contract studies of the National Estuarine 
Pollution Study. 

The F.D.R. Boardwalk, Midland Beach, Great Kills Park, and 
South Beach are regularly posted in the summer season. The signs read 
"Not Recommended for Bathing," and are posted by the Board of 
Health of the city of New York. When this happened in 1968, it 
resulted in a drop of 50 percent in the use of these facilities. 

Bathhouses and parking facilities were originated in the 1930's. 
The construction which is now evident dates from a reconstruction in 
1950. 

South Beach has two parking facilities for 800 cars each. Midland 
Beach for another 800 cars, amounting to a total of 2,400 cars parking 
facilities. 

On a nonposted average day, 1,300 cars will use these lots. On a 
holiday, 2,000 cars will be using them. The admittance per car is 50 
cents, therefore, $650 and $1,000 are paid for parking respectively. 
When the beach is posted "not recommended for bathing," an average 
day's parking fees amount to $325 and a peak day yields $500. 

The beaches are open from May 24 to the weekend after Labor Day. 
With Memorial Day, July 4th, and Labor Day offering a total of 9 
days peak activity at a loss of $500 per day in parking fees, a total loss 
of $4,500 per season for peak activity is attributed to pollution. In 
June, July, and August, weather and conditions permitting 25 days 
average usage per month is available. If the loss of use due to pollu- 
tion runs at $325 a day, the loss computes to $8,125 per month and for 
the total season to about $24,000 in round figures. Conser^^atively 
speaking, the total annual loss amounts to $30,000 in parking fees 
alone. 

It is most important, however, that these figures in dollars by no 
means reflect the true loss in recreational facilities due to pollution. 
Fifty cents is charged whether one car with one passenger or a whole 
family parks in the parking lots. Most of the time whole families are 
affected in this figure of 50 cents per car, usually most families from 



302 

modest if not low socioeconomic background whose residences are 
within easy reach of these beaches, such as Newark, Elizabeth, Man- 
hattan, and Staten Island. 

The economic loss resulting from loss in corollary sales is not in- 
cluded : soft drinks, ice cream, and snack sales which constitute a 
business for many seasonally employed people are not included in 
this case study but have to be considered. 

The present condition of loss in recreational facilities was reported 
by officials of the Park Department and verified through a direct inter- 
view on April 19i69, with the Manager of the Parks Department, 
F.D.K. Boardwalk. The pollution was verified by N.Y.C. Depart- 
ment of Health. Coliform count at Midland and South Beach is in 
the order of 7,000 to 9,000 MPN/100 ml; the greatest pollution exists 
at the Narrows. 

The sewage and human waste from New York City area decreases 
by dilution towards the middle of Staten Island shore and increases 
where contact with the Jersey shore is greater. The human waste 
materials emanating from these two points causes the lowest coliform 
density point at Wolfe Pond Park. The latter is never posted accord- 
ing to the guard interviewed on location. However, when the word 
spreads that the other beaches have been posted, the attendance at 
Wolfe Pond Park also drops up to 25 percent in spite of Wolfe Pond 
Park not being posted. 

The fact that the parking lots, and hence the beaches themselves, 
are hardly ever used to full capacity indicated that even when the 
beaches are not posted, public opinion cannot react on a "day-to-day" 
posting basis and people consider the beaches as "polluted" at all times. 
The loss damage estimates could use the full parking lot capacity be- 
cause the Staten Island area is in the midst of the largest metro- 
politan complex in the world with a corresponding need for any and 
all recreation facilities especially during the hot summer season when 
the requirement for providing activity for teenagers and unemployed 
is most critical. 

Santa Barbara^ Calif. 

An emission of oil originating in the vicinity of an offshore drilling 
platform operated by Union Oil Co. began on January 28, 1969, and 
was not contained until 12 days later; subsequently, additional oil 
began leaking through the ocean floor. 

The oil came ashore in the vicinity of Santa Barbara and covered 
beaches that are a major recreational resource of the area. The Union 
Oil Co. accepted responsibility for cleaning the beaches and other 
property damaged by the oil, and by June 1, 1969, had spent $4,600,000 
for this purpose. (IV-6-6, IV-6-7.) 

DAMAGE TO NAVIGATION 

Charleston Harbor, S.C. 

The information for this case study was obtained from the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers report "Survey Report on Cooper River, 
S.C. (shoaling in Charleston Harbor)," 1966, and from "A retro- 
spective economic analysis of the Santee-Cooper project," December 
1967, by William Augustus Ward. 



303 

As part of the national plan to minimize unemployment during the 
great depression of the 1930's the South Carolina Public Service 
Authority was formed for the purpose of building a large dam, water 
supply, flood control, navigation lock, recreation and employment 
opportunity complex. Cost-benefit analysis was needed to show that 
the project merited the loan of Federal funds. The construction com- 
plex is referred to as the Santee-Cooper project. 

In 1967 a study to check on the effectiveness of a cost-benefit analysis 
made 25 years previously was undertaken. Part of this analysis re- 
vealed that as a result of construction and hydraulic rerouting of 
rivers the silting in Charleston Harbor increased from what was 
estimated at $18,000 annually to an actual cost of over $2,029,756 
annually. For every year in the future that the hydraulic regime of 
the harbor is not restored to a more suitable mode t)f circulation there 
will be a dredging cost of roughly the same magnitude incurred. 

The diversion of the Santee River into the Cooper River constituted 
a remarkable engineering experiment. The designers of the diversion 
apparently foresaw no adverse effects. To the contrary, they felt that 
the effects of the added flow would be to flush out the harbor and pre- 
vent any serious pollution from ever occurring. As a result, the dis- 
covery that the shoaling rates were increasing in the harbor apparently 
came as a complete surprise to everyone. By 1947 the Corps of Engi- 
neers was undertaking model studies to try to determine a solution to 
the problem. 

The finding of the Corps in their mod'el studies at Vicksburg, Miss., 
indicated that the increased flow into the harbor area had created a 
partially mixed estuary. That is, the ratio of freshwater to salt water 
in the harbor area was such that a definite interface developed which 
moved longitudinally up and down with the tide. The dense saltwater 
was overlain by the freshwater inflow. As the freshwater flow in- 
creased to 15,000 c.f.s., the bottom flood currents became greater in 
duration over the bottom ebb currents. The effect was to create a net 
upstream movement of the bottom currents in the saline region of 
the harbor area, a condition which created a trap at the bottom of 
the estuary preventing the movement of settling materials out to sea. 

At about the same time the Santee-Cooper project began operations, 
the project depth of the Charleston Harbor was changed from 30 
feet to 35 feet. This further complicated the dredging problem for two 
reasons: first, the Corps had 5 additional feet of depth to maintain 
and second, the dredging itself loosened the accumulated silt out- 
side of the shipping channels and allowed it to slip into the channels. 
The Corps maintained, however, that the natural depth of the Charles- 
ton Harbor had exceeded 35 feet, and that the greater project depth 
in itself would not have constituted much of a problem. 

From its study of the shoaling problem in the Charleston Harbor, 
the Corps estimated that the Santee-Cooper project was responsible 
for approximately 85 percent of the shoaling in the harbor. The rest, 
they said, would have occurred without the project. 

In 1965, dredging by the Corps was done at a cost of $2,237,949. It 
was estimated by the Corps that commercial shippers spent $100,000 
on dredging operations w^hile the Navy spent $50,000. Assigning 85 
percent of this cost of the Santee-Cooper project, a negative benefit of 
$2,029,756 was attributed to operation of the project in 1965. 



304 

The most competent engineering firms in the Nation were employed 
in designing and constructing the project, and the design was checked 
and approved by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Still, the analy- 
sis by the planners and engineers of the project yielded estimates of 
benefits and costs which were substantially different from those which 
actually occurred. Part- of the discrepancy was due to simple optimism 
and even some bias on the part of the analysts. An equally large part 
seemed to be due to the inability of man to see even 25 years into the 
future. In the case of silting, the state-of-the-art was such in 1930 
that no adverse effects were envisioned. As a result the dredging bill 
jumped from $18,000 to $2,029,756 annually. 

Section" 3. Trends in Estuarine Ecology Associated With Man's 

Activities 

The future character of estuarine ecological systems in the United 
States will be determined by present and future pressures affecting 
the estuarine zone, public decisions, and by the actions resulting from 
public policy. Thus, the future nature and operation of the total bio- 
physical environment will be shaped primarily by the socioeconomic 
and institutional environments discussed in this report. 

Existing estuarine ecological systems will continue to operate either 
in long-established dynamic patterns of chemical cycling, water cir- 
culation and species behavior, or these activities will be increasingly 
dominated by man's activities. Man's activities generally result in 
great stresses on established plant, animal, and chemical processes, if 
not total system modification. These activities may be controlled by 
decisions made in the socioeconomic and institutional environments to 
minimize impacts on the existing estuarine systems, thus retaining 
their structure and operation ; or, the energy sources and stresses asso- 
ciated with man's activities may be allowed to dominate estuarine 
processes and, in effect, create wholly or partially different systems. 

From a strictly empirical or descriptive viewpoint, the emerging 
new systems associated with man's activities are neither good nor bad 
per se; the determination of values relating to these modified systems 
must be made within the existing or potential socioeconomic and insti- 
tutional frameworks. Values will be set in the marketplace, which in- 
clude all the mechanisms whereby society normally measures the worth 
of goods, services and wages, which in turn largely determine the pres- 
sures placed on estuarine systems. The non-market system also deter- 
mines values through the expression of clioices expressing social costs 
and benefits not measured in standard economic terms. These two 
major componrits of value-setting must be balanced if modification 
and ultimate destruction of existing estuarine ecosystems is to be 
avoided. 

stress and estuarine ecology 

Estuarine ecological systems consist of populations of organisms, 
flows of water, pathways of cycling chemical elements, and organizing 
mechanisms which are all tightly interrelated. These systems con- 
stantly adjust as the principal elements in their operation change in 
character, cfuantity, and composition. Thus, estuarine ecological 55^8- 
tems, as with all ecological communities, are subject to change, and 
either successfully adapt, or are replaced by other systems. 



305 

Maintenance of estuarine ecological systems is dependent on an ef- 
fective flow of energy and mineral cycles; it is these factors that most 
fundamentally determine the important features of system yield, sys- 
tem stability and water quality, rather than the presence of large, 
visible forms of life. In estuaries, the sun operating plant production 
processes and the mineral and organic fuels entering from fresh water 
inflows are the most important energy bases. Both the ecosystem com- 
ponents and overall energy flows primarily originating jfrom these 
sources must, be maintained without acute shortages or excesses. If the 
balance of cycling fails, estuarine ecological systems become less effec- 
tive in processing food energies and are subject to replacement, either 
as a whole, or by substitution of their parts. 

A stress on an estuary is a process which drains available energy. 
Stress can be either direct as in the case of harvesting finfish or shell- 
fish from the system, or indirect as happens when increased turbidities 
shade out light or when some substance such as phenol is added to the 
aquatic system, either causing mortality or demanding special adap- 
tive work on the part of surviving organisms to sustain life. Energy 
drains on existing organisms may also occur when excesses of nutrients 
added to the system deplete the available oxygen necessary for 
respiration. 

In general, estuarine system diversity and organization is highest 
where energy inputs are high and stresses are low as in many relatively 
unmodified temperate and tropical estuarine areas. Conversely, those 
systems where stresses are high and sources of energy low are charac- 
terized by low species diversity and relatively simple organization as 
in the case of artic systems or those greatly modified by man. Thus, the 
relative diversity and organization of estuarine systems are due to 
both "natural" occurrences, such as sunlight, temperature fluxes and 
nutrient inflows, as well as those associated with man's activities such 
as modification of circulation regimes, addition of pollutants to the 
water, and thermal waste heating. 

Estuarine systems in the United States are almost universally 
stressed by both natural and man-induced processes. The relative mix- 
ture of man-caused and naturally occurring stresses, and their respec- 
tive roles in estuarine modification, are presently little known, and 
difficult to separate. It is certain, however, that the stresses resulting 
from man's present and potential activities in the estuarine zone play 
a decisive and increasing role in the foreseeable future operation of 
estuarine ecologies. Therefore, the following discussion focuses uj)on 
man's activities as they relate to modification of existing estuarine 
systems. 

man's activities and esttjakine system stress 

Part IV, chapter 4 showed the presently identifiable trends associated 
with population and economic development and with specific activities 
affecting the estuarine zone. At present, however, the rate of change 
effected by these trends on estuarine ecological systems is little known. 
The most recent work by ecologists is generally concerned with identifi- 
cation of system types, the development of general theory, and the 
measurement of system characteristics and operating phenomena. 
Much is known about certain elements of estuarine ecological systems, 
such as temperatures, salinities, abundance of certain biotic commu- 



306 

nities, but the specific processes and causal relationships of complex 
whole systems and interacting subsystems have only recently been 
partially understood. 

Modification of estuarine ecological systems is nevertheless a trend 
which can be qualitatively, if not quantitatively, observed. Figure 
IV.6.1 indicates the general relationships between man's activities 
and estuarine ecological system modification. 

The Nation's population and economy have expanded rapidly in the 
recent past and will continue to grow substantially in the foreseeable 
future. Moderate projections indicate a doubling of national popula- 
tion by the turn of the century. Much of this growth, probably more 
than one-third, will occur in the estuarine zone. Population growth 
will spur the expansion of urban and suburban developments. Major 
portions of urban development will develop along all major coastlines 
of the United States — particularly the Atlantic coastline north of 
North Carolina, Florida, the middle portions of the Gulf of Mexico 
and California. The economy will also expand both in scope and diver- 
sity to meet the demands of an increasing, wealthy population. Much 
of this economic activity will be centered on or closely adjacent to the 
Nation's estuaries and coastal shoreline. These economic activities will 
vary from place to place due to the location of natural resources and 
the demands for these resources, historic circumstance, availability 
of markets and changes in technology. 

The general growth of both the population and economy is reflected 
in expanding trends noted for more specific activities related to the 
estuarine environment : marine fisheries, civilian and national defense 
transportation, marine mining and processing, outdoor recreation and 
waste discharge. All of these activities, as well as the associated second- 
ary and marginal activities located in the estuarine zone, will intensify 
in future years. Marine fisheries and outdoor recreation are highly 
dependent upon naturally occurring properties of estuarine ecological 
systems. Transportation, mining and waste discharge are much less 
tied to these systems, although at some point in the continuum of degra- 
dation these too would be adversely affected. 

The case has been made that although all of these activities vary 
in their impact and dependence on estuarine systems, they all tend 
increasingly to modify those systems in a multitude of ways. 

There appear to be at least three forms of estuarine system modifi- 
cation common to the specific activities described above: waste dis- 
charge, dredging, and construction of physical structures. In other 
words, these activities, and many others, contribute significantly to 
not only one identified form of estuarine system modification, but are 
usually responsible for a number of alterations of the biophysical 
environment. 

Although generalizations about the effects of man's activities on 
estuarine ecology are hazardous at best, the following results generally 
characterize the modifications associated with significant waste dis- 
charges, dredging and filling, and construction of physical structures 
either on fresh water inflows or in the estuaries themselves : 

(1) Productivity of biotic communities is generally reduced. This 
is due to many factors including reduction or over provision of nutri- 
ents, abrupt changes in temperatures and salinities, changes in circula- 
tion patterns, and destruction of physical components of the system. 

(2) Species diversity and organization is simplified. 

(3) Trends toward severely modified ecosystems are established. 



J 



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308 

A review of recent literature indicates, however, that although these 
effects appear to be generalized, individual estuarine ecological systems 
must be studied in detail to establish precisely the parameters of change 
involved. Due to the complexity of the systems themselves, and of the 
causal interactions attributed to man's activities, no attempt can be 
made to establish national and regional trends in estuarine ecology. At 
this stage of laiowledge such trending, based on scientifically tested 
information, is impossible. Yet one kind of estuarine ecological system 
does seem to be increasingly prevalent in the estuarine zone, and may 
become the predominant type if the impact of the socioeconomic envi- 
ronment on the biophysical environment continues unchecked. 

THE MULTIPI^-STEESSED SYSTEM: ESTUARINE ECOLOGY OP THE FUTURE? 

It seems clear that most, if not all major estuarine areas in the con- 
tinental United States are now or soon will be affected by disturbances 
of more than one identifiable type. These systems are characterized 
by heterogeneous patches of chemicals, fertilized waters, waters low 
in available oxygen, turbidities, acids and other conditions alien to 
normal life of estuarine ecosystems. The multiple stressed situation is 
possibly the Nation's most urgent estuarine problem because the condi- 
tion is a mixture and the causes several. The stress of many different 
kinds of wastes may be more difficult for an ecosystem to adapt to than 
separate types of wastes acting alone. The continual fluctuations re- 
quire more kinds of adaptation than there may be food energies to sup- 
port. Some bays receiving mixed wastes which are primarily nutrient 
of non-toxic nature may develop extremely high metabolic rates and 
high rates of photosynthetic production. Such bays are almost micro- 
organism cultures, but have active larger animal populations too. Po- 
tentially such fertile waters are a food-producing resource, although we 
know relatively little about the conditions for management of these 
mixtures which will channel energies into products of use to man, 
effectively mineralize the wasteSj and stabilize the ecosystem. 

Areas already noted as exhibiting these characteristics are, not sur- 
prisingly, those systems associated with concentrations of population 
and economic activity such as Boston Harbor, New York Harbor, 
Raritan Bay, portions of Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Galveston Bay 
and San Francisco Bay. 

In a typical example, which is found in Galveston Bay, one major 
development alone, the petrochemical complex, is identified as con- 
tributing 12 major sources of modification to this naturally rich 
estuarine complex. At least seven identifiable stressed systems result : 
Sewage waste, dredging impoundments, petroleum snores, pilings, 
brine pollution, and petrochemical wastes (IV-6-8) . 

Situated at the upper end of Galveston Bay, Tex., is the Houston 
ship channel along which are located dozens of major industries that 
release wastes. Refineries, petrochemicals, sanitary wastes, and many 
others go into waters that pass out into Galveston Bay. The dredged 
channel is 40 feet deep, floored with waste sludge and generally black, 
and sometimes stratified with more saline waters on the bottom. Condi- 
tions are patchy, often low in oxygen, and often with high concentra- 
tions of oxidants and reducing compounds. 

Similarly, one of the most fertile estuaries in America is Tampa 
Bay, that receives municipal wastes, food processing wastes, the out- 
flows from phosphate district of Florida, and many other wastes. 
There are high concentrations of cells, nutrients, and other organisms. 



309 

Hi^h fertility persists from low salinities in small headwaters to the 
full salinities at the mouth under the Skyway Bridge, The Florida 
red tide is a recurring phytoplankton bloom of a dinoflagellate Gym- 
nodinmm hreve that is poisonous to fish. This red water develops fish- 
killing blooms in high-salinity waters off the west coast of Florida and 
sometimes within the lower bay. The relationshij:) of the fertile bay 
culture waters to the red tide outside is still uncertain and under study. 
However, the high fertility has not destroyed the general middle salin- 
ity characteristics of the ecosystem of the main bay where oysters, 
copepods, pinfish, and young shrimp are abundant. Much of the area 
has been disturbed in dredging and filling although there are still 
large areas of shallow ecosystems that serve as fertile nurseries 
riV-6-9). 

Examples of severe modification and the resulting multiple stressed 
systems could be multiplied many times. The point is that nearly every 
trend noted in the socioeconomic environment in the recent past, and 
in the future, indicates that much of the estuarine zone is likely to 
receive these multiple man-caused stresses. Thus, the estuarine ecologi- 
cal system of the future appears likely, if past use trends continue, to 
be characterized by a new emerging "stinko" environment. Clearly, 
reliance upon existing use, management, planning, economic restraints, 
and technology to provide solutions to this trend are inadequate. It 
is essential that the socioeconomic and institutional environments be 
mobilized to reverse this seemingly inexorable destruction of the irre- 
placeable estuarine ecologies of the Nation. 

Section 4. Resolution of Use Conflicts 

Use damage and ecological disasters are not necessary features of 
civilization in the estuarine zone, but use conflicts will continue to exist 
as more and more demands are made on the natural environment. The 
ability of any management authority to prevent use damage and to 
resolve use conflicts depends not only upon its institutional composi- 
tion and legal authority, but also upon the social, economic, and bio- 
physical characteristics of the estuarine management unit within its 
authority is exercised. 

The analyses of social and economic values of the estuarine zone 
examined concurrently with the similar analyses of use conflicts, pol- 
lutional effects, and use damages form the basis for this discussion of 
those means by which use conflicts can be resolved through the applica- 
tion of technical knowledge, i.e., technical management. 

The primary objective of technical management is to accommodate 
the needed and desired uses of any estuarine management unit within 
that system without overall damage to the biophysical environment. 
The ability to achieve this objective depends on the boundaries of the 
management unit and upon the means available for resolving both 
prohibitive use conflicts and restrictive use conflicts. 

MANAGEMENT UNIT BOUNDARIES 

The impact of the social and economic requirements of civilization 
on the natural estuarine environment is the technical problem with 
which management must deal, and effective control of this impact can 
be maintained only i'f both the major sources of damage and the geo- 
graphic range of their influence are subject to unified control. 



310 

Estuarine use conflicts and damages involve activities and effects 
concerning both land and water. 

Many of the wastes which damage the estuarine environment orig- 
inate from cities, industries, and other activities on the land, and 
control of the wastes from such sources is essential to effective manage- 
ment. Shoreline development limits access to estuarine areas as well as 
modifying some parts of the estuarine environment. 

An estuarine management unit, therefore, should consist not only of 
the estuarine waters, bottoms, and associated marshlands ; but it should 
also include all of the shoreline surrounding the estuarine waters them- 
selves and as much of the adjoining land as is necessary to regulate 
the discharge of wastes into estuarine waters. 

Effective control of water quality is one key to effective technical 
management, and one essential requirement in accomplishing this is 
the ability to monitor water quality constantly and consistently. While 
the details of water quality monitoring are based on needs within 
individual estuarine systems, it is necessary that management unit 
boundaries be chosen so that the managing authority can measure 
both the quality and quantity of water entering and leaving the man- 
agement unit. This is essential both to give warning of any incoming 
water quality degradation and to safeguard other estuarine 
environments by warning of any outgoing water quality degradation. 

The size of the estuarine management unit is in itself a highly im- 
portant factor in the technical managment of estuarine systems. In a 
very small management unit it may be impossible to accommodate more 
than one use, thus making futile efforts to resolve use conflicts and 
achieve multiple use. For example, the maintenance of a commercial 
oyster fishery in the midst of a dredged navigation channel might offer 
the same problems in achieving multiple use as would the maintenance 
of a commercial chicken ranch in the middle of Kennedy International 
Airport. Conversely, in very large, highly developed, management 
units it becomes difficult to deal with individual problems in sufficient 
detail to control use conflicts effectively. 

The boundaries of viable estuarine management units are generally 
governed by social, economic, and political factors rather than the 
sizes of the estuarine systems they include. Tlius, the capability of 
technical management to resolve use conflicts in some management 
units may be severely limited by external factors and it maj^ therefore 
be necessary to forego some uses because of the small size of the 
estuarine resource available for use. 

RESOLUTION OF PROHIBITrVE USE CONFLICTS 

Those uses which exclude other uses generally involve modification 
of the shoreline, marshes, or bottoms by dredging, filling, or the build- 
ing of a permanent structure. Such activities may not only immediately 
affect the estuarine morphology and habitat, but they may also cause 
widespread, long-range changes in the ecosystem. 

The evaluation of the effects of prohibitive uses on the estuarine 
environment is probably the most difficult problem currently facing 
technical management. The immediate and obvious effects of the 
habitat loss associated with such uses can be measured and described 
fairly easily, but the ultimate results of the modification of water 



311 

movement patterns and flushing characteristics can only l)e estimated 
in general terms. The need for researcli on such problems is discussed 
in part VI, chapter 3; until a sufficient amount of knowledge is ac- 
cumulated, however, the only useful guide is comparison with occur- 
rences in similar systems. 

In nearly every problem associated with prohibitive use conflicts, 
hoAA'ever, the area of primary concern is the effect on the estuarine 
ecosystem of any physical modifications proponed; the limitations of 
knowledge outlined above, therefore, present a critical pro))lem in 
present efforts to resolve prohibitive use conflicts. 

The great amount of modification that has already occurred in the 
estuarine zone has already resolved the problem of use conflicts in 
some estuarine sytems by preempting or usurping a part of the 
estuarine resource for a single purpose, in many cases making modifica- 
tions too expensive or otherwise too difficult to change in spite of their 
effects on the local environment. 

There is little that can be done directly to correct environmental 
damage associated with past changes, but future demands for pro- 
hibitive use in a management unit can be resolved through applica- 
tion of past experience. 

Allocation of part of the estuarine resource for an exclusive single- 
purpose use is a necessary fact of estuarine management. The shoreline 
is a necessary location for shipping docks and for swimming beaches, 
but they cannot both occupy the same place on the shoreline. 

Similarlj^, frequently dredged channels and oyster beds cannot oc- 
cupy the same space at the same time. Resolution of such conflicts 
can be achieved by allocation of adequate space to each use through 
whatever institutional mechanism is established. 

A more difficult problem arises where there is involved a massive 
dredge or fill operation with its concomitant immediate effect on the 
ecosystem. When such modifications are a necessary or desirable devel- 
opment of the environment it may be necessary to forego the habitat 
use ; however, in many cases it may be possible to create new, equivalent 
habitat in a different part of the management unit, or it might be 
possible to restore part of the damaged environment. 

For example, in recent negotiations concerning the dredging of 
phosphate rock along the Georgia coast, the company involved pro- 
posed to rebuild over 3,000 acres of the marsh that would be destroyed 
in the mining operation. 

While the resolution of prohibitive use conflicts requires the aban- 
doning of one use in favor of another, the potential for carrying out 
any modifications necessary so as to increase habitat value as well as 
economic value should be a key factor in the resolution of such 
problems. 

RESOLUTIOlSr OF RESTRICTIVE USE CONFLICTS 

Disposal of liquid wastes to the estuarine enviroment is the major 
restrictive use impact of the socioeconomic environment. This use 
conflict can be resolved completely either by treating all wastes to 
such an extent that they do not interfere with any other uses or else 
removing them entirely from the environment. 



42-847 O - 70 - 21 



312 

Technology exists to provide thorough treatment for nearly every 
kind of municipal and industrial waste, and there is no reason not 
to provide treatment sufficient to protect the environment from the 
damage and to permit other uses. Treatment requirements for dif- 
ferent wastes may vary from place to place according to local condi- 
tions, but damage to the environment and restriction of other uses 
can be prevented. 

"Water quality standards have been set and are now being imple- 
mented in all coastal States. These standards are the foundation upon 
which the effective control of estuarine pollution rests, and they pro- 
vide the framework within w'hich technical management can effectively 
operate. 

As pointed out earlier in this chapter, however, estuarine waters even 
in busy harbors are used for recreational purposes by those who cannot 
afford to go elsewhere, regardless of whether the waters are safe for 
body contact or not. Also the role of the estuarine zone as a nursery 
for some fish, passage for others, and a residence for still more is 
readily apparent although its full implications in the energy conver- 
sion chain are not understood. For these reasons the water quality 
goal of estuarine management should be to keep all waters safe for 
direct contact by humans and also usable as a fish and wildlife habitat. 

Section 5. Summary 

Loss of use and use damage in the estuarine environment are the 
direct results of unrestrained exploitation of estuarine resources. The 
examples presented, limited as they are by the difficulty of measuring 
use damages, show clearly the impact of one use on another and give 
a foretaste of the extensive damage that will occur if unrestrained 
exploitation continues. 

Effective technical management of the estuarine zone requires the 
application of all pertinent existing knowledge to the resolution of 
use conflicts in estuarine management units. 

REFERENCES 

IV-&-1 Hargis, W. J., "Final Report on Results of Operation James River," 
Special Rejwrt No. 7, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, Glou- 
cester Point, Va., 73 pp. (1966) . 

IV-6-2 Stevens, D. M., "Solid Waste Disposal and San Francisco Bay," San 
Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission, p. 6 
(1966). 

IV-6-3 Odum, H. T., "Coastal Ecological Systems of the United States," Re- 
port on FWPCA Contract No. 14-12-429, p. 1109 (1969). In press. 

IV-6-4 Anon., "Case Studies of Estuarine Sedimentation and its Relation to 
Pollution of the Estuarine Environment," Report on FWPCA Con- 
tract No. 14^12-445 by Gulf Universities Research Corp., p. D-16 
(1969). In press. 

IV-6-5 Odum, op. cit. p. 1006^1013. 

IV-6-6 Basye, D. E., "Santa Barbara Sparkling in Wake of Oil Cleanup," Oil 
and Gas Journal, p. 33 (Aug. 25, 1969) . 

IV-6-7 Klaus, R. L., "In the Case of Santa Barbara," Our Sun, p. 4 (summer, 
1969). 

IV-6-8 Odum, op. cit, p. 1331. 

IV-6-9 Odum, op. cit., p. 1335. 

IV-6-10 Anon., "A Report on Proposed Leasing of State Owned Lands for 
Phosphate Mining in Chatham County, Ga.," Advisory Committee 
on Mineral Leasing, University of Georgia, p. C-22 (1968). 



CHAPTER 7. SUMMARY 

The estuarine zone is an ecosystem. That is, it is an environment of 
land, water, and air inhabited by plants and animals that have specific 
relationships to each other. This particular ecosystem is the interface 
between land and ocean, and one of its key components is human 
society. 

The social and economic environment that forms human society must 
be regulated by manmade laws intended to provide justice to each indi- 
vidual and part of the socioeconomic environment. The biological and 
physical environment of the estuarine zone, in contrast, obeys natural 
laws which are equally complex and less flexible than manmade laws. 
The welfare of American society now demands that manmade laws 
be extended to regulate the impact of man on the biophysical environ- 
ment so that the national estuarine zone can be preserved, developed, 
and used for the continuing benefit of the citizens of the United States. 

To apply manmade laws and regulations to the natural estuarine 
environment, it is necessary first to understand what natural condi- 
tions govern that environment, and then to understand how the socio- 
economic and biophysical environments affect each other. Only then 
can there be developed an institutional environment which can effec- 
tively weld all three environments into one smoothly functioning self- 
sustaining ecosystem. 

Section 1. The Biophysical Environment 

Laws regulating the socioeconomic environment exist at several lev- 
els of governmental authority. The Constitution presents general guid- 
ing principles. State constitutions operate within this framework 
while establishing a more detailed body of law designed to satisfy the 
needs of the statewide socioeconomic environment, and local ordinances 
regulate in detail the activities carried out in specific locations. 

The biophysical environment is also subject to a hierarchy of laws, 
regulations, and conditions. The general guiding principles are those 
fundamental natural laws which govern all life on the earth ; at the 
interfacial zone between land and sea the effects of these laws appear 
as universal dominating environmental factors. The structure of the 
coastline, formed and modified in obedience to these general conditions, 
imposes a second level of natural law which exerts its primary efl'ects 
on water movement in the estuarine zone ; and, within each structural 
form exists a host of organisms living according to specific natural 
ordinances which govern their relationships. 

DOMINATING ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 

The natural estuarine environment is based on the conversion of 
radiant solar energy into other forms of energy with the assistance 
of the mechanical effects of gravitational energy. This conversion is 
accomplished by an intricate array of prey-predator relationships 

(313) 



314 

among- living organisms, from the microscopic plants and animals 
which convert solar energy directly and are eaten by other organisms, 
to the fish and wildlife which are the ultimate life forms in the manless 
estuarine environment. 

Solar radiation and gravitational forces control the natural environ- 
ment through a complex series of mechanisms. In the estuarine zone 
this control exhibits itself through seven major environmental factors 
that exist throughout the estuarine zone. 

(1) Continental Shelf. — The submerged land next to the continent 
slopes gently to a depth of about 600 feet, then it drops more rapidly 
to form the deep ocean basins. This fringe of slightly sloping sub- 
merged land, which along much of the Atlantic and gulf coasts would 
appear quite flat to the naked eye, is called the "Continental Shelf" ; its 
width and general configuration along the U.S. coastline affects the 
force with which ocean waves strike the shore and consequently the 
manner and degree of shoreline erosion and accretion. 

(2) Ocean currents. — The major ocean currents passing near or 
impinging on the continent exert strong, if subtle, effects on the estu- 
arine zone through their temperatures, which affect continental land 
temperatures, and through their nutrients, which govern the nature 
and productivity of offshore and estuarine fisheries. The cold Labrador 
Current water from Maine to Virginia, warm Gulf Stream water along 
the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and the California Current along 
the Pacific coast all have noticeable effects on coastal land and water. 

(3) GoastliTie slofe. — The configuration of the coastline itself, even 
though subject to additional molding by the flow of rivers to the sea, 
is closely related to the shape and structure of the Continental Shelf. A 
wide Continental Shelf is generally associated with lowland next to 
the coast, while a narrow shelf is associated with mountainous terrain. 
These associations throughout the estuarine zone of the United States 
have produced estuarine systems characteristic of particular regions. 
Glaciation in New England, Washington, and Alaska; old mountain 
ranges and a sedimentary coastal plain from New Jersey to Texas, 
and the young, steep ranges of the Pacific coast are all continental fea- 
tures having different impacts on the estuarine zone. 

(4) River -flow. — The estuarine zone is also shaped through erosion 
and sediment transport by fresh water making its way to the sea. All 
along the coastlines are streams and rivers carrying water from land 
runoff' to the sea. These waterways ran^e from the Mississippi River, 
which drains 41 percent of the contermmous land mass of the United 
States, down to tiny trickles across a beach. The volumes of water and 
sediment moved reflect not only the total amount of precipitation and 
its annual cycle, but also the sizes and slopes of drainage basins and 
the types of soil over which the rivers flow. 

(5) Sedimentation. — The general outlines of many estuaries, la- 
goons, and embayments in the estuarine zone were formed by erosion 
from land runoff during the last ice age when sea levels were much 
lower than they are now. As the sea level rose, the drowned river 
mouths became zones of mixing, sediment deposition, and erosion where 
the rivers and tidal currents met. These erosion and sedimentation 
processes molded the estuarine zone into its present shape and con- 
tinue to change it. 



315 

( 6 ) Climate. — Solar energy striking the earth sets up complex cycles 
oi' water and energy flow from the oceans to the sky and the land and 
back again. That part of the energy cycle occurring in the atmosphere 
gives rise to the various combinations of weather phenomena which 
make up local climates. Land, sea, and sky are mutually dependent in 
producing specific climates, and the great ocean currents play their 
indirect roles in modifying the climates of the estuarine zone. 

(7) Tide. — The tide stands alone as a controlling force and symbol 
of the estuarine environment. The combination of tidal action and 
river flow gives rise to that unique phenomenon called an "estuarine 
circulation pattern," which means the fresh water flows in one direc- 
tion in one layer and the salt Avater flows in the opposite direction in 
another layer with various degrees of mixing at the interface between 
them. This type of circulation pattern is of great importance in some 
of the estuaries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, aiitl to a large 
extent governs the capacity of such estuaries to rid themselves of waste 
materials. 

THE BIOPHYSICAL ESTUARINE REGIONS 

Each estuarine system along the coastline is affected to some extent 
by all of these dominating environmental factors. In some cases the 
dominance of one particular factor is readily apparent. It is much 
more often the case that the competing environmental factors are so 
evenly balanced that none can be said to dominate and the estuarine 
zone appears to be composed of a bewildering variety of unique system. 

Yet, the dominating environmental factors listed above form a set 
of natural guiding principles which govern the general characteristics 
of the estuarine zone of the United States, and the occurrence of 
various combinations of these environmental factors permits the 
grouping of the national estuarine system into 10 geographical zones, 
each governed by a different combination of environmental conditions. 

Characteristics of the hiophysical regions 

North Atlantic estuarine region. — Canadian border to Cape Cod. 

Cool, fertile waters with a large tidal range strike a steep, indented 
coast with deep water close inshore, but protected from the full force 
of the ocean waves by a wide continental shelf. Moderate precipita- 
tion with heavy snow-fall leads to heavy spring river runoff which 
dominates local circulation. Natural erosion and sedimentation are 
not severe problems, and the evolution of drowned river valley estu- 
aries is in an early stage in this region. 

Middle Atlantic estuarine region. — Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras, 
exclusive of Chesapeake Bay. 

A wide, gently sloping continental shelf with a smooth shoreline 
is cut by the entrances of several major river systems carrying mod- 
erate amounts of sediments. The same cool, fertile waters as in the 
North Atlantic estuarine region wash this coastline but with a smaller 
tidal range. The evolution of drowned river valleys into coastal 
marshes is in a secondary stage in the larger estuarine systems, with 
sand spits and barrier islands forming. 

Chesapeake Bay estuarine region. — All the Chesapeake Bay system 
from Cape Charles and Cape Henry Island. 



316 

Isolation from direct oceanic effects in much of the greatly branched 
system, the many subsystems with major river flows, and the reduced 
concentration of the ocean salt throughout the Bay and its tributaries 
make this a unique estuarine system. This is a drowned river valley 
with numerous similar tributary systems in various stages of evolution. 

South Atlantic estuarine region. — Cape Hatteras to Fort Lauder- 
dale, Fla. (about 26° North Latitude) . 

The generally wide continental shelf is brushed by the warm waters 
of the well-defined Gulf Stream. The low-lying coastal plain termi- 
nates in barrier islands and marshes in which large amounts of sedi- 
ments are being continually deposited by moderate-sized rivers fed by 
heavy summer rainfall. Many of the drowned river valley estuaries 
have evolved all the way to coastal marshes. Tidal ranges are small 
to moderate, depending on local conditions. 

Carribean estuarine region. — Fort Lauderdale to Cape Romano (the 
Florida peninsula south of 26° North Latitude) , plus Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands. 

High temperatures, heavy rainfall, and warm ocean currents along 
practically nonexistent continental shelves result in tropical estuarine 
environments throughout this region. Coral reefs and mangrove 
swamps are the typical coastal features of south Florida, while the 
islands are mountainous and are fringed with coral reefs and beaches. 
Tidal ranges are small. 

Gulf Coast estuarine region. — Cape Romano to the Mexican border. 

A wide continental shelf extends all the way around this large 
embayment, in which warm tropical waters are moved gently by weak 
currents and small tidal ranges. Heavy rainfall over most of the area 
brings sediments from the broad coastal plain to be deposited in the 
estuarine zone. Most of the drowned river valleys have evolved to a 
point intermediate between those of the Middle and South Atlantic 
regions — barrier islands are extensive and have large shallow bays 
behind them. 

The Mississippi, carrying drainage from 41 percent of the con- 
terminous land mass of the United States, forms one of the major 
deltas of the world and is unique among the estuarine systems of the 
United States, both in its size and in the extent to which it has built 
out over the continental shelf. 

Paci-fic Southwest estuarine region. — Mexican border to Cape 
Mendocino. 

Because of the narrow continental shelf, periodic upwelling of deep 
water close inshore as winds force the California current offshore 
brings cool, fertile water near the coast for several months of the year. 
The coastline has a typical beach and bluff configuration with only a 
few shallow embayments and the unique earthquake-born valley of 
San Francisco Bay, which, in the delta formed by the confluence of 
the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, shows what erosion and 
sedimentation might have done along the southwest coast if rainfall 
were greater in that area of easily erodable moimtains. 

Pacific Northioest estuarine region. — Cape Mendocino to the Cana- 
dian border. 

The Continental Shelf and coastal configurations are similar to 
those of the Pacific Southwest, but ocean water temperatures are 



317 

lower here; the movement of the California current away from the 
coast is not as pronounced, and heavier rainfall has resulted in some 
major rivers cutting through the coastal mountains to form deeply 
embayed estuarine systems. Extensive erosion and sedimentation have 
caused wide tidal flats, bars, and shoals to be typical of these systems. 

The straits of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, which were glacier- 
formed, do not have as severe sedimentation as exists along the ocean 
coast, and have retained much of their original configuration. 

Alaska Estuarine Region. — All of Alaska including the Aleutian 
and Bering Sea Islands. 

The dominant factors in this region are temperature and precipita- 
tion. Water temperatures are near freezing, and much of the precipi- 
tation falls as snow. The Continental Shelf is wide all through the 
region, and tide ranges are very large. The southeast and south coasts 
have active glaciation and consist primarily of glacier-cut embay- 
ments and fjords; the west and north coasts are much flatter and 
have been modified to some extent by sediments eroded from the inte- 
rior, including glacial silt, and by the grinding action of pack ice dur- 
ing winter. 

Pacific Islands Region. — The Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, 
and Guam. 

This region consists of tropical ocean islands of volcanic origin. 
Dominating factors are lack of a Continental Shelf, full exposure to 
oceanic conditions, and pleasantly warm temperatures. Coral reefs 
and beach and bluff configurations are typical. 

THE LAND AND THE WATER 

Within the general domination of broad-scale environmental factors 
are smaller scale governing conditions that, through their effects 
on water movement and circulation, determine what kind of local 
environment can exist in a particular estuarine system. 

THE LAND 

The shape of the land along the land-sea interface goes far toward 
determining what water movement and circulation patterns exist in 
particular local areas and, consequently, how fast a particular estu- 
arine system will rid itself of pollutants. Within the general compass 
of the estuarine regions discussed in the preceding section there are 
different structural types which define patterns of water movement 
typical of particular structures, no matter what the external environ- 
ment may be. 

Alaska presents the greatest variety of estuarine form and structure 
of any of the estuarine regions. Nearly all kinds of systems typical 
of other regions are found there. In addition, Alaska has the only 
glaciated coast and most of the fjords found in the United States. 

Characteristic of the North Atlantic region is a very irregular, 
hilly coastline with deep water close inshore and long, narrow embay- 
ments with open access to the sea. Estuarine systems within the 
Chesapeake Bay region consist of a group of branched rivers entering 
the Chesapeake Bay itself, which is in turn the former valley of the 
SusQuehanna River. 



318 

In the Middle Atlantic region the estuarine zone consists primarily 
of a few large droAvned river valley embayments (e.g., New York 
Harbor, Delaware Bay, Narragansett Bay) and some small marsh and 
barrier beach systems receiving only coastal fresh-water runoff. 
The estuarine zone of the Gulf region, on the other hand, consists 
mainly of moderate-sized embayments with barrier beaches and ex- 
tensive marshes, but receiving river flow from upland drainage areas 
and representing an intermediate state in the evolution of drowned 
river valleys into coastal marshes. 

The South Atlantic region has two dominant types of estuarine 
structure. From Cape Hatteras to about Jacksonville, Fla., there is a 
general input of upland river drainage to the estuarine zone and the 
estuarine systems are typical drowned river valleys in the later stages 
of evolution represented by barrier beaches or coastal marshes backed 
by extensive swamps. South of Jacksonville fresh- water runoff comes 
primarily from local coastal drainage, and there are uniform and ex- 
tensive barrier island beaches with long narrow embayments behind 
them having continuous but generally narrow strips of marsh along 
the embayments. This structure fades into the extensive swamplands 
of the Everglades farther down the Florida Peninsula. 

Both the Pacific Northwest and Pacific Southwest regions have few 
estuaries. The estuarine systems of the Northwest Pacific region tend 
to be the mouths of rivers which have cut their way through 
coastal mountain ranges, either of their own accord or aided by 
glaciers as in the case of Puget Sound. Shallow coastal embayment^ 
with little and sporadic river flow are characteristic of the few estu- 
arine systems of the Southwest, except for San Francisco Bay, which 
receives fresh water runoff from much of central California, 

Estuarine systems of the islands, both Atlantic and Pacific, are few 
and consist mostly of embayments without major river inflows. 

The estuarine zone can be classified according to its local morphol- 
ogy into 10 major categories, several of whi<*h exist in each of the 
estuarine biophysical regions. Within each of these categories, the 
similarities in structure reflect similarities in water movement, water 
quality, and ecology which make it possible to apply lessons learned 
in managing an estuarine system in one region to similar estuarine 
systems in other regions. The morphological categories are : 

1.1. Smooth shoreline without mlets. 

1.2. Smooth shoreline with inlets. 

1.3. Smooth shoreline with small embayments. 

2.1. Indented shoreline without islands. 

2.2. Indented shoreline with islands. 
3(. Marshy shoreline. 

4. Unrestricted river entrance. 

5.1. Embayment with only coastal drainage. 

5.2. Embayment with continuous upland river inflow. 
6. Fjord. 

Unrestricted river entrances and embayments dominate the es- 
tuarine zone and are rather evenly distributed throughout all the 
regions, with the common type of estuarine system being a coastal 
embayment with drainage from only the local coastal area. Many of 



319 

these latter embayments have large marsh areas, but the Middle 
Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Gulf are the regions in which marshes 
are the predominant feature in some parts of the estuarine zone. 

THE WATER 

The unique nature of water movement and circulation patterns in 
the estuarine zone are the result of the meeting and mixing of fresh 
river water and salty ocean water of slightly greater density under 
the oscillating influence of the tide. There may be additional compli- 
cating factors such as temperature and wind action, but the resulting 
circulation nearly always reflects the interaction of river flow and 
estuary shape with the tidal flow of the ocean water. General water 
movement patterns are predictable for each category of estuarine 
shape. 

It is where moderately large rivers and streams meet the sea that the 
unique estuarine circulation patterns occur most frequently. Large 
fresh water flows in well-defined channels tend to slide over the top 
of the denser sea water without rapid mixing. Water movement in 
such cases exhibits various degrees of stratification. 

With wider channels, smaller river flows, and greater tidal ranges, 
more mixing occurs and other forces come into play. Embayment shape, 
bottom configuration and material, and the effects of the earth's rota- 
tion all may play a role. In some estuarine systems of this type, the 
degree of stratification may change with changes in river flow, tem- 
perature, wind, or other transient conditions. 

Estuarine water quality is the product of both land and water. From 
the land, erosion and solution in river water bring suspended and dis- 
solved minerals, while decaying vegetation adds dissolved salts, but 
negligible quantities of organic matter. 

In the estuarine zone these two different solutions meet and mix. 
Salt concentrations range from that of the oceans to the almost un- 
measurable amounts present in some rivers. Where little stratification 
exists, sea salt dominates mineral concentrations in estuarine waters; 
in stratified systems, however, the small amounts of minerals entering 
in the fresh water may be as important in some parts of the estuarine 
zone as the much larger concentrations from the sea are in others. 

THE LIFE 

The governance of the dominating environmental factors, as mod- 
ified by estuarine shape and water quality, result in an input of 
energy into individual estuarine systems, and it is in the variety and 
diversity of estuarine life that the input of energy to the estuarine 
zone finds ultimate expression. Whether energy comes directly, as 
in solar radiation stimulating photosynthesis, or whether it comes 
indirectly, as with tidal flows or wind and rain pounding on the shore- 
line, its absorption and conversion to other forms of energy (such as 
food) are essential steps in the continuation of life in the water, in 
the marshes, and on the land. 

Energy input from gravitational forces, as illustrated by tidal ac- 
tion and river flow, depends primarily on local or regional conditions, 
but direct energy input from solar radiation depends largely on 



320 

latitude, the tropics receiving much more energy per acre than the 
arctic. The relative amounts of energy entering an estuarine system 
govern the kinds of life found there, and natural ecosystems show 
systematic variations related to the sources and amounts of energy 
received. 

Estuarine zones with strong mechanical energy inputs from waves, 
currents, tides, or river flows develop similar ecosystems no matter 
whether in the tropics or the arctic. Where, however, such energy 
inputs do not dominate the input of radiant solar energy, natural 
communities develop compositions typical of tropical, temperate, or 
arctic latitudes. 

Tropical systems are subject to unvarying warm temperatures; light 
energy input is both greater and more regular than in other altitudes. 
Within this general group there are the sparse populations along 
coasts with deep clear water close inshore ; the teeming and colorful 
populations of coral reefs; and the mangroves and the submerged 
grasslands associated with shallow, nutrient-laden water. Only the 
southern part of Florida and the islands are of this type. 

Arctic systems are subject to wide fluctuations of sunlight and tem- 
perature but ice is the key factor. Ecological systems develop in, on, 
and under the ice and in the fjords associated with glaciers. Only 
a small part of Alaska includes estuarine systems of this type. 

Temperate systems are subject to moderate solar energy inputs, tem- 
peratures which change regularly with the seasons, and generally 
larger tide ranges and more wave action than either tropic or arctic 
systems. Most of the estuarine systems of the United States lie in 
the temperate zone, and the balancing of solar energy input against 
mechanical energy input in this zone leads to a great variety of eco- 
system types, even within small geographic areas. 

The grouping of ecosystems outlined here describes a limited range 
of recurring variation of chemical and physical properties to which 
certain forms of life have adapted and on which they are now 
dependent. 

The basic environmental needs for all living plants and animals in 
such zones are zones of salinity consistently fluctuating over a limited 
range of concentration; solar energy; water temperature variation; 
water quality and nutrients favorable to their propagation, growth, 
and survivial ; and, for some life forms, bottom conditions suitable to 
their unique needs. 

The dependence of fish and shellfish on the estuarine zone is gov- 
erned by particular environmental requirements for reproduction, pro- 
tection, food supply, or a combination of these. Estuarine dependent 
species are of three types : 

1. Species restricted to estuaries 

Amon^ the relatively few species of fish and shellfish that complete 
their entire life cycle in the estuarine zone is the Atlantic (American) 
oyster. It will die after long exposure to freshwater although it can 
stand limited periods of such exposure and can thrive in relatively 
high salinity water. The spotted sea trout occupies the estuary for all 
its life purposes and only occasionally leaves the estuary under unusual 
extremes of salinity and temperature. 



321 

2. Anadromous and catadroTnous species 

Anadromous species pass through the estuarine zone on their journey 
from the sea to the freshwater environment where they spawn. Some 
species, such as the Pacific salmon, die after spawning and others, such 
as the striped bass, live to return to the estuarine zone and the sea. 
The young of all anadromous species spend varying periods of time 
in the freshwater areas where they were spawned, but all eventually 
migrate to the estuaries and then the sea. 

There are few truly catadromous species that mature in the fresh 
or brackish water environments, and then migrate to higher salinity 
waters of the estuary of the adjacent sea to spawn. The American eel 
and the blue crab are examples of this type. 

3. Migratory estuarine species 

The great majority of estuarine dependent species fall under this 
classification. Some use the brackish and freshwater areas of the 
estuarine zone for reproduction; some as a source of food; some for 
shelter, either as adults or young ; and some for all these reasons. They 
all have in common the basic need for both estuarine and ocean en- 
vironments at some point in their life cycle. This group includes the 
great majority of fish and shellfish of direct importance to man, such 
as shrimp, menlhaden, flounder, and red drum. 

Estuarine wildlife can be classified into four categories: (1) fur- 
bearing animals, (2) game waterfowl, (3) ornamental shore birds, 
and (4) the common wildlife that can tolerate human presence. 

The primary fur bearers are the fur seal in Alaska, nutria in the 
South Atlantic and Gulf States, the common eastern muskrat in New 
Jersey, the Virginia muskrat in the Central Atlantic States, and the 
Louisiana muskrat in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. 
Secondary in importance are the raccoon, mink, and otter. 

The dependence of waterfowl on the estuarine zone is both complex 
and incompletely understood. The primary sport species, such as mal- 
lards and canvasbacks, have been successfully adapted to manmade 
changes in their environment, particularly those changes not affecting 
the nesting sites. 

The ornamental shore and sea birds are a particular aesthetic attrac- 
tion among the national fauna. These birds are generally more de- 
pendent upon estuarine conditions than the more mobile waterfowl 
and, in addition, have demonstrated a considerably greater sensitivity 
to the overall encroachment of man. These birds include whooping 
cranes, pelicans, bald eagles, egrets, ibis, and many others. 

GOVERNING SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 

Solar energy and gravitational energy are the basis for everything 
that happens naturally in the estuarine zone. This discussion of the 
biophysical environment has been concerned primarily with the en- 
vironmental conditions surromiding the transformation of these 
energies into forms useful in living processes and exploitable by man. 
Three different sets of subdivisions of the biophysical environment 
were used in this discussion. 

Differences in the external environment divided the estuarine zone 
of the United States naturally into ten geographic regions, each sub- 



322 

ject to a particular governing combination of the external influences 
of tide, ocean currents, wave action, sedimentation, and climate. This 
subdivision into estuarine biophysical regions gave broad ranges of 
conditions in each region, but the importance of local coastal condi- 
tions in governing energy flows via water movement paved the way for 
a subdivision of the estuarine zone according to 10 morphological 
groups having similarities in water movement, circulation, and the 
ability to rid themselves of wastes. 

A subdivision according to ecological communities was also based 
primarily on geographical location, out again coastal conditions made 
it necessary to identify small ecosystems governed by specific local 
conditions within each of the major groupings. 

Section 2. The Socioeconomic Environment 

The socioeconomic environment of the estuarine zone is the direct re- 
sult of its value as a means of sustenance, a place to live, a source of 
enjoyment, and a route of transportation. Tlie laws regulating man's 
activities in this zone are historically intended to protect and serve 
individual and group interest in dealing with each other. Only re- 
cently has it become apparent that the laws protecting man from him- 
self must be extended to protect the natural environment from man. 

This extension of the institutional environment must recognize not 
only the realities of how the biophysical environment operates, but 
it must also recognize the need of human society for the estuarine zone 
and its value to civilization both as an essential part of his ecosystem 
and as an exploitable resource. 

POPULATION AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ESTAURINE ZONE 

The importance of the estuarine zone of the United States to the 
national community is shown most clearly by the numbers of people 
t)hat use it. Population concentration in the coastal counties began 
when the first European colonist arrived. This concentration brought 
about the development of a corresponding amount of manufacturing 
industry in the estuarine zone, while the great har'bors gave the estua- 
rine zone its dominating position as the commercial center of the 
Nation. 

Long before the settlement of Plymouth, British, French, and Span- 
ish fishermen were exploring the North Atlantic fishery resources in- 
cluding those in the Gulf of Maine and along Georges Bank ; after 
colonization of New England, the fisheries were the sustaining indus- 
try that provided the economic foundation for growth and develop- 
ment. The estuaries were also the entry portal for the immigrants that 
came to this Nation looking for the land of opportunity. 

As the population grew, the relative importance of the fishery pro- 
gressively declined as economic growth in other industries outstripped 
the demand for seafood as a staple diet item. The growth of industrial 
and population centere in the estuarine zone closely paralleled the 
growth of the rest of the Nation, with the estuarine zone becoming 
relatively more important in international commerce and less impor- 
tant in agricultural food produiotion than the interior of the country. 

The coastal counties contain only 15 percent of the land area of the 
United States, but within this area is concentrated 33 percent of the 



323 

Nation's populaJtion, with a/bout four-fifths of it living in primarily- 
urban areas which form about 10 percent of the total estuarinc zone 
area. Another 13 percent of the estuarine land area is farmland, but 
this accounts for only 4 percent of the total agricultural land of 
the Nation. The estuarine zone, then, is nearly twice as densely popu- 
lated as the rest of the country, and supports only one- fourth as much 
agriculture per unit area. 

In those regions lying between Cape Hatteras, N.C., and Canada as 
well as in the Pacific Southwest, over 90 percent of the population 
lives in urban areas ; over much of the Atlantic estuarine zone stretches 
the great northeastern megalopolis with population densities averag- 
ing over 1,000 persons per square mile. The remainder of the estuarine 
zone of the United States exhibits a pattern of major centers of popu- 
lation clustered around natural har^bors and separated by stretches of 
coastline which are either empty and inaccessible or beginning to be 
sprinkled with private residences and resort communities in the vicini- 
ties of population centers. 

The coastal counties have within their borders 40 percent of all man- 
ufacturing plants in the United States. The mixture of manufacturing 
types in the estuarine zone is the same as the national composition with 
only minor execptions, such as the concentration of the apparel manu- 
facturing industry in the Middle Atlantic region, particularly in the 
New York area. Distribution of manufacturing types among the bio- 
physical regions shows regional differences related to historical devd- 
opment as well as raw material and market availability. 

Over half of all plants in the coastal counties and one-fifth of all 
manufacturing plants in the United States are located in the Middle 
Atlantic biophysical region, which was the historical center of the 
Nation's industrial growth and is still one of the major market areas. 
The Pacific Southwest is the major industrial center of the Pacific 
coast and is developed as intensively as the Middle Atlantic region. 
Some industrial development in other regions tends to follow histori- 
cal or present raw material availability. Leather product plants are 
clustered in the North Atlantic region, and lumber manufacturing 
plants are most plentiful in the Pacific Northwest. Food processing 
plants, however, follow closely the distribution of population. 

While much of the industrial development located in coastal coun- 
ties affects the estuarine zone indirectly through use of adjacent land, 
some of the water-using industries have an impact on the estuarine 
zone far beyond their numbers. The paper, chemical, petroleum, and 
primary metals industries are the major water users among manu- 
facturing establishments and are distributed universally throughout 
the estuarine zone. 

USE or THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

Many of the uses cataloged in this report occur only because the 
historical growth of the country makes the estuarine zone the place 
where the people and the industry are. Only commercial navigation 
and commercial fishing are uses which are primarily associated with 
the estuarine zone rather than other parts of man's environment. Uses 
such as water supply, waste disposal, and recreation are associated 
with civilization wherever it exists ; in the estuarine zone they may have 
different values, different emphasis, or different impact on the bio- 
physical environment. 



^24 

The great unique use of the estuarine zone, which makes it of pri- 
mary importance to man and his civilization, is its place in the life 
cycle of many animals which aid in converting solar energy into more 
usable forms. While no life form can be singled out as irreplaceable, the 
kinds of life which need the estuarine zone to survive represent essential 
links in the energy conversion chain upon which man depends for 
survival. Many of the human uses of the estuarine zone depend directly 
or indirectly on the existence of the estuarine zone as a healthy habitat. 

FISHING 

The important fish species are those sought by either the sports 
fisherman or the commercial fisherman. Practically all of the sports 
fish species are dependent upon the estuarine zone for one or more 
phases of their life development, and approximately 65 percent of 
all commercial fish species are estuarine dependent. 

In 1967 U.S. fishermen received $438 million for approximately 
4.06 billion pounds of commercial fish and shellfish. It has been esti- 
mated that two-thirds of the total value, or approximately $300 mil- 
lion, can be considered for estuarine-dependent species. This is a 
conservative estimate of the direct value derived from the estuarine 
fishery for it does not include the value of fish harvested by foreign 
vessels off the United States coast. Five of the six leading species by 
weight, representing over one-half of the U.S. commercial fish tonnage 
in 1967, are estuarme dependent. 

RECREATION 

The demand for outdoor recreation has increased significantly over 
the past decade. The trend toward higher personal income and more 
leisure time has made it possible for a greater percentage of the 
populace to seek new outlets. Companies manufacturing equipment 
for outdoor recreation have sprung up by the hundreds. 

The advertising industry has campaigned vigorously to sell the 
public on the need for recreation, and service facilities to support the 
recreationalist are blossoming in all parts of the country. 

There are a wide variety of land and water recreational activities 
available in the estuarine zone and many estuarine systems are in- 
tensively used for recreational pursuits. The unique combination of 
available resources in close proximity to large population centers offers 
an unparalleled recreational opportunity for many people who could 
not afford to travel far from their homes. 

Each type of recreational activity has a certain sensitivity to the 
quality of the environment in Avhich the activity takes place. Clusters 
of activities that require similar environmental conditions but differ 
in environmental quality needs can be grouped as follows: (1) Swim- 
ming and associated shore activities, including picnicing and camp- 
ing; (2) sports fishing from shore or small boat; (3) boat-centered 
activities, such as cruising or water skiing; and (4) esthetic apprecia- 
tion of the total environment. 

The Nation's estuaries provide the physical, social, and economic 
conditions required for an effective system of water terminals serving 
international trade and coastal shipping. According to a 1966 inven- 
tory of ports and terminals by the Maritime Administration, there 



325 

were 1,626 marine terminal facilities providing deep water berths in 
132 poits on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts. The significance of 
these ports and terminal facilities is indicated by the 1965 statistics 
which show that these ports handled 346,315,000 tons of foreign-trade 
cargo which was 78 percent of the U.S. foreign trade total. In addi- 
tion, the port facilities handled 332.1 million tons in coastal cargo and 
288.2 million tons in local shipping. 

The estuarine ports also serve as essential elements of the national 
defense system. The deep-water terminals exert a significant influence 
on the location of defense installations as well as of the industrial com- 
plexes necessary for logistical support of the defense effort. A direct 
indication of the use of estuaries by naval vessels is the total number 
of ships in commission. During the fiscal year 1967 this number was 
931 with a planned increase to 960 in the fiscal year 1969. 

The use of the harbors for waterborne transportation is competitive 
in that it may cause other uses to be forgone. Heavy ship traffic inter- 
feres with pleasure boating and related activities (fig. IV.55). Mainte- 
nance of the ship channels may alter the ecology and the surface area 
occupied by the large vessels may well interfere with safe pleasure 
boating. 

Water transportation is not the only type of transportation consid- 
eration for estuaries. Since a major percentage of large cities are 
located on estuarine systems, there is considerable pressure to develop 
fill areas for airports which then utilize the long overwater approaches 
to keep the jet noise away from developed areas. The water areas offer 
a barrier to land travel that must be overcome with causeways or 
bridge-type structures which can interfere with navigation or cause 
habitat damage. On the other hand, peripheral roads offer some of the 
more scenic routes available and are frequently the only undeveloped 
area on which roads can be built. 

MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY 

The water in the estuary can serve as a source of both domestic and 
industrial water supply ; but utilization of estuarine water for domestic 
supply is very limited at the present time. JSTormally the brackish water 
is unpotable and treatment costs to render it potable lare extremely 
high. The brackish estuarine water is also a poor source for mdustrial 
process water. Here again a high degree of purity is normally required 
in the process water and the cost of removing the dissolved salts is 
prohibitive. 

Estuarine waters are used extensively, however, as a source of in- 
dustrial cooling water. For this use the most important considerations 
are the quantity and the ambient temperature. Water temperatures are 
generally w^ell below the maximum for economical cooling, and since 
the ocean is connected to one side of the estuary, the quantity is no 
problem. Cooling water is required by both the manufacturing indus- 
try and electric power generation plants; the greatest use is in the 
thermal electric plants. 

The distribution of cooling water use parallels population and in- 
dustrial development in the coastal counties, even though electrical 
power can be transported economically over many miles. The greatest 
concentrations of cooling water use are in the Middle Atlantic and 



326 

Pacific Southwest regions ; fortunately these regions both have moder- 
ate water temperatures which make possible efficient use of the avail- 
able cooling water. 

There are, however, 47 nuclear powerplants built or scheduled for 
completion by 1976. All of these are in the megawatt range, with 
a combined capacity of nearly 35,000 megawatts of electrical power. 
While the bulk of these will be in the cooler parts of the Nation, 12 will 
be in the South Atlantic, Gulf, and Caribbean regions where water 
temperatures are high, greater volumes must be used to achieve proper 
cooling, and the increase in water temperature through the powerplant 
may be sufficient to cause environmental damage. 

WASTE DISPOSAL 

The concentration of population and industrial development in the 
estuarine zone has led naturally to the use of estuarine waters for 
removal of the waste materials of man's civilization from his immedi- 
ate vicinity. It is unlikely that cities were built on the coastline with 
any conscious consideration of the use of the estuarine environment 
for waste disposal, yet it has happened that this use has become one 
of the major uses of estuarine waters and the associated land. Virtu- 
ally all of the cities and industries in the costal counties dispose of 
wastes either directly or indirectly into the estuarine zone. 

Liquid waste discharges to estuarine systems include domestic waste 
products, industrial waste materials of all degrees of chemical com- 
plexity and sophistication, used cooling water with its thermal load, 
and storm runoff. These wastes affect the estuarine environment in 
different ways and can eliminate other uses. 

Liquid wastes are not the only concern. The use of the estuarine 
shoreline for refuse dumps and landfills results in considerable debris 
getting into the water; water leaching through these dumps has a 
pollutional impact on the estuarine water. Spoil disposal from dredg- 
ing activities is another form of solid waste material that contributes 
to estuarine degradation, and solid materials entering the estuary in 
the form of debris from storm runoff can be significant in terms of 
damaging beneficial uses. 

Waste disposal is a highly significant and universal use of the estu- 
arine resource and it is likely to remain so. Along with the many other 
socioeconomic uses of the estuarine environment, it must be managed so 
that it does not damage the biophysical environment. 

EXPIiOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES 

Minerals within the water, on the bottom, and under the bottom are a 
valuable part of the estuarine resource and are being exploited widely. 

Subbottom mining operations are limited to the recovery of sulfur, 
petroleum, and natural gas, with the major operations occurring in 
Louisiana, Texas, California, and Alaska. These operations exist both 
in the estuaries and out on the Continental Shelves with the govern- 
ing criterion for location being the location of reserves. 

Recovery of minerals from submerged estuarine zone bottoms by 
surface mining; i.e., dredging, is primarily directed toward sand, 
gravel, and oyster shell production. Sand and gravel operations are 



327 

universal throughout coastal areas wherever suitable deposits and a 
market exist. 

Oyster shell is an extremely useful construction material in the 
Gulf of Mexico biophysical region. Twenty of the 22 million tons of 
annual U.S. production are in the Gulf States, with Texas and 
Louisiana producing the vast majority of it. 

Phosphate rock is an important estuarine mineral resource; about 
75 percent of the total U.S. production is in the estuarine zone of 
Florida and North Carolina, particularly around Tampa Bay and 
Pamlico Sound. 

AQTTACULTUEE 

The great fish and shellfish resources of U.S. coastal waters have 
adequately supplied the seafood demands of the increasing popula- 
tion for over 300 years. Now, however, the demands for some j)roaucts 
is so great that the normal fishing grounds and fisheries are in great 
danger of being exhausted, both from overfishing and from the indirect 
effects of man's encroachment into the estuarine environment. To sup- 
ply future needs of some fish products new approaches toward com- 
mercial fishing are needed, both in harvesting the natural growth and 
in controlling the entire fishery. Aquaculture is defined as the rearing 
of aquatic organisms, both plants and animals, under controlled con- 
ditions using the techniques of plant and animal husbandry. It in- 
volves a variety of operations, some that are highly sophisticated 
where man exercises control over the principal environmental factors 
affecting the cultured species, and others that are very simple with only 
minimal control of manipulation of the habitat and the cultured, 
animal. 

SHORELINE DEVELOPMENT 

The use or development of estuarine water either governs or depends 
on land or shoreline use. 

Commercial development of the shoreline includes loading termi- 
nals, docks, and shipyards, airports, industrial plants, and the smaller 
municipal and local piers. Recreational facilities include marinas, 
beaches, parks, fishing piers, and vacation cottages, motels, and hotels. 
Although the motels and hotels are a commercial venture, their prime 
purpose is to support the recreationist. Residential development of 
water front property in many communities places on the shoreline in- 
tensive housing development accompanied by boat docks, fishing and 
swimming piers, and private beaches. Commercial and personal 
transportation requires airports, highways, and commercial port 
facilities. 

Structures built to protect or conserve the shoreline include bulk- 
heads to hold the shore in place, dikes to prevent flooding and to extend 
reclaimed land, jetties to provide a protective barrier between the sea 
and ship channels, and groins along beach areas to control sand 
movement. 

THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VALUES OF ESTUARINE USE 

All uses have value, both individually and as part of the development 
and use of the entire estuarine resource for the benefit of the present 
and future national community. The importance and total value of any 

42-847 O— 70 22 



328 

estuarine system lie not in the measure of economic value for any par- 
ticular use, but in multiplicity of use related to the needs of people who 
live there or otherwise depend on the estuarine resource. 

FISH AND WILDLIFE HABITAT 

The value of the estuarine zone as fish and wildlife habitat both 
depends on and augments its value for other uses, particularly recrea- 
tion and commercial fishing. 

There is, in addition to these, the basic incalculable value of the 
estuarine habitat as a link in the essential energy-conversion chain 
which permits man to survive at all. 

The trapping of fur bearers in the marshes of the gulf and Atlantic 
represents one of the few economic values directly attributable to 
estuarine habitat. Louisiana is the major producer; in the 1965-66 
season total sales were $4.6 million out of the Nation's $6 million total. 

Commercial fishing 

An entire complex of commerce and industry can rest upon one 
primary producing industry such as commercial fishing. Each time 
the basic product changes hands it generates economic activity and 
gains in value until by the time it reaches the ultimate consumer, its 
price may be many times what the fisherman was paid for it. The 
effect of such "value multiplier" factors will be such as to make the 
actual values of specific commercial fisheries several times the landed 
values. 

Thus, the $438 million received by U.S. fishermen in 1967 probably 
represents a total input to estuarine zone economic activity of over 
$1 billion ; exactly how much it is impossible to say. Case studies assign 
multiplier values of about three and four to commercial fishery land- 
ing values, but the magnitudes of such multipliers depend on the 
structure of the local economy as well as on other factors and generali- 
ties are likely to be misleading. 

The relationship of the estuarine zone and commercial fishing cannot 
be expressed by any simple economic index. The importance of com- 
mercial fishing in the estuarine zone is related economically not only 
to estuarine habitat, but also to transportation, commerce, food 
processing, and aquaculture. 

Recreation 

Each kind of recreational use has its own economic impact. Recrea- 
tional boating supports a large boatbuilding, marina, and boat repair 
industry. Sport fishing supports not only a certain part of the boating 
industries, but also a very specialized industry manufacturing and sell- 
ing fishing tackle. For example, the 1965 survey of fishing and hunting 
shows that salt water anglers spent $800 million in that year. Sight- 
seeing and swimming support motel and restaurant services in the 
favored areas, as do other overnight recreational activities. 

Attempts at the quantification of overall recreational economic 
values are not yet well developed. The user-day recreation benefits 
approach has been used in some Federal waterway and reservoir proj- 
ects, but has been used in the estuarine system only in an analysis of 
fisheries and recreation in San Francisco Bay. Net benefits for general 



329 

recreation activities, by this method, range from 50 cents to $1.50 per 
day. Specific forms of recreation may have higher values. 

Applying such a figure to the population of the coastal counties 
suggests that the value of the recreational resource of the estuarine 
zone is about $300 million if each person has about 5 days of recrea- 
tional use. Such an estimate would include only local use and no multi- 
plier values and might therefore be regarded as minimum value of the 
entire value of the entire estuarine recreation resource. 

The major problems in defining the economic values of recreation in 
the estuarine zone lie in the facts that recreation itself is not an easily 
defined commidity nor can it be isolated from other economic activities 
such as transportation, food and lodging services, and equipment 
manufacturing. 

Coirnnercial navigation and national defense 

Estimates of the economic value of commercial navigation are based 
on the direct revenue to the port of handling a ton of cargo, generally 
$16 to $20. Such estimates lead to a total value of the estuarine re- 
source of $4.7 billion annually for cargo revenues alone, without 
multiplier values. An additional economic value of $10 billion annually 
in salaries and wages has been estimated for 11 major ports. 

These estimates do not show the impact of commercial navigation 
on land transportation, shoreline development, or the manufacturing 
industries. Without the deep, safe harbors commercial navigation could 
not exist on a large scale, and without commercial navigation the great 
cities around these harbors would not have developed. 

Deepwater harbors are essential elements of the national defense 
system. Furthermore, the location of these deepwater ports has in- 
fluenced the location of other defense installations as well as the in- 
dustrial complexes necessary for the logistical support of the defense 
effort. 

The cost of the national defense effort in the estuarine zone for 
1967 is estimated at about $900 million, exclusive of pay and allowances 
for shore-based Navy and Marine Corps personnel. The economic im- 
pact of national defense activity overlaps into all other estuarine 
zone uses because of the massive payrolls associated with it. This im- 
pact is centered in the areas with major defense installations. 

Wa^te disposal 

The waters of the estuarine zone have received wastes from the 
people and industries on their shores ever since the first cities were 
founded. The economic benefit in the use of estuarine waters for 
waste disposal has been fully utilized by nearly all industries and 
communities in the estuarine zone, and only the tremendous capacity 
of estuarine waters to absorb and remove waste materials has kept 
the estuarine zone from suffering severe damage from such waste 
discharges. 

No overall estimate of the value of this use of the estuarine resource 
is possible because the level of treatment necessary in any particular 
case depends on many local factors. 

While the use of estuarine waters for waste disposal maj^ not be 
aesthetically appealing it is an existing estuarine use with which other 



330 

uses must compete, and it should be considered along with them in the 
overall economic evaluation of estuarine uses. 

Examples of socioeconomic environments in the estuarine zone 

Almost all estuarine systems have either a multiplicity of uses at 
the present time or such uses are available in the system. Estuaries 
presently support such varied uses as military berthing and associated 
activities, commercial port facilities, shipping channels, industrial 
uses, commercial fisheries, sport fishing, recreation, wildlife habitat, 
and purely aesthetic purposes. In most estuaries one or two of the uses 
predominate while the others take minor roles. 

Narragansett Bay is an ideal example of an estuary that has devel- 
oped in an unbalanced fashion. That is, the economic value of the 
estuary at the present time is largely associated with the industrial, 
military, and transportation uses of its waters. Other uses are, of 
course, made of the estuary but their economic significance is dwarfed 
by the tremendous magnitude of the military and commercial uses. 
However, it must be remembered that this economic measure is merely 
an indicator of the value of the waters and is not in any way related 
to the right or necessity of polluting such waters in the process of 
achieving this value. In fact, the only time that such an economic 
measure would be used would be for comparing one total use of the 
estuary to another total use. Of course, it is seldom that questions are 
so broad as to cover either/or propositions for the entire activity. 
Rather, the questions usuallj^ revolve around such things as the bene- 
fits to be derived from reducing pollution caused by users of the estu- 
ary compared with the costs of achieving the reduction in pollution. 

Franklin County, Fla., is dependent upon pollution-free waters in 
Apalachicola Bay for its economic existence. The unpolluted waters 
of the bay provide the seafood caught by local commercial fishermen 
and processed at shore-based installations. Additional income for the 
area results from tourism engendered by the ba;^'s w aters. 

Both tourism and commercial fishing are prime potential sources of 
income to any estuarine system. In the case of Apalachicola Bay, these 
happen to be the major sources of income because of the nature of the 
estuary and its location which prevent its development as a commer- 
cial shipping facility. 

The San Diego economy, although heavily dependent upon the mili- 
tary and shipping activities in the bay, 1ms diversified to the extent 
that it is no longer completely dependent upon such uses of the bay. 
At the same time there has been a growing demand for recreational 
uses of the bay. Evidence of the local resident's interest in the bay for 
recreation, tourism, and commercial uses can be found in their willing- 
ness to invest substantial sums of money in facilities to prevent pollu- 
tion of the bay by municipal wastes. 

Mission Bay, a separate estuary in the San Diego area, is an example 
of the recreational potential to be found in an estuarine system. How- 
ever, this special study points up the fact that the best use of an estuary 
may not come about naturally. Rather, it shows that a planned devel- 
opment program with adequate investments are necessary to achieve 
optimal use of an estuary. 



331 

Measures of overall value amd importance 

The discussions of values of individual uses and the case studies of 
specific estuarine systems present a confusing picture of the relation- 
ship of estuarine uses to economic indicators. 

Estimates of the direct gross economic benefit of the estuarine zone 
to the residents of the coastal counties can be made. The estimates of 
economic activity generated by the presence of Narragansett Bay in 
Rhode Island give a conservative annual economic benefit of $920 per 
capita, $420 of this is personal income. Average personal income for 
all of the coastal counties is, according to Bureau of the Census fig- 
ures, $500 per capita greater than the average for the remainder of 
the country. The total economic activity generated by this additional 
personal income then amounts to about $1,100 per person, using the 
Narragansett Bay multiplier values. 

The total direct economic benefit of the estuarine zone to the resi- 
dents of the coastal counties is then about $60 billion in terms of 
additional economic activity stimulated by the presence of estuarine 
systems. This is not a measure of the total economic activity of the estu- 
arine zone, but only of the "value added" to the total economic activity 
of the coastal counties by the presence of the estuarine zone. 

Such gross means can give only an order-of-magnitude estimate of 
even the direct economic value of the estuarine zone and cannot possi- 
bly reflect either indirect benefits or the social importance of the estu- 
arine zone, much less its ecological value. 

Valid criteria for evaluating the importance of the estuarine en- 
vironment or the value of individual estuarine uses, to a community 
must, however, go beyond the reach of economic approximation and 
recognize the fundamental relationship between man and his environ- 
ment. Wherever there are people the environment will be exploited 
to satisfy the needs and desires of man and his civilization. 

Increasing environmental pressures from demographic and com- 
mercial development are paralleled in the same community by the in- 
creasing desire for greater recreational use. That these can be compat- 
ible is clearly shown by the San Diego Bay example. Such community 
reactions as in San Diego and in San Francisco demonstrate that, 
while people need commercial development and use, they want a safe 
and enjoyable environment at the same time. 

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC TRENDS IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

At the present time, the major uses of estuaries, in terms of ^ross 
monetary return are : military use, shipping, and industrial activities. 
These uses are, of course, historical and do not necessarily reflect the 
uses that would be made of the estuary under today's conditions or 
future conditions, if each use were to compete for the water use at the 
same time. In other words, historical use has brought about the present 
use imbalance in many estuarine systems. However, given the oppor- 
tunity to develop, other uses might attain equal importance economi- 
cally while contributing important social benefits. 

Estuaries at the present time represent underdeveloped natural re- 
sources that are important to the social as well as the economic well- 
being of the Nation. Based on present trends and demands, there is 
little doubt that there will be a tremendous need for estuarine uses 



332 

other than for military, shipping, and industrial uses. That is, if the 
facilities are available for recreation, sports, or esthetic enjoyment, 
they will be used and used to great advantage from an economic stand- 
point as well as a social standpoint. 

If normal circumstances prevail, the Nation's population and gen- 
eral high standard of living will continue to increase in the coming 
decades. A moderate estimate projects a doubling of the national 
population by the turn of the century, with a significant proportion 
of that growth occurring in urban areas. 

The population will be made up of a large proportion of youth and 
young persons of working ages, with only a moderate increase in the 
elderly through the end of the century. Personal income will rise 
dramatically. Estimates of leisure time vary considerably, but all 
authorities agree that the work week will shorten, from a conservative 
estimate of 35 hours a week to as little as 20 hours per week. The 
National Planning Association has projected that in 1990, 10 percent, 
and in 2000, 20 percent of the men between the ages of 25 and 54 will 
be granted 1-year leave every 7 years. 

Urban and particularly suburban growth will expand greatly both 
to accommodate the growing population and to provide amenities that 
it increasingly demands: single family dwellings, recreational areas, 
transportation facilities, industrial development, and so on. These 
demands will place rapidly increasing burdens on the Nation's re- 
sources and its environment. These burdens, in turn, will tax the ability 
of decisionmakers and the Nation's population to cope with the com- 
plexity and insistence of the problems generated by a post-industrial, 
urbanized society. 

Information provided by this analysis of national population and 
economic trends gives only the grossest indication of the activities and 
expected pressures of population and economic activity on all of the 
Nation's environment. Analysis of these indicators can only provide 
a general indication of the magnitude of the demands which will be 
generated by these forces in the near future on the estuarine zone. 

Section 3 : Pollution : The Impact of Human Society on the 
Estuarine Environment 

Man has always used the biophysical environment as he needed it for 
survival and thrown back into it his waste products and anything else 
he did not need. As long as civilization was limited to small towns and 
villages the impact of such treatment on the estuarine environment 
was not noticeable and apparently insignificant with the development 
of a civilization based on a complex socioeconomic environment, how- 
ever, his impact on the natural environment has increased until now 
the most accurate term to express the relationship of man to his bio- 
physical environment is "pollution." 

"Pollution" is the degradation of the biophysical environment by 
man's activities ; it is no longer limited to the discharge of sewage and 
industrial wastes, but now includes direct or indirect damage to the 
environment by physical, chemical, or biological modification. 

Environmental degradation is the result of often minute changes in 
water quality, water circulation, or other conditions which are part of 
the biophysical estuarine environment. There are brightly colored or 



333 

otherwise visible waste materials which have obvious pollutional im- 
plications, but by far the deadliest pollutants are those which are 
invisible and often unsuspected until the damage is done. These pol- 
lutants can be found only by the most delicate and sensitive tests and, 
even then, the presence of some highly dangerous materials or condi- 
tions can only be inferred by indirect evidence. 

MATERIALS AND CX)NDITI0NS WHICH DEGRADE THE ENVIRONMBNT 

One of the major constituents of municipal and many industrial 
wastes is decmnposable organic material. Such materials consist pri- 
marily of carbohydrates from plants and paper, proteins from animal 
matter, and miscellaneous fats and oils. The decomposable organics 
are not necessarily deterimental by themselves but exert a secondary 
effect by reducing dissolved oxygen in the water. The level of dissolved 
oxygen is one direct index of the healthiness of the system. High levels 
are generally indicative of a healthy system which will support a 
diverse biota and multiple use. The lower the concentration of dis- 
solved oxygen becomes, the sicker the system is, and the less desirable 
it is for habitat or use. 

Another class of materials, primarily organic, that can have con- 
siderable impact on the estuarine ecosystem are the flesh-tainting 
substances. Generally these materials are contained in industrial waste 
effluents and they result in offensive tastes, odors and colors of fish and 
shellfish. 

The salts of heavy metals are fairly soluble and stable in solution. 
Consequently, they will persist for extended length of time. Many of 
these are highly toxic to the aquatic biota, and since many marine 
organisms exhibit the ability to accumulate and concentrate sub- 
stances within their cell structure, the presence of these metals in small 
concentrations can have deleterious effects. 

Aquatic life forms require trace amounts of some minerals and 
vitamins for growth and reproduction. Elimination of such materials 
from the environment or their reduction below minimum levels can 
limit the growth and reproduction of some biota. Conversely, an 
oversupply of all necessary trace mineral salts and vitamins can stimu- 
late growth ; providing satisfactory conditions of temperature, salinity, 
and dissolved oxygen also exist. An oversupply of inorganic nutrient 
salts, such as those of nitrogen and phosphorus, may be associated with 
drastic shifts in the composition of the aquatic community. 

One of the many unfavorable effects of municipal and some indus- 
trial wastes is the contamination of the receiving environment with 
bacteria, viruses and other organisms of public health significance. 
Pathogenic organisnns.^ especially those from the intestines of warm 
blooded animals frequently persist for sufficient periods of time and 
distance to pose a threat to the health and well-being of unsuspecting 
water users. Secondary chances of exposure to these organisms exist 
through the contamination of shellfish which can be harvested for food. 

Among the waste products that are frequently introduced into the 
estuarine environment are some directly toxic to marine organisms. 

Toxic materials may exhibit a short catastrophic impact or a more 
subtle long-term interference with growth and reproduction processes. 
The end result is to create a biological desert in which no organism 



334 

can survive. The pesticide group is of particular concern in the estua- 
rine zone. Estuaries are the terminus for most of the major river 
systems, and as such they tend to concentrate the waterborne materials 
carried in by the large terrestrial drainage systems. The biological 
magnification capability of estuarine animals significantly increases 
the hazard and destructive potential of any contributed pesticides. The 
ultimate damage is to stress or eliminate parts of the energy conversion 
chain in the estuarine environment. 

The addition of large quantities of heat from industrial cooling 
water constitutes a form of pollution which must be considered. The 
entire ecosystem may be stressed by thermal pollution. The amount 
of damage is dependent on the resulting temperature of the environ- 
ment and the species composition of the biotic community. The total 
range of detriments should be carefully considered on an individual 
basis before heat is released to the environment. Heat affects the 
physical properties of water, the rates at which chemical and biologi- 
cal reactions progress, and can kill living organisms. 

Man's activities may affect the rate at which the natural balance 
of inflow, deposition, and outflow is reached by purposely or inad- 
vertently upsetting this balance. If upstream erosion is increased due 
to poor land management practices, the load carried in will increase. 
Conversely activities along the coast can result in increased shore 
erosion, removing more sediment than is contributed. The primary 
pollutional problem from sediment, however, is from increased influx 
and accelerated deposition. The detrimental effects of sedimentation 
are reflected in an impairment of uses such as navigation, recreation, 
and fish propagation. 

One of the greatest threats to the estuarine ecosystem is the ever- 
present chance for a catastrophic spill of oil or other hazardous ma- 
terials. The liarge volumes of petroleum and chemical products trans- 
ported through the estuarine zone by ships, barges, pipelines, tracks, 
and railroads present a continuing opportunity for accidental bulk 
spills. The consequences of these spills depend on the amount and type 
of material released and the characteristics of the receiving water. 
They may range in magnitude from tragic loss of life to little more 
than economic loss for the transporter. 

The effect any pollutant has on an estuarine environment depends 
on where it goes, how strong it is, and how rapidly it is assimilated 
or flushed out of the environment. All of these conditions depend on 
water movement and circulation patterns which are in turn governed 
by the relationship of tide and river flow to estuarine shape and size. 
Physical modifications such as the dredging of new or deeper naviga- 
tion channels, building of causeways of jetties, and even construction 
of pier bridges can cause subtle changes in water movement that can 
change the balance of environmental conditions in an estuarine system 
and result in gradual undesirable changes in the ecosystem in addition 
to direct habitat damage. 

SOURCES OF POLLUTION 

Nearly all of man's activities can result in environmental degrada- 
tion. Pollutants and polluting conditions are very rarely unique to a 
particular use or specific activity, but may result from man's existence 



335 

in the estuarine zone as well as his use of it. The major sources of 
pollution : 

(1) Those sources associated with the extent of development of the 
estuarine zone, including waste discharges from municipalities and 
industries, and land runoff from these as well as agriculture ; 

(2) Those sources associated with particular activities of great 
pollutional significance, specifically dredging and filling, watercraft 
operation, underwater mining, and heated effluent discharges; 

(3) External sources having impact derived through flow regula- 
tion and upstream water quality. 

Over 8 billion gallons of municipal wastes are discharged daily into 
the waters of the estuarine zone. While most of this volume is domestic 
sewage, many municipal waste discharges also contain significant 
amounts of industrial wastes, which may add to the variability and 
complexity of the wastes discharged. Municipal waste discharges have 
four important effects on receiving water quality: depletion of dis- 
solved oxygen, and introduction of pathogenic organisms, settleable 
material, and inorganic nutrients. 

Sewage treatment reduces and alters the impact of municipal waste 
on the environment. Primary treatment with chlorination will remove 
part of the decomposable organic material, nearly all of the settleable 
and suspended solids, and almost eliminate the possibility of pathogens 
in the effluent. Secondary treatment can almost eliminate decompos- 
able organic material, and some special processes can eliminate certain 
kinds of dissolved salts. About one half the municipal wastes dis- 
charges to estuarine waters receive secondary treatment, with the most 
extensive use of secondary treatment being in the Chesapeake Bay 
estuarine region. 

Associated with the major metropolitan developments are large num- 
bers of industrial complexes with their attendant waste products. 
Many of these industrial wastes ^ especially from the chemical industry, 
are of such a complicated nature that it is difficult both to identify them 
and to assess their effects on the receiving streams. Only 4,000 of the 
more than 200,000 manufacturing plants in the coastal States account 
for 97 percent of the total liquid wastes discharged. Of the nearly 22 
billion gallons of industrial wastes discharge daily, only 29 percent 
receive any kind of waste treatment. 

Intensification of use of the estuarine zone has resulted in many 
artificial changes being made in the physical structure. Shoreline areas 
have been filled to create more land area for residential and commercial 
use ; channels have been dredged and maintained to permit safer and 
better navigation ; and harbor facilities have been dredged and bridges 
and causeways have been built. All of this activity has had impact on 
the coastal zone ecosystem, but the activities having the most impact 
on water quality are dredging and filling. The potential for pollution 
of the system exists in both filling and dredging; both can introduce 
foreign materials into the water, destroy aquatic habitat, and physical 
circulation patterns. 

The primary source of thermal pollution is from industrial cooling 
water effluents. Powerplants are the major users of cooling water in the 
estuarine zone, and power-generation capacity has approximately 
doubled each decade du'ring this century. The impact of this growth 
on the estuarine areas is evidenced by the fact that in 1950 22 percent 



336 

of the powerplants were in the coastal zone ; it is anticipated that over 
30 percent of the plants will be located there in the late 1970's. 

Estuarine areas are also very important highways of commerce, and 
thousands of commercial vessels (foreign and domestic, from ocean 
liners to barges, traverse the coastal waterways each year. Added to 
this are many of the 1,500 Federal vessels and many, nearly 8 million, 
recreational vessels. All of these watercraft carry people and/or cargo, 
and are a real or potential pollution source. 

Mining from the estuary floor causes alteration of the estuarine 
shape and water-circulation characteristics, with a secondary effect 
being the turbidity problems associated with material removal. Mining 
of sand and gravel from the estuarine floor are universal while oyster 
shell dredging in any great quantity is restricted to the Gulf coast. 
These operations remove part of the estuarine floor with a concomitant 
destruction of habitat and life. There are also great amounts of sus- 
pended and settleable solids frequently released into the water, from 
which they are redeposited in other places. 

The water quality of estuarine areas is dependent not only on direct 
waste sources but also on the quality of the inflowing streams and run- 
off entering the system. Tributary influent quality is generally a good 
index of the type and intensity of land-use surroundings and up- 
stream from estuarine system and can be a major cause of ecological 
stress within the system. The complex interactions between fresh and 
salt water may magnify the effects of pollutants carried into the tidal 
regime, resulting in quality anomalies completely alien to either fresh 
or oceanic environments. 

EXTENT or POLLUTION EFFECTS 

Environmental damage from human activities manifests itself in 
changes in water quality and in changes in the living communities. 
Either or both may be caused by any of the kinds of pollution or 
sources of pollution mentioned earlier. One key to the degree of en- 
vironmental impact is measurement of alteration in water quality. 
Extensive data have been collected on a few of the estuaries with 
the most severe problems, and limited information is available on 
other estuarine systems to outline the emergence, or document the 
existence, of water-quality problems. 

Examples of estuarine systems that show definite documented water- 
quality degradation as a result of human activities are these : Penob- 
scot Bay, Boston Harbor, Moriches Bay, New York Harbor, Raritan 
Bay, Delaware estuary, Baltimore Harbor, Potomac River, James 
River, Charleston Harbor, Savannah River, Biscaj^ne Bay, San Juan 
Harbor (P.R.) , Tampa Bay, Pensacola Bay, Mississippi River, Galves- 
ton Bay, Laguna Madre, San Diego Bay, Santa Monica Bay, San 
Francisco Bay, Columbia River, Puget Sound, Silver Bay (Alaska), 
and Hilo Harbor (Hawaii) . 

Pollutional damage to estuarine ecosystems may be sudden and dra- 
matic as fish or other equatic life forms suddenly dying, or it may be 
so gradual as not to be noticed for many years. Many studies of differ- 
ent aspects of estuarine biology have been made, but there are only a 
few cases in which comprehensive ecological studies have been made 
of pollutional effects. 



337 

All of the 25 estuarine systems listed above also show some ecologi- 
cal damage, but in 38 percent of the estuarine systems of the United 
States there is not sufficient information to decide whether there is no 
ecological damage, or whether there is just no easily identifiable 
pollution problem present. 

The complex nature of pollution in the estuarine zone prevents the 
separation of sources of pollution, kinds of pollution, and types of 
environmental damage into neat compartments of cause and effect. All 
of human activities in the estuarine zone can damage the environment 
and most of them do. 

Wherever people live, work, and play in the estuarine zone the 
demands of their social and economic activities place stresses on the 
biophysical environment. These stresses frequently result in degrada- 
tion of that environment, perhaps not immediately or even in a few 
years, but nonetheless certain in their devastating final impact. 

Section 4. Use Conflicts and Damages: Man's Battle With 
Himself and Nature 

The consequence of damage to the biophysical environment is loss of 
u^e either immediately or at some time in the future. Loss of use, how- 
ever, may also be associated with the appropriation of part of the 
estuarine resource for one exclusive use even when no damage to the 
environment itself occurs. 

Institutional management must cope with the problems of re- 
sponsibility and authority in achieving maximum multiple use of the 
estuarine resource. Within this comprehensive framework technical 
management must resolve the problems surrounding conflicts of use, 
competition for the resources of the estuarine zone, and environmental 
damage. The primary objective of technical management is to achieve 
the best possible combination of uses to serve the needs of society while 
protecting, preserving, and enhancing the biophysical environment for 
the continuing benefit of present and future generations. 

The uses of the estuarine zone grew and changed in consonance with 
population growth and industrial development. Not until recent years 
was a concerted attempt made to understand and resolve the conflicts 
that arose in the competition to use and exploit these land and water 
resources. During the past 300 years of growth and industrial expan- 
sion with its emphasis on economic growth and direct monetary gain, 
large parts of the estuarine zone were preempted or usurped to serve 
the individual needs of commercial enterprises. The net result has been 
less a conflict in existing uses than an exclusion of some uses. 

Nearly all estuarine uses involve both land and water, either directly 
or indirectly. For example, the construction of a manufacturing plant 
on the shore of an estuarine system may not involve any direct use of 
the water (even for waste disposal), yet it limits access by its occupa- 
tion of the shoreline and so may interfere with other uses. Conversely, 
the disposal of liquid wastes into the water may make the shoreline 
unusable for recreation as well as making the water itself unsafe. 

The impact of one estuarine use on another may be either "prohibi- 
tive" or "restrictive" depending on the kind of use and sometimes on 
the manner in which it is carried out. 



338 

Prohibitive impacts involve permanent changes in the environment 
and thereby prohibit all uses unable to cope with such changes. The 
geographical range of such impacts may be from the limited area in 
which they occur to an entire estuarine system, depending on the 
nature and size of the change. The impact may be temporary, if it is 
possible to return the environment to its original form, or it may be 
permanent. 

Any use or activity requiring physical modification of the shoreline, 
marshes, or bottom of an estuarine system may have a prohibitive im- 
pact. Modification of water circulation also tends to be prohibitive 
when it has any conflicting impact. Examples of estuarine uses and 
activities generally having prohibitive impacts are navigation dredg- 
ing, other dred^n^ and filling, solid waste disposal, construction of 
bridges, dikes, jetties, and other structures, shoreline development, 
mining from the estuarine bottom, and flow regulation. 

Some estuarine uses may restrict estuarine use for other purposes 
but do not automatically exclude other uses. These are those activities 
which do not require a permanent modification of the estuarine sys- 
tem; they generally include those uses directly involved with the 
estuarine waters and other renewable resources. 

Restrictive impacts may involve damage to water quality, living 
organisms, or esthetic quality ; such impacts may also result from the 
exclusive appropriation of space. The key feature of uses which cause 
restrictive impacts is that they may, with proper management, be 
carried out simultaneously with other uses. 

Any kind of municipal or industrial waste discharge may have a 
restricted impact and often does. Commercial fishing, recreation, and 
water supply are the major uses restricted by pollution from liquid 
waste discharges. 

Some kinds of commercial fishing require the use of trawls or the 
setting of traps or nets that must be left for some time. The use of such 
devices restricts other uses while the devices are in place, but there is 
no permanent appropriation of estuarine waters or space. The major 
conflict is with recreation in that recreational boating must be ex- 
cluded from areas where fishing gear is near the surface. 

Where there is conflict, the scene is set for trade-off; i.e., a willing 
substitution of one activity for another. The scene is equally set for 
uncompensated damage where one user group precludes the activities 
of a second unrelated user group but does not reimburse them for 
damage. Actual documented examples of use damages are difficult to 
find. One major reason is the basic fact that has permeated much of 
the discussion of economic and social values: Many estuarine values 
are not quantifiable. Wliile damages to a commercial enterpirse, such 
as commercial fishing, can be quantified in terms of the economic loss, 
the essentially intangible values of recreation and estuarine habitat 
are difficult to measure. 

Recreational loss would have to be measured in terms of how many 
people don't swim or go boating in the Potomac River because it is 
polluted. It is far easier to find out how many people do go there even 
if it is polluted ; even these values are hard to find. 

The value of estuarine habitat is just as difficult to establish. There 
are now about 5.5 million acres of important estuarine marsh and 



339 

wetland habitat remaining in the estuarine zone of the United States. 
Perhaps each acre is not valuable by itself, but the total habitat is 
irreplaceable. 

Use damage is not a necessary feature of civilization in the estu- 
arine zone, but use conflicts will continue to exist as more and more 
demands are made on the natural environment. The ability of any 
management authority to prevent use damage and to resolve use con- 
flicts depends not only upon its institutional composition and legal 
authority, but also upon the social, economic, and biophysical charac- 
teristics of the estuarine management unit within which its authority 
is exercised. 

The analyses of social and economic values of the estuarine zone 
examined concurrently with the similar analyses of use conflicts, pol- 
lutional effects, and use damages form the basis for resolving use con- 
flicts through the application of technical knowledge; i.e., technical 
management. 

The primary objective of technical management is to accommodate 
the needed and desired uses of any estuarine management unit within 
that system without overall damage to the biophysical environment. 
The ability to achieve this objective depends on the boundaries of the 
management unit and upon the means available for resolving both 
prohibitive-use conflicts and restrictive-use conflicts. 

The impact of the social and economic requirements of civilization 
on the natural estuarine environment is the technical problem with 
which management must deal, and effective control of this impact can 
be maintained only if both the major sources of damage and the geo- 
graphic range of their influence are subject to unified control. 

An estuarine management unit, therefore, should consist not only of 
the estuarine waters, bottoms, and associated marshlands ; but it should 
also include all of the shoreline surrounding the estuarine waters 
themselves and as much of the adjoining land as is necessary to reg- 
ulate the discharge of wastes into estuarine waters. 

Allocation of part of the estuarine resource for an exclusive single- 
purpose use is a necessary fact of estuarine management. The shore- 
line is a necessary location for shipping docks and for swimming 
beaches, but they cannot both occupy the same place on the shoreline. 
Similarly, frequently dredged channels and oyster beds cannot occupy 
the same space at the same time. Kesolution of such conflicts can be 
achieved by allocation of adequate space to each use through whatever 
institutional mechanism is established. 

The evaluation of the effects of prohibitive uses on the estuarine 
environment is probably the most difficult problem currently facing 
technical management. The immediate and obvious effects of the 
habitat loss associated with such uses can be measured and described 
fairly easily, but the ultimate results of the modification of water 
movement patterns and flushing characteristics can only be estimated 
in general terms. 

In nearly every problem associated with prohibitive-use conflicts, 
however, the area of primary concern is the effect on the estuarine 
ecosystem of any physical modifications proposed ; the limitations of 
knowledge mentioned above, therefore, present a critical problem in 
present efforts to resolve prohibitive-use conflicts. 



340 

A more difficult problem arises where there is involved a massive 
dredge or fill operation with its concomitant immediate effect on the 
ecosystem. When such modifications are a necessary or desirable de- 
velopment of the environment it may be necessary to forgo the habitat 
use ; however, in many cases it may be possible to create a new, equiva- 
lent habitat in a different part of the management unit, or it might 
be possible to restore part of the damaged environment. 

While the resolution of prohibitive-use conflicts requires the aban- 
doning of one use in favor of another, the potential for carrying out 
any modifications necessary so as to increase habitat value as well as 
economic value should be a key factor in the resolution of such 
problems. 

Disposal of liquid wastes to the estuarine environment is the major 
restrictive use impact of the socioeconomic environment. This use con- 
flict can be resolved completely either by treating all wastes to such an 
extent that they do not interfere with any other uses or else removing 
them entirely from the environment. 

Technology exists to provide thorough treatment for nearly every 
kind of municipal and industrial waste, and there is no reason not to 
provide treatment sufficient to protect the environment from damage 
and to permit other uses. Treatment requirements for different wastes 
may vary from place to place according to local conditions, but damage 
to the environment and restriction of other uses can be prevented. 

Water quality standards have been set and are now being imple- 
mented in all the coastal States. These standards are the foundation 
upon which the effective control of estuarine pollution rests, and they 
provide the framework within which technical management can 
effectively operate. 

As pointed out earlier in this chapter, however, estuarine waters 
even in busy harbors are used for recreational purposes by those who 
cannot afford to go elsewhere, regardless of whether the waters are 
safe for body contact or not. Also the role of the estuarine zone as a 
nursery for some fish, passage for others, and a residence for still more 
is readily apparent although its full implications in the energy con- 
version chain are not understood. For these reasons the long-range 
achievable water quality ^oal of estuarine management should be to 
keep all waters safe for direct contact by humans and also usable as a 
fish and wildlife habitat. 



THE NATIONAL ESTUAKINE POLLUTION STUDY 

Volume III 



PART V. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPREHENSIVE 
NATIONAL PROGRAM 

Introduction 

As decreed by the Congress in section 5g of the act : 

The report shall include * * * recommendations for a comprehensive national 
program for the * * * development of estuaries * * * and the respective re- 
sponsibilities which should be assumed by Federal, State, and local governments 
and by public and private interests. 

The recommendations are included in part III of this report, and 
the following portion, part V, contains the background material for 
the recommendations plus descriptions of the various governmental 
responsibilities. 

The rationale for this development is as follows. To provide a basis 
for the developing these recommendations and defining responsibil- 
ities, a volume of material was amassed on the views, suggestions, pro- 
grams, and legislative authorities of all sectors of the national conimu- 
nity — Federal, State, and local governments and public and private 
interests. This background information was obtained through very 
diligent solicitations of all these sectors. The resulting material con- 
sisted of reports, correspondence, and personal communications which 
were analyzed and summarized to produce relatively brief overviews. 
The source information used to produce the overviews is being re- 
tained separately from this report for future reference and updating. 

These overviews, which are quite brief considering the original 
mass of information, are presented as the following chapters of this 
part of the report. The order in which they are presented is essentially 
the same as that used in the wording of the act, that is, chapter 1 is the 
Federal agencies; chapter 2, the "State" agencies; chapter 3, the local 
governments; chapter 4, the compact (or interstate) agencies; and 
chapter 5, the public and private interests. These overviews were re- 
lated to those of other marine resource studies (chapter 6) and then 
related to specific geographic areas to present a concrete overall view 
(chapter 7) and finally summarized in the form of conclusions (chap- 
ter 8). In turn chapter 8 provides the skeletal outline for the de- 
velopment of the recommendations enumerated in part III of this 
report, and chapter 9 provides suggested guidelines for a management 
statute. 

(343) 



42-847 O — 7C 



CHAPTER 1. ROLE AND PROGRAMS OF FEDERAL 

AGENCIES 

This chapter describes the current Federal role and programs in the 
estuarine zone and identifies the needs to be met to provide for a 
stronger more effective Federal program. 

The current Federal role as such, has grown over a period of many 
years and has as its basis the national interest which extends beyond 
State borders. The role is based on Federal legislation which itself has 
developed over a period of years to meet many specific needs seen 
and acted upon by Congress. It has also grown as one of concurrent 
jurisdiction with the States who exercise the primary authority in the 
estuarine zone. Even so the Federal role is a vital one and is essential 
to the preservation of national interests. Broadly speaking these are : 
(1) the protection and development of the Federal interest in the 
natural resources of the estuarine zone, (2) commerce and navigation 
and, (3) national security. 

Section 1. Current Federal Role in the Estuarine Zone 

The description of the Federal program that follows is a more 
complete picture of how the Federal role is implemented. In very brief 
form the role itself has come to be : 

(1) The provision of normal Federal projects such as navigation 
channels, flood control and protective works, aids to navigation, 
weather service including tides and currents, mapping and charting 
both for navigation and resources, and port security and shipping 
control. 

(2) Grants and loans to States and other entities for planning, ac- 
quisition and development, for research and study, and for facilities 
construction. 

(3) Technical advice and assistance through conference and con- 
sultation, mutual assistance projects, and joint projects and studies. 

(4) The preparation of broad studies and investigations, including 
inventories and data collection necessary to meet the requirements of 
Federal programs. 

(5) Acquisition and development of selected sites to preserve and 
protect them for the future. 

(6) The exercising of regulatory authority in accordance with cur- 
rent Federal law and statute. These authorities include the issuance of 
permits, licenses, and other regulations governing certain permissible 
uses or modification of estuarine resources. The^ include also the 
enforcement of water quality standards and various other controls 
over pollution, and the enforcement of Federal law within the niavi- 
gable waters of the United States. 

(7) The exercise of coordinating activities, for the most part 
through close work with State counterpart organizations and at the 

(344) 



345 

headquarters level through committee and council work, routine daily 
business and memorandum of agreement. 

(8) Granting Federal consent to interstate and international com- 
pacts and commissions. 

(9) Assuring appropriate Federal performances under regional and 
international obligations for the management of flyways, fisheries 
resources, etc. 

Section 2. The Federal Programs 

To meet the requirements of the national interest and to carry out 
its role, the Federal Government has assumed fairly broad responsi- 
bilities in resource management, planning, regulation and control, 
and in many programs of technical and financial assistance to the 
States and the subdivisions. The description of the Federal programs 
that follows will show how this has developed and how these pro- 
grams currently meet Federal responsibilities. 

In describing the current Federal programs in the estuarine zone 
it is important to note that the greater part of these programs is of 
much broader scope than just that of the estuarine zone, and thus the 
activities reported herein are generally portions of larger programs 
which overlap and crossover the estuarine zone. Because these pro- 
grams are of long-standing importance to the development and preser- 
vation of the Nation's resources and to the promotion of its commerce 
and industry they should not be f ragm_ented or segmented by arbitrary 
geographic dividing lines ; nevertheless, this description will confine 
itself as closely as possible to those parts of the programs relating to 
the estuarine zone, with the possible risk of appearing incomplete at 
times. 

FOUR GENERAL CATEGORIES OF PROGRAMS 

Categorization of the multitudinous Federal activities in the estu- 
arine zone cannot be clear cut as there is a continuous series of inter- 
locking activities and concurrent jurisdictions. Nevertheless, four 
general categories become apparent when the overall activities are 
viewed. These are : (1) those activities and programs having a direct 
and significant operational ejffect; (2) programs or activities having 
indirect or related effects; (3) activities primarily of a research and 
study nature ; and (4) activities of a planning and coordination nature. 

CATEGORY 1 : PROGRAMS HAVING DIRECT AND SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS 

Into category 1 have been placed the programs of the Department 
of the Interior, the Department of Commerce, the civil works pro- 
gram of the Corps of Engineers, and the Department of Transporta- 
tion, as all these in themselves have a direct and major effect on the 
use of the estuarine zone. 

Department of the Int&ri&r 

By virtue of the numerous activities of the bureaus and offices in 
the Department of the Interior, the Department, in essence, is the 
resource manager of the estuarine zone. This applies to both the living 
and nonliving marine resources and to a slightly lesser extent the 
related land resources. This is well demonstrated in the description 
that follows. 



346 

Interior's estuarine programs are planned and managed to meet 
expanding national needs for material, esthetic, and environmental 
resources and qualities afforded by the estuarine areas. Programs in 
support of objectives provide for aggressive leadership in research and 
management. For the most part the programs also encourage and 
complement appropriately designed estuarine activities of other Fed- 
eral agencies and State and local governments. 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Concerned largely with coastal waters and the open ocean, the 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries works with nature as yet little 
affected by human management except for those anadromous species 
which use the estuaries and migrate into fresh water to spawn. It has 
the responsibility to insure an adequate, dependable, and diverse 
supply of fish and shellfish products of good quality; encourage 
optimum use of estuarine living resources; and contribute to man's 
understanding and control of estuarine living resources and their 
environment. To achieve these objectives, the agency conducts research 
on estuaries, estuarine problems, or estuarine-dependent species of 
fish at more than half of its 20 biological laboratories. 

The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and the Bureau of Sport 
Fisheries and Wildlife have, after more than a decade as a service, 
recently formed several interbureau committees on such matters of 
common interest as estuaries, anadromous fish, and conflicts between 
commercial and sport fishermen. 

Task forces on ad hoc bases are constantly being formed for special 
interbureau purposes. These developments and other basic responsi- 
bilities of longer standing, place the Department of the Interior in 
an expanding role of leadership and responsibility in estuarine re- 
search, planning, and management. 

Bureau of B'port Fisheries and Wildlife 

In the conservation of estuarine fish and wildlife resources and the 
preservation of estuarine habitat, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife has a very substantial program. Under a variety of legis- 
lative authorities the Bureau activities include investigations and 
recommendations for the preservation and enhancement of fish and 
wildlife resources in connection with waterfowl population statistics 
and of regulations pertaining to waterfowl ; Federal aid to the States 
for acquisition of wetlands, research on fish and wildlife, and access 
and development of facilities for fishing and hunting; training of 
biologists and dissemination of technical advice; conservation edu- 
cation ; and pesticide monitoring. 

The Bureau is also charged with the second estuary study under- 
way in the Department, the National Estuary Protection Act (Public 
Law 90^54) . This act expresses the intent of Congress "* * * to 
recognize, preserve, and protect the responsibilities of the States in 
protecting, conserving, and restoring the estuaries in the United 
States." 

This legislation directs the Secretary, in cooperation with the States 
and with other Federal agencies, to conduct a detailed inventory of 
the estuaries of the Nation. Such inventory and analyses would be the 
base for determining appropriate means and measures of preserving 
or restoring particular areas, including legislation. 



347 

Coordination of the two estuary studies has been accomplished 
through the Office of Marine Resources, in accordance with Secretarial 
Order No. 2908, approved in October 1968. In order to avoid duplica- 
tion of effort the estuarine protection act study will use the Estuarine 
Inventory being developed by the National Estuarine Pollution Study. 

Of the 312 units in the National Wildlife Refuge System, 78 are 
coastal. These coastal refuges have a combined shoreline of more than 
500 miles and an area of more than 18 million acres, of which 682,000 
acres are identified as estuarine. As administrator of these areas, the 
Bureau is a potent factor in the conservation of these estuarine re- 
sources. An additional potent factor in the conservation of estuarine 
resources is the Bureau's responsibility to review and comment on 
Corps of Engineers permits as required by the Fish and Wildlife 
Coordination Act. 

Bureau of Land ManageTnent 
While the Bureau of Land Management is the designated manage- 
ment agency of public domain lands, a sizable portion of these lands 
is along the California and Oregon coasts. The Bureau plays strictly 
a management role, and, as such, has no authority to acquire any ad- 
ditional lands. It is the Nation's largest land manager. 

Bureau of Mines 
The Bureau of Mines is oriented to research and information serv- 
ices. In its estuarine related programs it seeks to develop the technology 
necessary to minimize the adverse effects associated wnth mineral re- 
covery. They include a mineral resource evaluation study and the de- 
velopment of marine mineral mining technology. The Bureau has 
jurisdiction over that part of the solid waste program which involves 
materials resulting from mineral extraction. 

Bureau of Outdoor Recreation 

An examination of the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation program in- 
dicates a central role in promoting Federal-State cooperation and 
coordination in planning the acquisition and development of both 
existing and proposed new estuarine areas devoted to public recrea- 
tional use. Although it administers no lands, it administers the Land 
and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-578), 
which other agencies — Federal, State, and local — make use of in their 
land programs. The act provides grants to the States for the planning, 
acquisition, and development of outdoor recreation areas and facilities, 
and to certain Federal agencies for the acquisition and development 
of outdoor recreation areas and facilities. 

The Bureau also participates in comprehensive river basin plan- 
ning, water resource project planning, and reviews reports related to 
such activities. The Bureau and the National Park Service also work 
together on area planning, often with the participation of the Bureau 
of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. Emphasis is ^ven to assure that ade- 
quate consideration is accorded to the estuarine environment. 

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration 
Created by the Water Quality Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-234) 
and significantly expanded in powers and funding through the Clean 
Water Restoration Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-753), the Federal 



348 

Water Pollution Control Administration has a singularly complex 
and essential program. 

In carrying oiit its pollution control program, this Agency conducts 
a series of major programs in the estuarine zone. Briefly, these pro- 
grams include comprehensive water quality management planning, 
technical services, construction grants program, enforcement, water 
quality standards and research. 

The comprehensive water quality management planning program 
in the estuarine zone involves the coordination of the in-house water 
pollution control planning efforts with water resources planning con- 
ducted by other Federal, State, and interstate planning agencies to 
ensure adequate consideration of water quality factors. It also provides 
the means for systematic evaluation of multiple resource needs to meet 
future demands. This includes development of programs relating to 
the control of water pollution in the estuarine zone. Water quality 
management planning grants are made to State and local govern- 
ments. Under Executive Order 11288, FWPCA carries out certain re- 
view and consultation responsibilities for the Department in connection 
with wastes from Federal activities. The Corps of Engineers dredge 
and fill permits on estuarine and coastal areas are reviewed in regard 
to effects on water quality. 

The technical support program operates water quality surveillance 
networks and sampling programs (in cooperation with the Geological 
Survey) and conducts special studies on the character, effects and 
abatement of water pollution including that related to vessel wastes, 
dredging activities, thermal discharges, municipal and industrial 
waste discharges, land drainage and salt water intrusion. In addition, 
the program operationally axiministered the Oil Pollution Act of 1924, 
as amended, and develops and coordinates the implementation of the 
national multiagency oil and hazardous materials pollution contin- 
gency plan and the supporting regional plans. 

Enforcement proceedings are conducted to abate pollution of coastal 
waters and also when there are violations of water quality standards. 
Some 14 enforcement proceedings have been carried out in the estu- 
arine areas. 

The research and development program provides for increasing the 
knowledge and techniques for monitoring water quality in the es- 
tuarine zone, for recovering those areas damaged by pollution through 
a variety of means, and for determining the effects of water pollution 
on estuarine life. The Federal Water Pollution Control Administra- 
tion has an extensive research and development program involving the 
detection, control and clean-up of oils spilled into harbors, rivers, and 
estuaries. 

Recently accomplished activities of the Federal Water Pollution 
Control Administration include : 

(1) the partial or complete approval by the Secretary, of interstate 



349 

water quality standards for the 50 States, three territories, and the 
District of Columbia ; 

(2) completion of the oil pollution report and a completion and im- 
plementation of the national multiagency oil and hazardous materials 
contingency plan ; and 

(3) in conjunction with the Geological Surve}^, the agency is cur- 
rently using STORET as a data storage and retrieval system. Its use 
will expand as funds permit. 

Geological Survey 

The Geological Survey has been describing and interpreting the en- 
vironment for nearly a century, a prerequisite for intelligent efforts 
to shape, control, or preserve it. It maps the physical, hydrologic, and 
cultural features of the land and by aerial photographs provides a 
record of changes over timCj thus, forming a basis for land-use plan- 
ning and interpretation. This structural and historical geology of the 
Nation provides a guide to useful minerals and fuels, and is basic to an 
understanding of soils. Reliable knowledge about water is necessary 
for inland navigation, flood control, power development, irrigation, 
municipal and industrial water suj)plies, pollution abatement, fish 
and wildlife, and recreation. Geological research plays a supporting 
role for many Federal agencies. State programs, and private enter- 
prises on land, at sea, and in space. It should be noted that much of 
the survey's activity is of a research nature and some of it is of a 
planning and coordinating nature. 

Recent program accomplishments include the changes made in Outer 
Continental Shelf (O.C.S.) rules. 

On February 17, 1969, an amendment was published in the Federal 
Register making the pollution prevention section of the Geological 
Survey (O.C.S.) regulations more restrictive. It also established that 
companies operating on the shelf shall be liable without proof of fault 
for pollution resulting from their operations. These particular changes 
apply to operations on the entire shelf all around the country. On 
March 21, the Secretary announced that certain California O.C.S. 
orders were changed. (O.C.S. orders are issued by Geological Survey 
Regional Oil and Gas Supervisors and they apply only to those parts 
of the shelf within the specific region under each supervisor's juris- 
diction.) These changed orders provide for more strict control of oil 
drilling and production operations in all Federal waters off the entire 
State of California. Also, on March 21, the Secretary directed that a 
2-mile wide permanent ecological preserve be established off Santa 
Barbara immediately seaward of the 3-mile limit of the State of Cali- 
fornia. He also directed that all unleased areas south of this permanent 
preserve will be held as an additional buffer zone where no oil drilling 
or production operations will be permitted. 

Bureau of Reclmnation 
Although the Bureau programs in the 17 Western States have little 
direct involvement in the estuarine zones there is opportunity for its 



350 

upstream water resource development activities to have long range 
impacts downstream on estuarine resources. The downstream influences 
of these projects are being considered and are of importance to the 
Department's interest and responsibility in the estuarine zones. 

NationaZ Park Service 

The preservation of marine life and environments and the provision 
for marine-related recreational activities are major considerations in 
the National Park Service's administration of 24 areas alon^ the Na- 
tion's seacoast and along the shores of the Great Lakes. Fifteen of 
these areas are national parks and monuments where resource protec- 
tion is a major management objective; seven are national seashores 
located along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts and two are 
national lakeshores located along the Great Lakes where outdoor 
recreation is a primary management consideration. 

In addition, 28 units within the national park system are historical 
areas found along our coastlines. Total length of shoreline in these 
52 areas exceeds 1,870 miles. 

The service's combined role in marine-related areas is to preserve 
and manage natural, scenic, historical, and scientific features of these 
areas, to interpret these features for park visitors, to provide and 
maintain facilities and services necessary for park visitors to safely 
enjoy compatible recreational activities, and to provide access to waters 
and beaches. The service, also, participates in comprehensive river 
basin and water resources project planning and in review of project 
proposals and permit applications. 

Office of Saline Water 
The primary objective of the saline water conversion program is to 
develop practicable low-cost methods of producing fresh water from 
sea and other saline waters. The research and development program is 
conducted by means of research and development grants and contracts 
awarded to individuals, universities, private research organizations 
and industrial firms, and other government agencies. Estuarial waters 
are one source of saline waters for desalting. Disposal of waste brine 
from a large desalting plant may be a problem in relation to envi- 
ronmental conditions m certain estuarine situations from the view- 
point of increases in salinity and temj>erature. The Office of Saline 
Water brine disposal research program is directed to determining any 
detrimental effects and means of alleviating them so that the economic 
production of fresh water by desalination can be continued without 
imposing stresses on the environment. 

Office of Water Resources Research 
The Office of Water Resources Research, authorized under the 
Water Resources Research Act of 1964 (Public Law 89-404) provides 
a major benefit to the Nation. It seeks to stimulate, sponsor, and supple- 
ment present programs of research and training in the field of water 



351 

and of resources that affect water. This is done through grants and 
contracts with academic and private institutions, private firms, indi- 
viduals, and public agencies through operations in 50 States and 
Puerto Rico. Most of the studies are on water supply augmentation 
and conservation, while others are concerned with water quality man- 
agement and protection, water quantity management and control, 
water resources planning, and the hydrological cycle. 

In summary. Interior's programs cover most of the major resources 
and uses of the estuarine zone, including the rapidly increasing recrea- 
tional use and the unquantified aesthetic values. 

The DepartmeMt of Gominerce 

The Department of Commerce is another organization whose pro- 
grams have a direct and significant effect on the beneficial uses of 
the estuarine zones. Because estuarine zones are used for sea commerce, 
the Department of Conmierce, and especially the Maritime Adminis- 
tration and the Environmental Science Services Administration 
(ESS A), are concerned with these areas. Action primarily is directed 
toward collection of navigational data and the development of harbor 
and port facilities. The Office of Business Economics, the Bureau of 
the Census, and the Economic Development Administration are in- 
directly involved in these efforts. 

The Maritime Administration has statutory responsibilities for 
promoting and encouraging the development of an American-flag mer- 
chant marine and U.S. ports and related transportation facilities in 
connection with waterbome commerce. In recent years, the Maritime 
Administration has become increasingly aware of the detrimental ef- 
fects of harbor pollution and is involved in activities to solve this 
problem. With the advent of nuclear powered vessels and the resulting 
radioactive discharges, the Administration has worked towards the 
establishment of stringent standards to prevent radioactive contamina- 
tion of harbor waters. Contracts for the development of devices to de- 
tect and prevent oil pollution of harbors have been let ; the results of- 
this research have been published. This agency is also involved in com- 
prehensive research studies with several other agencies to investigate 
the requirements of a national system of ports. The proposed study 
would consider long-range U.S. port and transportation needs, includ- 
ing detailed analysis of, recommended solutions for, and specific prob- 
lems generated by rapidly changing shipping technology such as "the 
supercarrier." In the process important interrelationships between 
transportation, urban renewal and estuarine resource developments 
could be identified. 

ESS A provides a direct and important service through its mission 
of mapping and charting the coast and harbors of the United States 
and its territories. In addition, it provides the adjunctive services of 
tide and current information, marine weather service, hurricane and 
tsunami warnings and various other supplemental services relating to 



352 

marine safety and navigation. Its recently inau^rated flushing predic- 
tion service will grow in value to the beneficial use of the estuarine 
zones. 

The Economic Development Administration although indirectly in- 
volved in estuary related programs does provide assistance in com- 
prehensive planning ajffecting the estuarine zone and in support to 
actual projects in the zone. For example, the Coastal Plains Regional 
Commission established pursuant to the Public Works and Eco- 
nomic Development Act of 1965 has as an important segment of its ac- 
tivities a marme resources program designed to stimulate growth and 
use of marine resources in the region. The agency itself has contributed 
to numerous projects within the coastal area. 

In brief summary, the Department of Commerce programs provide 
essential services in the estuarine zone contributing primarily, but not 
entirely to the commercial use of the zone. 

Co7'ps of Engineers 

Perhaps the organization that has the greatest direct physical elffect 
on the estuaries is the Corps of Engineers operating under the Depart- 
ment of Defense. 

Through its civil works program it literally maintains and adminis- 
ters the navigable waters of the United States. Its programs in the es- 
tuarine zone mclude : 

(1) provision of channels, basins and jjrotective workM; 

(2) control of dredging, filling, excavation and constru< tion in navi- 
gable waters through issuance of permits ; 

(3) development of areas for disposal of dredged material during 
construction and maintenance of navigation projects; and 

(4) issuance of permits regulating the discharge of industrial and 
other wastes into navigable waters. 

Other important Corps estuarine-related programs include : 

(1) removal of wrecks, aquatic vegetation, debris, drifts, and other 
obstructions from navigable waters ; 

(2) restoration of beaches ; 

( 3 ) construction and maintenance of small boat harbors ; 

( 4 ) providing fishing sites on piers and breakwaters ; 

(5) fish and wildlife conservation ; 

(6) development of offshore sand sources for beach restoration; 

(7) low flow augmentation ; 

(8) conduct of design and research studies of estuaries at Corps 
laboratories ; 

(9) administration of Federal laws protecting and preserving U.S. 
waters; and 

(10) flood and hurricane protection. 

In addition, it must be noted that the Corps of Engineers programs 
of dam building, flood control and river clearance upstream from the 



i 



353 

estuarine zone have very definite effects on the fresh water inflow to 
the estuary. Its study programs cover many facets of estuarine re- 
search, including physical, chemical, biological, and ecological factors. 
The comprehensive study of the Chesapeake Bay authorized in 1965 
but not yet undertaken, is a typical example of Corps activity in this 
area. 
Depart'ment of Transportation 

The Department of Transportation is the fourth Federal agency 
whose programs have a direct and significant effect on the resources 
and the use of the estuarine zone. 

Under this Department the Coast Guard performs a series of service 
activities of essential importance to the beneficial use of the estuaries. 
These include : 

(1) the enforcement of Federal laws within the navigable waters of 
the United States ; 

(2) port security with emphasis on the control and movement of 
vessels and on the safe movement of hazardous cargoes ; 

(3) maintenance and operation of aids to navigation and regulation 
and administration of bridges over the navigable waters ; 

(4) search and rescue assistance to persons operating vehicles and 
aircraft in distress ; 

(5) administration of the Federal boating Act of 1958 ; and 

(6) icebreaking. 

In regard to the resources of the estuarine zone, those Coast Guard 
activities having the greatest effect are the enforcement activities 
concerned with oil pollution control, as provided under the Oil Pol- 
lution Act of 1924, as amended, and its attempts to find ways to ease 
or eliminate the unavoidable pollution. The Coast Guard now has an 
active research program in oil pollution abatement, containment, source 
control, and recovery of oil spills. Its role in the ocean data buoy system 
program could assist in inshore pollution monitoring at a later date. 

Also under the Department of Transportation, the Federal Highway 
Administration's Bureau of Public Roads is concerned with estuarine 
resources because many of its highways cross and provide access to 
estuaries. The Federal Aviation Administration's activities in the con- 
struction and operation of airports encroach upon the estuaries and 
have impact on the surrounding environment. 

CATEGORY 2 : PROGRAMS HAVING INDIRECT OR RELATED EFFECTS 

In this category are the programs and activities of the Department 
of Housing and Urban Development, Agriculture, and Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare. In general, certain of their programs do have 
direct and beneficial effect in the estuarine zone but they have it in- 
directly, a result of programs directed towards the land rather than the 
water areas of the estuarine zone. 



354 

DepartTTient of Housing and Urban Development 

The Department of Housing and Urban Development provides 
direct financial and technical assistance to States, metropolitan, and 
local areas for comprehensive planning, housing, and other aspects of 
urban and metropolitan development. Much population growth and 
development is near estuarine zones, and assistance programs for the 
planning, development, and use of estuaries and adjacent properties 
have significant impact on these zones. 

Comprehensive planning grants provide assistance to many levels of 
government for the preparation of comprehensive plans for land use, 
facilities, and the use of natural resources. Comprehensive planning 
on an areawide basis is required as a condition for funding many facil- 
ity grant programs which directly affect estuarine zone management. 
Grants for water and sewer facilities, for acquisition of sites for public 
uses, and for the purchase of open spac^ for parks, recreation, and con- 
servation can all contribute to better use of waterfront areas and can 
aid in more effective estuarine management. 

The national flood insurance program, authorized by the Housing 
and Urban Development Act of 1968, requires land use provisions to 
restrict future development of flood-prone lands. By June 30, 1970, 
permanent land use and control measures consistent with land manage- 
ment must be adopted by State or local areas before insurance coverage 
is provided. Title I of the Housing Act of 1949 provides loans and 
grants for urban renewal or redevelopment of waterfront areas. The 
open space program can help protect urban wetlands and develop 
or preserve undeveloped, waterfront areas for recreational use. Newer 
programs, such as model cities, can assist estuarine management by 
providing a coordinated program to improve the urban environment. 
The new communities provision of the 1968 act will encourage the 
private development of new communities by guaranteeing the nnanc- 
mg by developers. These can contribute toward estuarine management 
through the location and design of land use patterns so as to reduce 
pollution loads and improve recreational facility development. 

Department of Agriculture 

The Department of Agriculture contributes to the overall manage- 
ment, use, and preservation of the estuarine system. The particular 
program concern of the Department is land use, soil and water con- 
servation, erosion prevention practices, and certain measures involved 
in placing and maintaining these lands in a stable and productive con- 
dition. As erosion and the volume of sediment is diminished, the estu- 
aries can more effectively perform their normal biological roles. Its 
areawide sewer and water planning grants and its sewer and water 
facilities loans and grant, contribute to the abatement of pollution to 
the extent that they are adjacent to the estuarine zone. 



355 

Under Public Law 566, watershed projects provide effective control 
and stabilization of sediment source areas that could otherwise con- 
tribute harmful deposits into estuarine areas. 

The Forest Service has Federal leadership in the forestry phases of 
watershed protection. Twelve national forests, which involve lands that 
drain directly into estuarine areas, have land management activities 
that directly affect the estuarine resource. 

Research directed toward pesticide residues in silt and the use of 
brackish water for irrigation will contribute to an increase in knowl- 
edge of the estuaries, their uses, and problems. 

Here again is an example of programs directed toward land use and 
the preservation of that land contributing also to the preservation of 
the estuarine zone. In that they do so, the planning of such activities 
should be related to any comprehensive estuarine management plan. 

Department of Healthy Education^ and Welfare 

The relationship of this Department to estuarine zones and manage- 
ment includes its concern about the fitness or suitability of these areas 
for human use and the resulting impact on human health and well- 
being. The Public Health Service of the Department has jurisdiction 
over its estuarine-related activities through the Consumer Protection 
and Environmental Health Service ; namely, the pesticides and shell- 
fish sanitation programs of the Food and Drug Administration and the 
Bureaus of Solid Waste Management, Water Hygiene, and Radiologi- 
cal Health of the Environmental Control Administration. 

Food and Drug Administration activities include the evaluation of 
food additives and pesticides in seafoods, conducting studies on flora 
and fauna of certain estuaries, the development of fish protein concen- 
trate, ecological studies of Clostridia (botulism), toxicity, and carcino- 
genicity of smoked fish, salmonella in fishery products, virus in marine 
foods, and toxicological screening. The Food and Drug Administration 
is also responsible for administering the national shellfish sanitation 
program, which is primarily concerned with the sanitary production 
of safe shellfish from high quality estuarine waters. 

The Bureau of Water Hygiene conducts studies on health aspects 
of the water quality of the marine environment as it relates to shellfish 
production, recreation, and water resources planning. 

The Bureau of Radiological Health conducts projects on reactor 
effluent radionuclides in marine ecosystems, radiological surveillance 
of marine environments, and the passage of radioelements through 
subtropical marine environment and biota. 

The Bureau of Solid Waste Management is surveying through con- 
tract, the ocean disposal problem and expects to produce pollution 
potential data. A research project in Boston, Mass., is studying the 
effect upon the marine ecosystem of incinerator residue. 



356 

CATEGORY 3 : RESEARCH AND STUDY PROGRAMS 

In category 3 are those agencies whose activities in the estuarine zone 
are primarily research in nature ; namely, the National Science Fomi- 
dation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the National Academy of 
Sciences-National Academy of Engineering. The programs and activi- 
ties of all three of these organizations are extremely broad and it is 
only as their activities relate directly to the estuarine zone that we 
briefly describe them here. 

The National Science Foundation 

The National Science Foundation supports scientific research and 
education in the sciences, including estuarine-related disciplines. It has 
funded the development of marine and atmospheric research facilities. 
It has also sponsored a broad spectrum of research activities, and has 
supported the education of environmental scientists of all kinds. The 
agency was also given additional authority by the National Sea Grant 
College and Program Act of 1966 (Public Law 89-688). Under the 
provisions of the act, the National Science Foundation acts to support 
applied research by establishing an Office of Sea Grant program and 
by preparing policy guidelines for use by grant applicants. Several 
sea grant programs have been directed largely toward the estuaries. 

The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution relates generally to the ecological, bio- 
logical, and geological study, preservation, and educational aspects of 
fauna, flora, and sediments in estuarine area. It depends upon the 
accumulation and analysis of adequate biological and environmental 
data to predict the impact of environmental modifications on the estu- 
arine biota. The modifications must represent improvement rather than 
degradation. It operates an Oceanographic Sorting Center for the 
processing of aquatic, biologic, and geologic samples. It develops inter- 
disciplinary conferences, such as on pollution problems in New York 
Harbor. It conducts studies on subjects ranging from sedimentation 
and beach erosion to the distribution and abundance of marine plants 
and animals. The agency is involved with several research facilities 
with capabilities in the area of estuarine ecosystems and in various 
kinds of tropical research. 

National Academy of ScieTices — National Academy of Engineering 
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Acad- 
emy of Engineering (NAE) are twin organizations composed of dis- 
tinguished scientists and engineers dedicated to the furtherance of 
science and engineering and their uses for the general welfare. Al- 
though not Government agencies, the academies enjoy close relations 
with the Federal Government from which they hold congressional 
charters. Each charter specified, "the Academy shall, whenever called 



357 

upon by any department of the Government, investigate, examine, ex- 
periment, and report upon any subject of science or art, the actual 
expense of such investigations, examinations, experiments, and reports 
to be paid from appropriations which may be made for the purpose, but 
the Academy shall receive no compensation whatever for any service 
to the Government of the United States." 

The NAS and the NAE contribute to the development of knowledge 
of the Nation's estuaries through their respective Committee on 
Oceanography (NASCO) and Committee on Ocean Engineering 
(NAECOE). The most recent contribution of the NASCO and 
NAECOE, acting in concert, has been the conduct, at the request and 
under the sponsorship of the Federal Water Pollution Control Admin- 
istration, of a meeting : "Coastal Waste Management," held in June 
1969. This session is described elsewhere in this report ; the final result- 
ant document will be published by the Academies early in 1970. The 
purpose of this meeting was to examine the following questions : 

(1) Wliat is known about the impact of wastes on the oceans? 

(2) What is known about the magnitude of the impact the ma- 
rine environment can tolerate ? 

(3) What is our present capability to predict future impact of 
wastes on the coastal ocean environment ? 

(4) What investigations should be undertaken in order to im- 
prove our ability to handle the above questions? 

The National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of 
Engineering have a history of significant contributions to knowledge 
necessary to develop a sound system of management for the estuaries 
and will continue to offer valuable guidance in the future by bringing 
together in appropriate groups the most competent scientists and 
engineers in the country to deal broadly with scientific and engineering 
problems in estuaries and to exchange information in the furtherance 
of research. 

CATEGORY 4 : PLANNING, COORDINATING, AND LICENSING PROGRAMS 

These are the Government agencies whose functions lie generally in 
the field of planning, coordinating, or licensing. Their activities as they 
relate to or affect the estuarine zone are briefly described. 

The Water Resources Council 

The Water Resources Council, established in the Water Resources 
Planning Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-90) awards planning grants to 
the States for their comprehensive planning in the development of 
water and related land resources, including estuarine resources. This 
planning considers that the Nation's estuaries and coastal areas are 
mseparably related to their watersheds and to the rivers which supply 
them with fresh water. These watershed relationships determine the 
characteristics of estuaries and coastal areas and influence their use- 



358 

fulness to man. Amon^ the many objectives of such planning is a con- 
sideration of appropriate regional institutional arrangements neces- 
sary to implement the comprehensive plans. It also advises the Presi- 
dent on national water policy, maintains a continuing assessment of 
national water supply needs, and coordinates the activities of Federal 
water resources agencies. The Council also oversees the execution of 
congressionally authorized comprehensive water and related land re- 
sources planning projects for specific river basins. Existing Federal- 
State river basin commissions under the aegis of the Council are 
organized and functioning in 15 of the 30 coastal States, and alterna- 
tive Federal-State planning coordination mechanisms are organized in 
all the remaining coastal areas under the general leadership of the 
Water Resources Council. 

National Cowncil on Marine Resources and Engineering Development 
The Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act of 1966 
(Public Law 80-454) established two complementary bodies : The Com- 
mission on Marine Science, Engineering, and Resources and the Na- 
tional Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Development. 
The latter provides for the development, encouragement, and mainte- 
nance of a comprehensive long-range and coordinated national pro- 
gram in marine science. The national program applies to oceanographic 
and scientific endeavors and disciplines, engineering, and technology in 
and with relation to the total marine environment. The report of the 
Commission with respect to multiple use of the coastal zone will be 
discussed in some detail in a later chapter. 

The Atomic Energy Commission 

The interests and operations of the Atomic Energy Commission 
( AEC) regarding the estuarine zone lie almost completely in the effects 
of radiological and thermal wastes as polkitants in estuarine zones. 
Research programs and projects of the Commission most directly re- 
lated to the estuarine system are conducted through contracts, with an 
emphasis on nuclear safety. Such board programs include — 

( 1 ) Disposal of radioactive wastes — ^their effects and movements 
through estuarine zones ; 

(2) Accumulation of radionuclides in wildlife and sediments of 
these zones and their relation to the ecology of the zone ; 

(3) Use of radionuclides in pollution study and the detection of 
pollution, and in some cases, the abatement of pollution ; and 

(4) Thermal effluents from atomic plants. 

The AEC licenses nuclear plants from the standpoint of radiologi- 
cal safety only. This important licensing authority unfortunately 
does not now require consideration of other environmental effects, 
particularly those of thermal effluents. 



359 

Federal Power Gommission 

The Federal Power Commission is an independent agency operating 
under the Federal Power Act, the Natural Gas Act, and other statutes. 
It is concerned principally with the regulation of the interstate 
aspects of the electric power and natural gas industries. Some of the 
regulatory activities involve power and natural gas facilities located 
in estuarine zones. 

Under the authority of the Federal Power A.ct, the Commission 
issues licenses for the construction and operation of non-Federal 
hydroelectric power projects on navigable waterways, on any stream 
over which Congress has jurisdiction where the project affects inter- 
state commerce, or on public lands or reservations of the United 
States; it investigates and prepares reports on the water and power 
development of the rivers of the United States ; it collects data on the 
electric power industry; and it studies plans for reservoir projects 
proposed to be constructed by Federal agencies and makes recommen- 
dations concerning the facilities to be installed for hydroelectric power 
development. That act directs the Commission to promote and encour- 
age the voluntary interconnection and coordination of electric utility 
systems to assure an abundant supply of electric energy throughout 
the United States with the greatest possible economy and with regard 
to the proper utilization and conservation of natural resources. 

Section 3. A Synthesis of Federal Programs and Their Means 

OF COORDINAIION 

The Federal programs in the estuarine zone are widespread and 
quite obviously have far-reaching effects. They must support the 
national interest and meet numerous Federal responsibilities. In addi- 
tion, they have a considerable effect on State and local programs. To 
be effective the various Federal programs should complement each 
other, should avoid duplication, and should be w^ell coordinated with 
one another and with the corresponding State-level programs. 

In order to present a reasonably clear synthesis of the Federal 
programs, the accompanying table V.1.1 presents a summary of 
major Federal activities in six different estuaries. For each Depart- 
ment and for each of the selected estuaries there are listed the routine 
activities or programs of the Department and then the additional or 
special activities in that particular estuary. The routine activities 
generally stay the same for each estuary and are most often those 
imposed by statute or results of longstanding programs. The special 
activities are an attempt to note specific projects, studies, etc., of 
current or recent nature in individual estuaries. Means of coordination 
currently in use are listed in the final column. For purposes of sim- 
plicity the table presents only the programs having direct and impor- 
tant interest or related effects (categories 1 and 2). This is not to 
derogate the importance of other activities but only to provide for 
simpler presentation. 



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ctivi 
later 
trati 
redg 
ory. 


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a 






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)iecial 
study 
Admi 
shell 
Labo 


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364 

Working from the information presented in the table there follows 
a discussion as to the adequacy of the programs in meeting the require- 
ments of national interest and Federal responsibility and a review of 
the current state of coordination, 

ADEQUACY OF PROGRAMS 

The national interests in the estuarine zone in relation to Federal 
programs are protection and development of natural resources, com- 
merce, navigation, and national defense. 

First, in regard to the protection and development of the natural 
resources of the estuarine zone, the Department of the Interior very 
likely has the strongest effect here since it has broad interests and 
management responsibilities in the use, preservation, development, 
and study of our living and nonliving marine and related land 
resources in the estuarine zone. At the same time, the Department 
is also interested in the equitable and reasonable exploitation of these 
areas for all manner of business and commercial activities. Through 
its permit review activities in connection with the Corps of Engineers, 
definite action goes on with particular emphasis on the protection of 
the vital fish and wildlife habitats and prevention of water pollution. 
In general, Interior's programs meet objectives. A serious weakness 
lies in financial limitations. What is being done is good but not enough 
can be done. This is particularly apparent in the need for estuarine 
zone or coastal zone research laboratories devoted to the problems and 
the resources of the estuaries and adjacent coastal areas. 

The permit control activities of the Corps of Engineers under the 
Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, the Fish and Wildlife Coordination 
Act, as amended, and the Interior-Arm^^ memorandum of under- 
standing of 1967, act directly in the protection and development of the 
estuarine resources. Army policy requires permit applicants to seek 
State approval before its own consideration of the application. The 
Corps issues public notices and holds public hearings when there is 
appropriate demand. The permit control activities are effective and 
cover a large part of the preservation or protection problem, but there 
are two weaknesses. First, the authority of the Corps to deny a permit 
on any grounds except impediment to navigation has been successfully 
challenged in Federal court. Second, there is the matter of policing 
or enforcement. The Corps simply does not have sufficient facilities 
and personnel to police the Nation, thus change and alteration may 
take place without Corps authorization. 

The licensing activities of the Atomic Energy Commission (not in 
the chart) now cover only radiological safety — ^this by statute. They 
do not take into account environmental effects, thus can supply only 
limited protection to estuarine natural resources. 

The routine activities of the Departments of Agriculture, Health, 
Education, and Welfare, and Housing and Urban Development, as 
can be seen from the chart, contribute to the protection of natural 
resources for the overall public good. Their effect is not always a direct 
one but, nevertheless does make a strong and continuous contribution. 
Like those of Interior the programs are effective. With more funds 
and facilities they would naturally increase their effects. 



365 

For those national interests of commerce and navigation, the 
chart shows a series of activities both contributing and controlling, 
for this is essentially a direct Federal responsibility. 

Commerce supplies the necessary mapping and charting for naviga- 
tional purposes, the marine weather service and port development. The 
Coast Guard under Transportation regulates waterborne commerce 
and maintains navigational aids. The Corps of Engineers maintains 
the navigable waters and the Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare maintains a marine health program. Since commercial ship- 
ping is one of the most valuable and efficient uses of the estuarine zone 
these Federal services can be considered adequate to meet the national 
interests, at least under current law and funding. 

Nevertheless, as pointed out in the Report of the Commission on 
Marine Science, Engineering, and Resources, and in other studies, 
rapidly changing trends in shipping — containerization and larger 
ships among other things — make a review of the situation necessary. A 
thorough study and national survey covering future requirements is 
needed. 

In regard to national security, as a national interest in the estu- 
arine zone, the Federal programs appear to be adequate. The Navy 
as a user relies on the same support programs as does other commerce. 
Major naval bases, of course, are in the same area and all the logistic 
support of the many facets of defense beyond the continental limits 
pass through the area. 

THE COORDINATION OF FEDERAL PROGRAMS IN THE ESTUARINE ZONE 

With many different Federal agencies managing active and im- 
portant programs in the estuarine zone, the question is frequently 
asked, "How is coordination accomplished with this multitude of pro- 
grams?", or, "Is there any coordination at all?" The assumption is 
usually made that it's all a very thorough mess and there is no proper 
control over the situation. In truth, there is coordination and there is 
progress in obtaining better coordination, yet there are some serious 
weaknesses, and corrective action is needed. 

Specific means of coordination 

From the chart several distinct and important means of coordina- 
tion can be seen. These are : 

(1) Working closely with State and local counterparts in the devel- 
opment of programs and in mutual assistance — joint projects and 
studies — data gathering and exchange of information; 

(2) The administration of grants and subsidies — joint review of 
plans and applications ; 

(3) Regulatory activities — permits, licensing and enforcement of 
Federal laws; 

(4) Statutes, Executive orders. Bureau of the Budget circulars; 

(5) Memoranda of agreement; and 

(6) The work of the Water Resources Council and its river basin 
commission and interagency organizations. 

The means of coordination are many — ^the point in question is "How 
do they work and what are the results?" — at State and Federal levels. 



366 

Coordmation at the State level 

As the table shows, perhaps the strongest means of coordination is 
that of working directly with State counterparts in the development 
and administration of various programs. Through the administration 
of grants and subsidies the Federal agencies also must work closely 
with appropriate State and local agencies. The granting of permits 
and licenses is normally done in conjunction with State agencies. The 
Corps of Engineers, for example, desires and usually obtains State 
approval of permits before granting the Federal permit. The Coast 
Guard in its law enforcement activities works in close conjunction 
with State authorities in inland and coastal waters. These are but a 
few of many examples. There is also coordination at the State level 
through the river basin commissions and interagency organizations 
under the aegis of the Water Resources Council since the States are 
members of these organizations and participate with various Federal 
agencies in the planning studies. 

The fact that there is this coordination at the State and local level 
supplies an important component of coordination to the Federal pro- 
grams since the States must attempt to integrate these Federal pro- 
grams into their own activities. The great weakness is that all too 
frequently Federal agencies deal only with their particular State 
counterparts and thus work with the States does not tend to pull the 
Federal programs together. In those cases where there is a compre- 
hensive Stat© management plan for the estuarine zones and coastal 
area and there is a State agency implementing this plan, there could be 
much stronger and more effective coordination. 

Coordination at the Federal level 

Coordination of Federal programs in the estuarine zone takes place 
through several of the previously listed methods in addition to that 
which results from the extensive coordination at the State level. Mem- 
orandums of understanding are one of the most used methods and 
are particularly applicable to the joint reviews of applications in the 
administration of grants and subsidies. In regulatory activities there 
is a continuous series of joint reviews or permits and licenses. The 
1967 Memorandum of Agreement between Interior and Army which 
calls for Interior review of permits from the standpoint of environ- 
ment and natural resources results in coordination of Interior and 
Corps of Engineers activities. The enforcement of water quality stand- 
ards brings about a form of coordination since Federal programs must 
be reviewed and considered to determine their effect. Passage of such 
legislation as S. 7 or H.R. 4148 would bring an even stronger control 
and coordination mechanism into play, in that State certification of 
the fact that an applicant's facility would not cause violation of water 
quality standards would be required prior to granting a permit or 
license. 

Under statutes, Executive orders and Bureau of the Budget circu- 
lars, there is a continuous routine of coordination required. For 
example, Bureau of the Budget Circular A. 95 furnishes guidance to 
Federal agencies for added cooperation with States and local govern- 
ments in the evaluation, review, and coordination of Federal assistance 
programs and projects. 



367 

Federal programs are also coordinated as necessary by the require- 
ments imposed on them, or in other words, in general order of daily 
business. 

A very good example of this is mapping and charting activities and 
aids to navigation. Wlien the Corps of Engineers establishes a new 
navigation channel or changes one, the Coast Guard is informed 
and makes the necessary changes of navigation aids. The Environ- 
mental Sciences Services Administration under the Department of 
Commerce is aware and takes the necessary steps to have these changes 
placed on the proper navigational charts. Information regarding the 
changes is published in the form of Notices to Mariners and put out 
by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office under the Department of 
the Navy. This is all reasonably automatic coordination, there is much 
of it and it is very effective. 

A most important form of coordination and one which encompasses 
all our charted organizations is that carried out under the guidance of 
the Water Resources Council. As noted in the table describmg Federal 
activities in the six estuaries, membership or associate membership on 
the Water Resources Council and participation in the planning studies 
conducted by the river basin commissions or the interagency committees 
provide a significant means of coordination. 

To highlight its interest in the estuaries and estuarine zones the 
Water Resources Council adopted on November 29, 1967, the following 
resolution : 

It is the policy of the Water Resources Council that the use, preservation 
or development, and management of coastal, lakes, and river shorelines and 
islands and estuaries are to be given full consideration in the planning of use of 
vv^ater and related land resources by river basin commissions established under the 
Water Resources Planning Act. 

The Council also considers the planning for the preservation, development 
and use of estuaries, islands and coastal, river, and lake shorelines and an ap- 
propriate use of Federal and State funds in accordance with title III of the 
Water Resources Planning Act (which provides authority to assist the States 
financially in planning for the use of water and related land resources) . 

The National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering De- 
velopment charged with the coordination and development of marine 
sciences created the Committee on the Multiple Use of the Coastal 
Zone (CMUZ) in August 1967. This committee through its meetings, 
studies, and symposia was an excellent forum for bringing forth the 
problems of the estuaries and the adjacent coastal area. 

In regard to the furtherance of coordination it should be noted 
that the Water Resources Council, by memorandum for the record 
dated June 18, 1969, has in agreement with the National Council for 
Marine Resources and Engineering Development established proce- 
dures whereby the National Council will review plans and studies 
relating to the coastal zone and that a member of the council staff 
would attend meetings of the Water Resources Council where such 
plans, studies and reports are to be discussed. 

Section 4. Summary 

It can be seen that the sum total of the current Federal programs 
in the estuarine zone are broad in scope and reach into every facet 



368 

of the area. Within the limits of the authorities and resources avail- 
able these remain well directed toward their objectives and are 
reasonably effective. 

THE CURRENT ROLE 

The role of the Federal Government in brief continues to be one of 
support and technical assistance, of regulatory activities within current 
law, and of the provision of normal Federal services, such as, naviga- 
tion aids, channel and harbor maintenance, protective works, and 
weather service. The Federal Government continues to promote and 
encourage cooperation among the States in interstate estuaries. It par- 
ticipates in broad studies and inventories particularly as directed by 
Congress in specific acts. Land acquisition in the estuarine zone con- 
tinues under the various current laws, and research goes forward. 

Augmentation 

Even though the Federal programs cooperate reasonably within 
their statutory authority the accomplishments when combined with 
State and local activity are not enough as yet to really slow down the 
loss of valuable estuarine zones. The conflicting demands on the re- 
sources of the estuarine zone increase at a rather rapid rate. Unplanned 
and unregulated alteration and modification of the area, mostly as the 
result of activities by the private sector continues with a consequent 
loss of wildlife habitat and a decreasing availability of open space 
for public use. The cause is in part rapid urban and suburban devel- 
opment, heavy industrial growth and increased population. Develop- 
ment in the estuaries is necessary and will continue, but it should be 
done in a planned and regulated way designed to provide the most 
beneficial use. To do so, integrated and coordinated management and 
planning is needed. This will require more technical assistance of all 
kinds, more knowledge to be gathered through research and data col- 
lection. Not in the least, it will require more effective use of current 
programs and authorities. This simply means more money and more 
people. As has been pointed out before in this chapter, the Corps of 
Engineers does not have the overall facilities and personnel to admin- 
ister its permit program in the most effective manner. In cooperation 
with the States, land acquisition by the Federal Government directly 
and through grants-in-aid programs proceeds at too slow a pace. There 
is in particular no grant-in-aid program which concentrates its activ- 
ities in the estuarine zone and which could assist the States in develop- 
ing that type of State organization that could prepare and implement 
an integrated and comprehensive plan for its overall estuarine zone. 

Coordination 

In terms of coordination it is relatively easy to point out that the 
strongest coordination of the Federal programs takes place at the 
State level, that is, that it is accomplished to the greatest extent by 
working closely with the States. As noted, the weakness of this is 
generally the lack of a single strong State organization to deal with. 

There have been noted many other means of coordination. All appear 
to work fairly well, but not well enough to provide an effective and 
comprehensive program of management in the estuarine zone. There 
is no single policy and no national policy which would provide for the 



369 

protection of national interests and for development, preservation and 
use of the estuarine zones for the overall public good. Such a policy 
would be helpful in the coordination of Federal programs. 

A STRONGER FEDERAL ROLE 

It is apparent from the above discussion that there are needed ad- 
ditions to the Federal role and programs and that augmentation would 
be helpful in certain areas. 

There needs to be added : 

(1) A national policy with specific objectives to provide co- 
herence to the Federal programs and to lay the basis for better 
coordination of these programs. This national policy should also 
contain guidelines to the States based on the policy and objectives. 

(2) A stronger means of coordination of the Federal programs. 
This could well lie in an interagency group charged with monitor- 
ing developments and conditions in the estuarine zones and with 
providing at specified times a review and report of the situation. 

(3) A system of grants to the States to provide them the ability 
to prepare and implement comprehensive plans for their estuarine 
zones. These plans and the State organizations behind them could 
be a strong factor in the effective coordination of Federal 
programs within the State. 

Augmentation is needed : 

(1) In various technical assistance, research and information 
programs and the grant programs supporting these. ? 

(2) In the programs of land acquisition in the estuarine zonev 

(3) In strengthening the regulatory and enforcement actm^ 
ties of the Federal agencies. This in terms of personnel and facili- 
ties and in terms of strengthened Federal law. The terms of S. 7 
and H.R. 4148, if passed, will contribute a great deal to this. 

(4) In terms of increased broad studies at the Federal level 
and jointly with the States. Examples not now authorized are a 
national port study and studies on site locations for potential 
electric power generating plants. As noted in the chapter devoted 
to research needs, continuous broad studies in hydrology, living 
resources, and ecology are needed, 

(5 ) Increased research effectiveness is needed in terms of better 
use of existing Federal research facilities through organization 
and reorientation to broader estuarine problems and their solu- 
tions. There are also needed additional facilities devoted to re- 
search in the estuarine zone, probably in the form of a network 
of estuarine and coastal zone laboratories. Federal in nature but 
with State participation. 

CONCLUSION 

In very brief conclusion regarding the Federal programs in the 
estuarine zone, it would appear that both augmentation and better 
coordination are needed to assist in providing for a strengthened 
Federal role. There is also needed a national policy and a set of objec- 
tives to provide the basis for a comprehensive national program of 
management within which a newer and stronger Federal role will 
be carried out. 



ClIAVTFAi 2. (X)ASTAL STATES' BESP()NSIJiILITIP:S, 
IDEOGRAMS, AND ROLES 

Sechon 1. Statk Profile DEVErx)PMEN'r 

Ah spocifiod in sp/;tion 5g of the (Jloan Wator R<!Kt,()ration Act of 
ll)()0 in arru'uding tlio Kc.dciral Water Pollution (Control A(;t, the 
National Kstiiminc Pollution Study and the resulting report to the 
('ongresH .shall inc,lu(ie the development of reconnnendations for the 
"* * * respective I'esponsihilities which should be assumed hy Federal, 
State, and l(K;al gov(^rnm<^nts and by [)ublic and private interests." 
Also, the act s[)eciiies that the study shall be conducted in c(K)[)eration 
with a[)proj)riate State organizations, institutions, and individuals. 

Hecause of the key or irn[)ortant role of the Staters in managing the 
estuarine /one, it is essential to d«dine the scoj)e of present, rrumagement 
frarneworks and from that to develop what should be the proper role 
of coastal State gov(unments in regard to marine-(;oastal-estuarine 
resources. (>)astal States are indicated in figure V.2.1. Likewise, it is 
essential to find out weaknesses as well as strengths, a(H;om[)lishments 
V(^rsus needs, existing organizations versus i)roposed ones, negative 
as well as i)ositive views, and deficiencies as well as resources. Thus, the 
overall State picture must be <l(^fined clcMirly as a basis for (treating, 
building, and oaslng [)lans and programs for estuarine management. 
Toward this goal the National Kstuarine Pollution Study ootained 
from the (;oastal States the information for the develo{)ment of profiles 
which define and outline the State's overall picture, which denne the 
States' views and which assure that States' opinions are in(tluded for 
consideration in the develo{)ment of the management j)lan. The 
following section of this report summarizes these hndings. 

METHODS OF PROFrLE DEVEr/>PMENT 

The source of material used in the profiles of tlie coastal States was 
developed through contracts, direct and indirect, with the State govern- 
ments and supplemented by material and reports in the technical 
literature. 

Beginning in 1907, the Governors of the 24 coastal States and the 
territories were notified that th(^ advice and counsel of the States were 
essential to the suc(;ess of the study, and they were asked to designate a 
person to serve as the State's prinuiry cx)ntact point for this project. 
Tlio primary concern underlying tliis procedure was that the study did 

(370) 



371 




rs ■M 



3^2 

not want to burden the States with the tasks of completing lengthy 
questionnaires or providing data summaries and that it wanted to 
avoid duplication of effort wherever possible. 

Subsequently, the study's regional estuarine coordinators contacted 
the State estuarine representatives to collect information on the orga- 
nization and activities of each coastal State in the use of its estuarine 
resources and to gain the individual State's views in respect to the 
responsibilities of Federal, State, and local governments in this pro- 
gram. Specifically, each State was asked to provide information on 
the following 10 topics. 

(1) What State agencies are directly or indirectly involved in the 
use of the estuarine resources of the States? What are their specific 
programs and what fiscal and personnel resources are available for 
carrying out these programs ? 

(2) What mechanisms, if any, has the State provided for coordina- 
tion of these programs? For example, highway construction, pollution 
control, and beneficial use. 

(3) What are the current problems in estuarine resource utilization 
within the State, and what are the State views as to how these prob- 
lems can be managed best ? 

(4) What information does the State now have on the use of its 
estuaries? We would like to have copies of relatively recent reports, 
and would like to have an idea of what additional data may be avail- 
able in State files but which are not published or organized. 

( 5 ) What is the legal authority for the various programs ? 

(6) What is the legal status of estuary, tidelands, and wetland 
ownership ? 

(7) Do the State agencies now have projects underway which are 
directly related to estuarine resource utilization ? 

(8) What is the extent of the present direct control of estuaries by 
States ? What is their size, location, and nature of use ? 

(9) What are examples of current problems in estuarine manage- 
ment or in conflict of uses? The emphasis should be on pollution or 
estuarine modification, 

(10) What are the present State research facilities used in manage- 
ment of estuaries or study of estuarine resources ? 

The information obtained from the States on these 10 topics was 
used to develop the profiles. In many cases to supplement these 
responses, information available to Federal Water Pollution Control 
Administration Regional OiRces in their fileSj material presented in 
transcripts of public meetings, reports published by or about the 
States, results of other studies such as the Commission's reports, other 
correspondence with the States' governors or agencies, phis direct 
consultation with appropriate State personnel were incorporated in 
the profiles. To assure accuracy and adequacy of the profiles, they 
were returned to State estuarine representatives for approval at the 
highest possible level, considering the time available. The following 
material represents a very brief condensation of this mass of infor- 
mation which is being retained and is available separately from this 
report. It is also referenced in part VII as a part of the supporting 
iniormation used in the preparation of this report. 



373 

Since a most important part of this profile is to be an expression of 
the States' views on the composition and management of a compre- 
hensive national program for estuarine resources, special attention 
was directed to this area. The individual State's views with respect 
to responsibilities of Federal, State, and local governments on this 
program were very diligently sought, not only through the mechanism 
mentioned above but also by direct correspondence to the States asking 
specifically for the official State's views. To assure in every way 
possible that the States had adequate opportunities to express their 
views, the preliminary recommendations for the comprehensive man- 
agement plan, including a summary of the available States' views were 
sent to the States for review and then the States were asked to attend 
Regional/State review conferences held in various sections of the 
country. The responses varied widely. Because of the emphasis on 
this topic, in accordance with section 5g of the act, these views are 
presented separately, in section 6 of this chapter. 

The following table V.2.1 presents a brief summary of information 
received from and about the coastal States in the area of estuarine 
management information. 

TABLE V.Z.I.— ESTUARINE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM COASTAL STATES 



Coastal States and territories 



Profile 
material 



State 
reps. 



Letters ' 



Gov. 
letters 



Other 



Reports Other ^ 



Alabama X 

Alaska X 

California X 

Connecticut X 

Delaware X 

Florida.... X 

Georgia X 

Hawaii X 

Louisiana X 

Maine X 

Maryland X 

Massachusetts X 

Mississippi X 

New Hampshire X 

New Jersey X 

New York X 

North Carolina X 

Oregon X 

Pennsylvania X 

Rhode Island X 

South Carolina X 

Texas X 

Virginia X 

Washington X 

Virgin Islands X 

District of Columbia X 

Puerto Rico X 



1 Views regarding Federal-State-local responsibilities in estuarine management. 

2 Including contracts. 



Section 2. Selected State Organizations- 
Development 



A Spectrum of 



The 24 Coastal States have, in essence, 24 different estuarine man- 
agement frameworks ; viewed together they present a broad spectrum 
of development towards effective and efficient estuarine management. 



374 

To show or indicate this broad spectrum of development, the man- 
agement frameworks of a few selected States are presented. They 
provide a basis for defining strengths, deficiencies, or weaknesses in 
the States' role and establish a path, leading to a more dynamic and 
effective role of the States in estuarine management. 

The following section of the report previews the management sys- 
tems of selected Coastal States, large to small, rich to less prosperous, 
populous to sparsely developed, urban to rural, and highly industrial- 
ized to mostly pastoral. The selected States are Massachusetts, Mary- 
land, California, Florida, and Alaska. Following this will be a typical 
State's management framework. State laws, and States' views on 
estuarine management. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Massachusetts is a relatively small, densely populated, highly urban, 
highly industrialized, and affluent New England area. The population 
of Massachusetts is about 5,400,000 ; the tidal shoreline is about 1,500 
linear miles including about 45,000 acres of coastal marshland; and 
about 85 percent of the people live in urban coastal areas. Ownership 
of the 1,519 miles of shoreline is as follows: 

Federal Government, 110 miles or about 4,500 acres of coastal 
wetlands. 

State government, 45 miles. 
Local government, 50 miles. 
Universities, and so forth, 25 miles. 
Private, 1,289 miles. 

Massachusetts' coastline is widely used by the surrounding New 
England and east coast community as a prime resort/ vacation/his- 
torical area. The condition of Massachusetts' shoreline areas affects not 
only the populace of Massachusetts but also that of the surrounding 
area since so many people throng to Massachusetts for their livelihood, 
enjoyment, and relaxation. 

Massachusetts has developed legislation and corresponding organi- 
zational structure for the management of its estuarine areas. The two 
principal enactments are an act providing for the protection of the 
coastal wetlands of the Commonwealth (General Laws, ch. 768, act of 
1965) and an act relative to removal, filling, and dredging in coastal 
waters. 

Other enactments include the new oil pollution and offshore mineral 
resource laws. 

The estuarine management activities in Massachusetts are focused 
on the department of natural resources, headed by a commissioner. 
This department has both operational and regulatory responsibilities 
in estuarine areas. The coastal dredge and fill law, the coastal wetlands 
law and new oil pollution and offshore mineral resource laws are all 
administered by the divisions of this department. The organization of 
this department is described in figure V.2.2. 



375 





GOVERNOR 




ept. 


of Natural Resources 




— Dept. of Public Works 


"Lo 




-Div. of Waterways 


Commissioner 




*-Div. of Sanitary Engr. 




-Div. 


of Forest and Parks 




-Dept. of Commerce and 




-Div. 


of Marine Fisheries 




Development 




-Div. 


of Law Enforcement 




—Dept. of Administration 




-Div. 


of Fisheries and Game 


and Finance 




-Div. 


of Conservation 
Services 






-Oiv. 


of Water Pollution 






Control 



FIGURE V.2.2 

Massachusetts' Agencies Involved in Management or Control 

of Estuarine Resources 

The primary means by which the department manages the estuarine 
areas, other than federally controlled areas, such as the Park Service's 
Cape Cod National Seashore, and the Coast Guard's stations also on 
Cape Cod, is by restrictive orders — permits, licenses, leases, and so 
forth — as to the use of these areas, based on the results of public meet- 
ings. The department is placed organizationally high enough in the 
State governmental structure so that its activities and recommenda- 



42-847 O — 7C 



-25 



376 

tions are effective in controlling the development of and alteration of 
estuarine areas. Such an estuarine management organization must be 
capable of handling and acting on estuarine problems. 

In May 1968, by a Commonwealth executive order (No. 59) the 
Massachusetts Commission on Ocean Management was created to de- 
velop a comprehensive long-range State plan for the management of 
Massachusetts estuarine areas and to recommend an appropriate State 
governmental organization to, in essence, carry out the plan. The com- 
mission's findings will be reported to the commissioner of natural 
resources. 

Other Massachusetts departments which have organizational re- 
sponsibilities are the department of public Avorks which is also headed 
by a commissioner and reports directly to the Governor, and the de- 
partment of commerce and development which provides planning and 
program development. A third department, the department of admin- 
istration and finance acts to provide coordination and to guide joint 
planning. This department is the agency responsible for personnel, 
financing, and budget. 

Details on the department of natural resources and the department 
of public works are included in the tabulations on the following pages. 

The Massachusetts State government assists the local governments 
in estuarine management and acquisition through their self-help pro- 
gram which consists primarily of funds awarded to town or city con- 
servation commissions. 

The Wetlands Act restricts activities which may pollute the coastal 
wetlands, whether publicly or privately owned. The act states that 
"* * * to immediately provide for the protection of coastal wetlands 
against the imminent threat of the development of such lands for 
industrial and other uses detrimental to their preservation in their 
natural state, therefore, it is hereby declared to an emergency law, 
necessary for the immediate preservation of the public convenience." 

Also, the act provides that a city or town may take (by eminent 
domain) coastal lands in the public interest in order to protect them 
and for the establishment by the U.S. Government of national wild- 
life refuges. Examples are the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge 
and Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge which place about 3,000 
tidemarsh acres under permanent protection. Advantages of this act 
are that the State can restrict the use of large areas in general terms 
or can be very specific as to permissible uses in small areas. 

The second act or Dredging Act restricts people from filling or 
dredging in any coastal waters without prior approval of the re- 
spective town or city and the State. 

The Wet Lands Act of 1965 has resulted in State actions that have 
restricted the use of approximately 5,000 acres and in proposals to 
restrict 12,000 more coastal acres including immediate action on ap- 
proximately 1,700 acres of salt marshes in the North River estuary. 
(See page 378 for coastline map, figure V.2.3, adapted from an 
outline map of Massachusetts coast, prepared by the Massachusetts 
Division of Marine Fisheries, Department of Natural Resources, 1969.) 



377 

The estuarine management activities and capabilities of the local- 
government level in Massachusetts are described in the following chap- 
ter 3 on local governments. However, in Massachusetts the towns or 
local level governments control both the leasing and regulation of 
shellfish. The above description of Massachusetts represents a con- 
densation of material in the Massachusetts profile. 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 

Division of Fisheries and Game. — (DFG) Full functional responsi- 
bility for anadromous species and for waterf ow^l and animals. Enforces 
provisions of State inland fish and game laws and regulations. 

Division of Forests and Parks. — (DFP) Responsible for providing 
technical assistance to communities and other agencies in the acquisi- 
tion and development of marine environment recreation lands. 

Division of Law Enforcement. — (DLE) Responsible for marine 
patrol and rescue assistance within the Commonwealth's waters. This 
agency is responsible for the enforcement of all laws, rules, and regu- 
lations relative to marine fish and fisheries. 

Division of Conservation Services. — (DOS) Serves as a coordinat- 
ing and interfacing agency between regional within-State groups and 
also with Federal agencies. Responsible for administering policy on 
preventing coastal pollution and for preserving biological and zo- 
ological systems as related to coastal wetlands. 

Division of Marine Fisheries. — (DMF) Charged with management 
of all marine fishery resources within the territorial limits of the 
Commonwealth except such shellfish and alewife control as has been 
allocated to the cities and towns. The program concentrates on estua- 
rine fisheries research and on both basic and applied research on shell- 
fish and lobsters. 

Division of Water Pollution Control. — A recently created agency to 
enforce water quality standards. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS 

Division of Waterivays. — (DW) Executive agency responsible 
for harbor pollution and for transportation and disposal of refuse 
at sea. Full functional responsibility for operation and maintenance 
of the four State beaches and for construction of public recreational 
boating facilities and for design and construction of shore protection 
structures and dredging projects in collaboration with local com- 
munities. Also licensing and permits for all tidewater structures in- 
cluding fish weirs. Specifically, the Division regulates an existing law 
concerning the removal of sand and gravel from tidal shores. An 
amendment to the basic law administered by this Division gives the 
local governments some authority since they may call hearings upon 
any application to remove, dredge, or fill. 

Division of Sanitary Engineering. — Supervises and controls public 
water supplies and sewage disposal systems, and regulates public 
health aspects of shellfisheries. 



378 



Areas restricted or 
in process of beinq 
restricted 

Fstuarine Studies 
completed or in process 




FIGURE V.2.3 
Map of Massachusetts Coastline, Showing Restricted-Use Areas 



379 

Six activities, DMF, DW, DFG, DFP, DLE, DCS, have well-de- 
fined areas of cognizance and cooperate through cordinating com- 
mittees — the Marine Coordinating Committee on Coastal Wetlands 
and the Recreation Advisory Council within the Department of Na- 
tural Resources. The latter council is composed of representatives of all 
State agencies and other recreation-oriented groups. On an overview 
basis, the Division of Conservation Services is the authority respon- 
sible for the act which governs keeping coastal areas free from pollu- 
tion and an act relative to removal, filling, and dredging in coastal 
waters. The Division of Waterways, Division of Sanitary Engineer- 
ing, and the Division of Water Pollution Control act in consort to 
complete the program. The Division of Marine Fisheries is responsible 
for identifying what measures must be taken to protect the fisheries 
but they do not regulate or enforce such measures — the Division of 
Conservation Services and its colleagues ostensibly do. 

MARYLAND 

The State of Maryland is a political entity which encompasses a 
portion of a major estuarine area — the Chesapeake Bay. Maryland also 
can be considered as being representative of a State having an urban/ 
rural population mixture with a moderate level of industry and 
development. 

Until July 1969 the Board of Natural Resources acted as the coordi- 
nating agency for all public and private activities relating to the 
natural resources of the State of Maryland. At that time the Board 
was disbanded, and Maryland House bill 1311 (approved April 1969) 
created the Department of Natural Resources as a principal depart- 
ment of the State government to be responsible for carrying out poli- 
cies in the area of natural resources research and development, manage- 
ment, and administration. This department is responsible for the 
coordination and direction of comprehensive planning in the area of 
natural resources. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources is 
composed of the previously existing Department of Chesapeake Bay 
Affairs, the Department of Game and Inland Fish, Department of 
Forests and Parks, Maryland Geological Survey, Department of Water 
Resources plus memberships in numerous commissions, committees, 
and groups of which the State is a member. 

The Maryland Department of Natural Resources has not developed 
to its full potential in assuming its broad responsibilities of coordinat- 
ing all duties related to natural resources which exist in other agencies 
in the State. Detailed description of the authorized scope of the depart- 
ment of natural resources is included in the Maryland House bill No. 
1311. Therefore, this department's scope has been briefly described on 
the basis of the bill and the following discussion is concerned with 
the prior and continuously existing activities of its estuarine-related 
departments 

The department of Chesapeake Bay affairs has the broad respon- 
sibility for planning for the development and management of the 
Chesapeake Baj^ and other tidal waters including protection and 
development of its resources. 

The Department of Game and Inland Fish is indirectly involved in 
estuarine management issuing hunting, fishing, and other licenses and 
studying underwater problems affecting wildlife. 

The Department of Forests and Parks is indirectly involved in the 
management or control of estuarine areas in that it promotes good 



380 

forest management practices on both public and private woodlands, 
including those adjacent to tidal waters. 

Maryland Geological Survey conducts surveys, prepares maps, con- 
ducts studies, and recommends plans to protect waterfront areas 
against erosion and deposition. 

Department of Water Resources conducts water-resource studies; 
plans for multipurpose development of waters ; cooperates with game 
and fish and Chesapeake Bay affairs in determining tidal and non- 
tidal water boundaries; controls use of waters through issuance of 
permits for such things as waterworks and waterway obstructions; 
and cooperates with other State agencies in enforcing water pollution 
control laws and regulations. However, most of the zoning of lands for 
various uses is done by the local- or county-level governments. 

Other previously existing and separate agencies that relate to 
estuarine management are the State Planning Department, which pre- 
pares plans for State resource development ; Natural Resources Insti- 
tute for the University of Maryland which conducts research and edu- 
cation programs on nonagricultural and forest resources ; Water Re- 
sources Research Center of the University of Maryland which sponsors 
research on water resources development; and State Department of 
Health which has control over the sanitary condition of State waters. 
A selective organizational chart of the Maryland government is shown 
in figure V.2.4. 



GOVERNOR 




Department of Natural Resources 


— State Planning Dept. 




-Oept. of Chesapeake Bay 


— Natural Resources Inst. 




Affairs 


of Univ. of Maryland 




-Dent, of Game and Inland 

Fish 
-Dept. of Forests and Parks 
-nd. Geological Survey 


— Water Resources Research 

Center of the Univ. of 

Maryland 




-Dept. of Water Resources 


—State Dept. of Health 



FIGURE V.2.4 
Maryland's Agencies Involved in Management or Control of 
Estuarine Resources 



381 

The State believes that enforcement of water quality standards and 
effecting of pollution control is the essential responsibility of the State. 
To maintain the generally high water quality of the State and to 
provide for future quality control, the State considers that its respon- 
sibility is to expand its ability to perform water quality investigation 
and control. This is being done with some difficulty in acquiring needed 
professional personnel and operational funds. However, to meet its 
responsibilities, the State may need more funds — perhaps from another 
source. The State has stated the need for research on the effects from 
discharges at specific locations in Maryland on established or proposed 
water uses. On problems as this, specific research assistance is needed 
from the Federal agencies. The State has also stated the need or prob- 
lem that the State's responsibility for controlling dredging and spoil 
disposal should be strengthened in order to prevent loss or damage to 
established or proposed water uses. More State-Federal coordination 
for planning and effecting the placing of dredge spoil is necessary. 
In the general area of coordination, however, this does not seem to have 
been a problem and with the newly established coordinating depart- 
ment of natural resources even previous capabilities will be increased 
and improved. 

CALIFORNIA 

The State of California represents a western coastal State that is 
highly urban/highly industrial/low rural/highly developed (popula- 
tion, about 19 million). It has an extensive, tidal coastline (about 
3,400 miles) that is used for a broad range of purposes and has en- 
countered a wide ran^e of coastal problems including actual coastal 
filling as in San Francisco Bay. 

In general, California has title to all submerged lands, tidelands, 
and swamplands within its borders and can sell the tidelands and 
swamplands. 

Estuarine management responsibilities in the State seem to be fo- 
cused in the State of California's Resources Agency. This agency has 
the primary responsibility for managing the ocean resources of the 
State; it has advisory, planning, research, development, coordination, 
and policing functions. The agency and its component departments 
(fig. V.2.5, p. 382) have been assigned specific responsibilities by 
the legislature for various elements of the resource. A second State 
department involved in estuarine management is the department of 
public health. This department is responsible for protection of shell- 
fish beds against contamination and for the health and safety of ocean 
water-contact-sport areas. 



382 



GOVERNOR 



Dept. of Public Health 



Resources Agency 

— Dept. of Fish and Game 
— Dept. of Parks and 

Recreation 
—Dept. of Water 

Resources 
— Dept. of Conservation 
— Dept. of Harbors and 

Watercraft 
—Water Resources Control 

Board and Regional Water 

Quality Control Boards 
L— State Lands Division 



FIGURE V.2.5 
California's Agencies Involved in Management or Control of 
Estuarine Resources 

Special marine-oriented groups in the State government include the 
Interagency Council on Ocean Resources, California Advisory Com- 
mission on Marine and Coastal Resources, Marine Research Committee, 
Wildlife Conservation Board, and Pacific Marine Fisheries Compact 
Commission. In addition, there has been intense management activity 
in the San Francisco Bay area. The State realized the importance and 
impending dangers in exploration of estuarine resources, especially of 
San Francisco Bay, and established a program and commission to 
study and develop action plans for the most effective comprehensive 
management of the bay. The State is implementing these recommenda- 
tions and the commission itself through the passage of recent legisla- 



383 

tion — The McAteer-Petris Act (as amended in 1969). Because the 
commission can be considered as an intrastate or local <2jovernment 
function it is described and referenced as a case study in the following 
chapter on the role of local governments and it is included in the cur- 
rent overall program, chapter 7. Other bay area groups, in addition to 
the commission/program, are the San Francisco Ray-delta water qual- 
ity control program and the joint committee on bay area regional 
organization. 

Specifically the responsibilities of the departments in the resources 
agency are as follows. 

Department of Fish and Game has the responsibility for protection, 
preservation, propagation, and enhancement of wildlife resources. It 
enforces the regulations regarding open and closed seasons, bag and 
possession limits, various aspects of both commercial fishing and sports 
fish and game, and supervises limited-use marine research zones. 

Department of Parks and Kecreation establishes rules and regula- 
tions for administration of beaches, parks, and historical monuments 
on State-owned lands. The Department acquires, preserves, develops, 
operates, and maintains for the public benefit, the units of the State 
park system and is directly interested in how the development and 
public use of the State parks, beaches, reserves, recreation areas, and 
historical units along the coast may be affected by unrelated develop- 
ment or use of the tidal and submerged lands. 

Department of Water Resources has statewide jurisdiction and re- 
sponsibilities relating to development of water resources. In regard 
to coastal resources the department has responsibility for beach erosion 
control and saline w^ater conversion ; studies erosion problems on the 
State's beaches ; acts as advisors to all Government agencies ; supervises 
Federal flood control projects; and makes loans and grants to local 
agencies for water development projects. It assists city and county 
governments in beach erosion problems by advancing funds for coop- 
erative programs with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 

Department of Conservation is responsible for forest, range, and 
watershed protection ; assists in formation of soil conservation districts 
and in watershed protection and flood prevention programs ; and ad- 
ministers the Forest Practice Act regulating timber harvesting on 
private land. 

Department of Harbors and Watercraft acquires, constructs, de- 
velops, and improves small craft harbors, facilities, and connecting 
waterways. The Department must, on request, transfer such a harbor 
and its operation to a qualified local governmental unit. It also has 
jurisdiction over the establishment of uniform boating regulations and 
makes loans and grants to assist in development of small craft harbors 
and marinas. 

Water Resources Control Board. In 1967, the legislature enacted a 
bill forming the State water resources control board. This board, 
with the regional water quality control boards, is the primary State 



384 

agency in the field of water rights, water pollution, and water quality 
control. The creation of this State board provides a coordinated ad- 
ministration of water quality and water quantity. 

The board exercises advisory, planning, research, regulation, and 
coordination functions. Its principal responsibilities provide for the 
formulation and adoption of a statewide policy for water quality 
control, control of water quality and pollution, and administration of 
the budgets of the regional boards. Each regional board is responsible 
for the formulation and adoption of policies for water quality control 
within its respective region ; it may order offenders to cease and desist 
and initiate legal action. 

The State Lands Division, previously under the direction of the De- 
partment of Finance but transferred to the resources agency by the 
California State Legislature in 1969, handles all matters pertaining 
to the leasing or sale of State-owned (ungranted) tidelands and sub- 
merged lands. It also has an active marine inspection program and 
provides the focal point for oil pollution control activities in the estu- 
aries and coastal waters of California. 

In the realm of coordination, the California comprehensive ocean 
area plan, to be developed by the Interagency Council for Ocean Re- 
sources, will be the primary vehicle for coordinating the various pro- 
grams concerned with the conservation and development of marine 
and coastal resources. 

Problems in California center around the need to increase existing 
management/organization/legislation to keep pace with the extremely 
rapid development of the coastal areas. The preceding information on 
the State of California represents a very brief summary of informa- 
tion in the California profile, which also contains detailed descriptions 
of the various problems regarding estuarine management in the State 
in regard to both subject area and geographic area. 

FLORIDA 

The following describes the recently augmented estuarine manage- 
ment framework in Florida which is due in some measure to the 
efforts of the National Estuarine Pollution Study through its 30 public 
meetings held across the country. The estuarine public meeting in 
Florida presented a forum whereby various factors of the community 
could express publicly their views on the Florida estuarine situation. 
These views subsequently reached the legislative bodies and it is felt 
that this meeting contributed views which prompted the Florida 
Legislature to consider the need for action to preserve/protect 
Floridian estuaries. 

During 1969, the Florida Legislature created the Florida Depart- 
ment of Air and Water Pollution Control and reorganized the State 



385 

board of health as a separate department — ^the Department of Health 
and Rehabilitative Services. 

In Florida, there seems to be two coordinated and related foci for 
estuarine management. 

First, the Florida Department of Air and Water Pollution Control 
is the primary State agency having the responsibility and authority 
for pollution control. Most of the powers, duties, and functions of other 
State agencies relating to pollution control, including those in estu- 
arine areas, were transferred to the Department of Air and Water Pol- 
lution Control (Air and Water Pollution Control Commission) by the 
State legislature through the Florida Air and Water Pollution Con- 
trol Act of 1967; this represents a consolidation of authority and 
improved coordination in air and water pollution control activities. 

Second, the board (of trustees) of the Internal Improvement Fund 
owns the title to all State-owned submerged lands in estuaries, except 
those that are privately owned (as described in ch. 67-393, acts of 
1967). By virtue of ownership, the board is responsible for the man- 
agement, preservation, and administration of these submerged lands. 
The board can sell, based on approved applications, certain submerged 
lands after establishment of bulkhead lines by appropriate counties or 
municipalities. It can also reject applications for title to submerged 
lands (F.S. ch. 253.12) or for authority to fill such lands (F.S. ch. 
253.124). The board approves permits, after initial approval by cities 
and counties, authorizing dredging and filling. However, some lands 
have been leased or set aside for specific purposes such as oyster 
culture, aquatic preserves, and State parks. 

Other State departments w